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REISSUED AS PART OF TH€ TENTH ANNIVERSARY OBSERVANCE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION iag& 



Marine Biological Laboratory Library 

Woods Hole, ^\as3achusett5 




Gift of Bostwick H. Ketchum - 1976 




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Vannevar Bush 



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science 



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A report to the President on a 
Program for Postwar Scientific Research 

By Vannevar Bush 

Director of the 
Office of Scientific Research and Development 



July 1945 

Picpriiitcd Jiily 1960 
Niitiotiid Scicticf Fotnulation Wns/ij«^(oji, D. C. 



r-(>() — M) 



Science — The Endless Frontier 

"New frontiers of the mind are before us, and if they 
are pioneered with the same vision, boldness, and drive 
with which we have waged this war we can create a 
fuller and more fruitful emplovment and a fuller and 
more fruitful life." — 

Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

November 17, 1944. 



FOREWORD 



The National Science Foundation has rendered a 
useful ser\'icc in reprinting Science, the Endless 
Frontier as part ot its tenth anni\'crsarv observance. 
The Report, as well as the studies that supported it, 
represents the collective efforts ot a group of dis- 
tinguished scientists and other scholars who brought 
their special experience and knowledge to bear on the 
problem of establishing a strong research and develop- 
ment effort in the postwar period. Their hndings 
with respect to the relations of government to science 
and education merit a re-reading in the light of todav's 
events. Dr. Waterman's Introduction constitutes an 
effective summary of the extent t(j which the recom- 
mendations of Science, the Endless Frontier have 
been realized during the Fifteen )'ears since it first 
appeared. I welcome the republication and hope that 
it will be a genuine serxice to all who have responsi- 
bilities for the national effort in scientific research and 
development. 

Vannevar Bush 



111 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Foreword iii 

Introduction vii 

Letter of Transmittal 1 

President Roosevelt's Letter 3 

Summar\' of the Report 5 

Part One: Introduction: 

Scientific Progress is Essential 10 

Science is a Proper Concern of Go\ ernment 11 

Go\ernment Relations to Science — Past .md Future 11 

Freedom of Inquir\ Must be Preser\ ed 12 

Part Two: The \\\ir A^j^ainst Disease: 

In War 13 

In Peace 13 

Unsoh-ed Problems 14 

Broad and Basic Studies Needed 14 

Coordinated Attack on S|iccial Problems 14 

Action is Necessarx 15 

Part Three: Science mid the Piddic Welfare 

Relation to National Sccuiitx 17 

Science and lobs 18 

The Importance of Basic Research 18 

Centers of Basic Research 19 

Research W^ithin the Cio\ ernment 20 

Industrial Research 21 

International Exchange of Scicntidc Inlormation 22 

The Special Need for EedLial Sup[iort 22 

The Cost of a Program 22 

V 



Part Four: Renewal of Our Scientific Talent: 

Nature of the Problem 23 

A Note of Warning 23 

The Wartime Deficit 24 

Improve the Quahty 24 

Remove the Barriers 25 

The Generation in Uniform Must Not be Lost 25 

A Program 26 

Part Five: A Problem of Scientific Reconversion: 

Effects of MobiHzation of Science for War 28 

Security Restrictions Should be Lifted Promptly 28 

Need for Coordination 29 

A Board to Control Release 29 

Publication Should be Encouraged 30 

Part Six: The Means to the End: 

New Responsibilities for Go\ernmcnt 31 

The Mechanism 31 

Five Fundamentals 32 

Military Research 33 

National Research Foundation 34 

L Purposes 34 

IL Members , 34 

IIL Organizations 35 

IV. Functions 37 

V. Patent Policy 38 

VI. Special Authority 38 

VII. Budget .' 39 

Action b\' Congress 40 



Appendices 

1. Committees Consulted 43 

2. Report of the Medical Advisory Committee, Dr. W. W. Palmer, 

Chairman 46 

3. Report of the Committee on Science and the Public Welfare, 

Dr. Isaiah Bowman, Chairman 70 

4. Report of the Committee on Disco\er\ and De\elopment of 

Scientific Talent, Dr. Henry Allen Moe, Chairman 135 

5. Report of the Committee on Publication of Scientific Inlormation, 

Dr. Irvin Stewart, Chairman 186 

Index 193 



VI 



INTRODUCTION 



Alan T. Waterman 
Director, National Science Foundation 

On November 17, 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed a 
letter to Vannevar Bush, director of the wartime Office of Scientific Research 
and Development, asking his advice as to how the lessons that had been 
learned from that experience could be applied in the days of peace that lay 
ahead. With the help and recommendations of four committees of dis- 
tinguished scientists and other scholars, Dr. Bush set forth in clear and 
specific terms what he felt the relations of government to science should be 
and how these should be sustained. His report to the President was published 
in July 1945, under the imaginative title. Science, the Endless Frontier. The 
major recommendation was that a "National Research Foundation" should 
be established by the Congress to serve as a focal point for the support and 
encouragement of basic research and education in the sciences and for the 
development of national science policy. Five years later, in May^ 1950, the 
Congress passed the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, bringing the 
new foundation into being. 

On the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the Foundation's establishment, 
it seems appropriate to turn again to Science, the Endless Frontier and to 
attempt some assessment of the extent to which the objectives it set forth have 
been met. A re-reading impresses one with the perspicacity with which this 
remarkable document anticipated the major needs and problems relating to 
research and development in the postwar period. Although there have been 
shifts in emphasis since the report was written 15 years ago, its principles 
and its clear enunciation of the fundamental responsibility of the Federal 
Government in the area of research and development are as fresh and sound 
today as when they were written. 

The original edition of Science, the Endless Frontier has long been out 
of print and the National Science Foundation is happy to make it available 
once more — not as an historical document, but as a classic expression of 
desirable relationships between government and science in the United 
States. Its usefulness and validity today are all the more remarkable when it 
is remembered that Dr. Bush and his advisers were of course quite unable 
to anticipate the specific developments that have most profoundly influenced 
our time, namely, the Korean war and the cold war, the missile and satellite 
race, the Soviet technological challenge, and the rapid acceleration of space 
research. Nor could Dr. Bush have estimated, in the final days of World 
War II, the full growth and direction of the atomic energy effort, including 

vii 



the large-scale programs and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. But he did 
anticipate in fullest measure that important developments would occur and 
that science and science education would be of immense importance in the 
postwar growth of the United States. The closing words of his Report 
were strongly prophetic: "On the wisdom with which we bring science to 
bear against the problems of the coming years depends in large measure 
our future as a nation." 



Science and Government 

Dr. Bush expressed the view that science is the proper concern of govern- 
ment but pointed out that the Government had only begun to utilize science 
in the Nation's welfare. He cited the absence within the Government of a 
body charged with formulating or executing national science policy and 
pointed out that there were no standing committees of the Congress devoted 
to this important subject. At the present time, science policy is constantly 
being made by the National Science Foundation with respect to basic re- 
search; by the President's Science Advisory Committee in matters in which 
the Chief Executive is responsible for direct action; and by the Federal Coun- 
cil on Science and Technology on coordination and. planning that involve the 
interaction of the agencies of the Government concerned with research and 
development. 

There are now three standing committees in the Congress whose con- 
cerns are directly related to science and technology: the Joint Committee 
on Atomic Energy; the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space 
Sciences; and the House Committee on Science and Astronautics. Twenty- 
four agencies within the Federal Government are responsible for the Gov- 
ernment's obligation of funds for conduct of research and development, 
although nine agencies account for 99 per cent of the total. 



The Importance of Basic Research 

The principal focus of Science, the Endless Frontier is the importance of 
basic research. Of it. Dr. Bush said: 

Basic research leads to new knowledge. It provides scientific capital. It creates the 
fund from which the practical applications of knowledge must be drawn. . . . Today, it 
is truer than ever that basic research is the pacemaker of technological progress. ... A 
nation which dei^ends upon others for its new basic scientific knowledge will be slow in 
its industrial progress and weak in its competitive position in world trade, regardless of 
its mechanical skill. 

Dr. Bush viewed the publicly and privately supported colleges and uni- 
versities and the endowed research institutes as the centers of basic research 
that must furnish both the new scientific knowledge and the trained research 
workers. He pointed out that if they were to meet the rapidly increasing 
demands of industry and government for new scientific knowledge, their 
basic research would have to be strengthened by the use of public funds. 

Basic research is fundamental to all of the research and training needs 

viii 



which the Report considers. It is through basic research in biology, bio- 
chemistry and other sciences, for example, that the solutions to major disease 
problems are to be reached. Basic research is necessary to national defense 
if the United States is not to find itself fighting the next war with weapons 
merely improved from the last. Economic growth and the development of 
new products in industry are dependent upon rich resources of basic knowl- 
edge. And finally, knowledge of the methods and techniques of basic research 
is essential to the training and full development of skilled research 
investigators. 

In the years since Science, the Endless Frontier was written, there has been 
an increased awareness on the part of the Government of the importance of 
basic research as shown by a steady trend upward in the amount of Federal 
funds for basic research and by an increase in the number and diversity of 
Government sources bv which such support is furnished. I lowexer, the per- 
centage of funds available for basic research has failed to increase in relation 
to total Federal funds for research and development — remaining somewhere 
between 6 and 7 per cent for a number of years. 

In short, all the problems relating to the understanding and nurture of basic 
research in this country have not been solved. The general public is still far 
from a true understanding of the nature of basic research and of the funda- 
mental difference between science and technology. The evidence suggests 
that industry could profitably support a larger basic research effort both in 
its ov^rn laboratories and in the form of extramural support for colleges and 
universities. The relative proportion of Federal research and development 
funds between basic research and applied research and development has not 
achieved a completely desirable balance. These matters will be considered in 
somewhat greater detail further on under the discussion of the National 
Science Foundation. 



Research Within the Government 

Science, the Endless Frontier notes that research within the Government 
is an important part of our total research activity and urges that it be strength- 
ened and expanded. In particular, it cites the need for revision of personnel 
practices and procedures in order to place the Government in a more advan- 
tageous position in competing with industries and the universities for first- 
class scientific talent. 

Some progress has been made toward carrying out these recommendations. 
A series of legislative acts has created an excepted category for scientific per- 
sonnel, authorized the Federal agencies to pay travel expenses to posts of duty, 
and provided opportunity for scientific and professional employees to take 
leave with pay, for educational and training purposes. Changes in adminis- 
trative attitudes have brought about an improved climate of opinion in Gov- 
ernment laboratories which has resulted in increased opportunity and funds 
for Government scientists to engage in basic research. Publication in scien- 
tific journals is encouraged, and the payment of travel expenses to enable 
Government employees to attend scientific meetings is now rather generally 
accepted as right and necessary. 

ix 



With respect to the organization of the administration of scientific activities 
within the Government, the Report declares: 

In the Government the arrangement whereby the numerous scientific agencies form 
parts of larger departments has both advantages and disadvantages. But the present 
pattern is firmly established and there is much to be said for it. There is, however, 
a very real need for some measure of coordination of the common scientific activities 
of these agencies, both as to policies and budgets, and at present no such means exist. 

The Report recommends : 

A permanent Science Advisory Board should be created to consult with these 
scientific bureaus and to advise the executive and legislative branches of Government 
as to the policies and budgets of Government agencies engaged in scientific research. 

The Report recommends that the board should be composed "of disinterested 
scientists w^ho have no connection with the affairs of any Government agency." 

These observations are of particular interest in view of the current debate 
over the need for a Department of Science and Technology. The coordina- 
tion of common scientific activities, both as to policies and budget, is the 
responsibility for the newly established Federal Council on Science and Tech- 
nology; and the advice and counsel of disinterested scientists is available 
to the President through his Science Advisory Committee. 

It should be noted, however, that full attention to these matters was stim- 
ulated primarily by the Russian sputnik. Immediately after its successful 
launching, the post of Special Assistant to the President for Science and 
Technology was created; and the President's Science Advisory Committee — 
which had been established under the Office of Defense Mobilization in 1950 
— was reconstituted and placed directly under the President. 



Industrial Research 

The Bush Report approaches the issue of industrial research by stating 
directly: "The simplest and most effective way in which the Government can 
strengthen industrial research is to support basic research and to develop 
scientific talent." It goes on to point out, however, that one of the most 
important factors affecting the amount of industrial research is tax law, and 
it recommends that the Internal Revenue Code be amended to remove un- 
certainties in regard to the deductibility of research and development ex- 
penditures as current charges against net income. 

The tax laws have now been changed, partially at least, to meet this par- 
ticular problem. Among various legislative provisions designed to encourage 
business participation in private research ventures are Section 174 of the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1954, which permits business expenditures for 
research to be deducted from taxable income, and Section 9 of the Small 
Business Act of 1958, which encourages small business concerns to engage 
in joint research and development efforts. 

The contributions of industrial research to our development as a nation 
are too obvious to require review. Furthermore research and development are 
themselves developing into a major industry for which the late Sumner 
Slichter coined the phrase, "industry of discovery. The importance of 



research to economic stabilization and gnnvth is now almost universally recog- 
nized. In 1958 the National Science Foundation sponsored a conference on 
research and development and its impact on the economy. The impact of 
the conference itself was such that industrial officials who attended confessed 
afterwards that the conference had convinced them that they should not 
reduce research and development expenditures in the face of the 1958 re- 
cession. It is hoped that industry will continue to accord full support to basic 
research, both in its own laboratories, and, to the extent possible, through 
extramural support of basic research in the universities. 

Organized labor is also developing an increasing awareness of the relation 
of research to the health and growth of the economy. In 1959 the AFL-CIO 
sponsored a conference on "Labor and Science in a Changing World." The 
conference acknowledged the inevitability of the technological progress and 
explored ways in which organized labor could meet the challenges and 
demands of the new technology. 



Medical Research 

Medical research is a point of major emphasis in Science, the Endless Fron- 
tier. An entire chapter, "The War Against Disease," is devoted to it and 
it was studied in great detail by one of the four advisory committees. Upper- 
most in the minds of Dr. Bush and his consultants were the impressive ac- 
complishments of the military medical research and development effort and 
the absence of a specific agency for their continued support following the 
close of the war. Here again the emphasis was on basic studies. The Report 
observes : 

It is wholly probable that progress in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, renal 
disease, cancer, and similar refractory diseases will be made as the result of funda- 
mental discoveries in subjects unrelated to those diseases and perhaps entirely un- 
expected by the investigator. Further progress requires that the entire front of medicine 
and the underlying sciences of chemistry, physics, anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, 
pharmacolog>', bacteriology, pathology, parasitology, etc, be broadly developed. 

Both Dr. Bush and his Medical Advisory Committee recommended action 
on ihe part of the Federal Government to initiate a support program for basic 
medical research in the medical schools and in the universities through grants 
for research and through fellowships. Dr. Bush recommended that the pro- 
posed program be administered by a "Division of Medical Research" of the 
"National Research Foundation"; the committee recommended that a second 
organization be established, to be called the National Foundation for Medical 
Research. Actually, both recommendations have been met by subsequent 
events, which resulted in both a division within the National Science Foun- 
dation that supports basic medical science (Division of Biological and Medical 
Sciences) and in a completely independent organization, the National In- 
stitutes of Health, which has far surpassed in its support programs anything 
that the Committee envisioned in the recommended Medical Research 
Foundation. 

The two sets of recommendations did not differ greatly as to the amount of 
support that should be established at the initiation of the program — Bush 

xi 



recommending an initial start of $5 million a year extending upwards to 
perhaps $20 million a year at the end of five years; his Medical Advisory Com- 
mittee recommending a start of approximately $5 to $7 million annually, with 
larger sums to follow as the program developed. The Committee urged the 
need for unrestricted grants, with support of fellowships and projects being 
of relati\ely less importance in their thinking. 

A striking feature of postwar developments in the Government's support 
program for medical and health-related sciences has been the rapid rate of 
increment of funds. This is the result of the deep and continuing interest of 
the Congress in the progress of medical research. The National Institutes of 
Health has increased its obligations for research grants alone from $85,000 
in 1945 (a year when the Bush Report suggests S5 to $7 million) to more 
than $155 million for grants and contracts in 1959. In addition, of course, the 
Institutes operate their own intramural research program at the Clinical 
Center and funds for this were around $45 million for 1959. 

That both organizational recommendations have been met — that is, for a 
di\'ision of the Foundation and for a separate institutional organization — 
appears to have been a fortunate turn of affairs. The National Institutes of 
Health stresses research aimed at the care and cure of diseases, including basic 
research related to its mission, as defined b\ Executive Order 10512. The 
National Science Foundation, on the other hand, supports basic research in 
this area primarily for the purpose of ad\'ancing our knowledge and under- 
standing of biological and medical fields. With more than one source of 
funds available from the Federal Government, scientists enjoy the broader 
base of support that is consistent with American tradition. 

Although the U. S. Public Health Ser\'ice and the National Science 
Foundation are the principal sources of funds for medical research, mention 
should also be made of the intramural programs of the Veterans Adminis- 
tration, the military services, and the medical research programs of the 
Atomic Energy Commission. 



Military Research 

With the ci\'ilian Office of Scientific Research and Development just 
bringing to a close its brilliantly successful program of wartime research on 
weapons and devices of warfare, and problems of military medicine. Dr. 
Bush felt that a certain amount of long-range scientific research on military 
problems should continue to be carried on in peacetime b\' a civilian group. 
Such research would complement research on the improvement of existing 
weapons which, he felt, could best be done within the militarv establishment. 
He therefore recommended that the new "National Research Foundation" 
should include a division of national defense. For this he contemplated a 
modest level of expenditures of $10 million for the first year, rising to $20 
million by the end of the fifth year. 

Here again, as in the case of medical research, the situation evolved in a 
way quite different from that originally visualized by Bush, but which has 
probably met the substance of his principal recommendations. A division of 
national defense was stricken from proposed legislation establishing a new 

xii 



agency largely because the delay had resulted in different measures being 
taken. The military services, who were well jileased with the civilian re- 
search performed in the universities under OSRl) sponsorship, continued 
such arrangements with the unixersities by writing appropriate new contracts 
to continue the work started under OSRD auspices or to launch entirely new 
investigations. In ensuing years, many contracts of this type were entered 
into by the military services with a growing number of universities. The 
central laboratories originally associated with OSRD contracts, such as the 
Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, the Radiation Labora- 
tory at M.LT., and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute 
of Technology, developed into the research centers, which, though supported 
by military funds, are operated by civilian scientists under civilian manage- 
ment. 

In addition to applied research for the solution of immediate problems, the 
three services gradually expanded their research programs to include grants 
for basic research — in general related to their missions but often of a very 
fundamental nature. During the five-year period between the publication of 
Science, the Endless Frontier and the enactment of the National Science 
Foundation legislation in 1950, the Navy Department, through its Office of 
Naval Research (established b\' Congress in 1946) gave generous support to 
basic research in a wide variety of fields. Later, by order of their respective 
secretaries, a similar pattern was adopted by the Department of the Army, 
through its Office of Ordnance Research, and the Air Force, through the Air 
Force Office of Scientific Research. 

The Bush thesis that "some research on military problems should be con- 
tinued, in time of peace as well as in war, by civilians independently of the 
military establishment" has not been adequately tested because of the un- 
certain character of the peace that has existed since the close of World War II. 

In general, however, it can be said that a substantial number of the Nation's 
top scientists, both within the Department of Defense and in outside institu- 
tions, are applying their talents to military problems with imagination and 
\'igor. 



International Relations in Science 

With their long tradition of effectix'e international cooperation in science, 
it is not surprising that a group of scientists should urge upon the Government 
the importance of a vital program for the continuing international exchange 
of scientific information, through both the medium of scientific literature and 
active participation in international conferences, symposia, and other forms of 
international collaboration in science. 

Thus the Committee on Science and the Public Welfare recommended that 
scientific attaches be appointed to serve in certain selected United States em- 
bassies. "Such a post, ' observed the Committee, "would appear to be most 
important in countries such as Russia, where a great deal, if not all, of the 
scientific activity is controlled or directed by the government and where other 
channels of scientific communication have been greatly restricted for several 

xiii 



years." This recommendation was reaffirmed by a special Department of State 
International Science Steering Committee in its report, Science and Foreign 
Policy, released in May 1950 at about the same time the National Science 
Foundation legislation was being enacted. 

The Office of Science Adviser to the Secretary of State was established in 
a preliminary way in the summer of 1950 and the post of Science Adviser was 
formally filled as such in February 1951. During the first year, science 
attaches were assigned to London, Stockholm and Bern. The following year 
similar posts were added in Bonn and Paris. 

Following the resignation of the Science Adviser in July 1953, the program 
was gradually permitted to lapse. Meanwhile, the scientific community, 
which felt that the program had made a definite contribution to international 
understanding and cooperation in science, pressed for a reactivation of the 
program — principally through the medium of editorial comment as expressed 
in various scientific journals. Under urging from the National Academy of 
Sciences, the National Science Foundation, and the President's Science Ad- 
visory Committee, the Department of State decided to renew and strengthen 
the program in July 1957. 

The new Science Adviser took office in January 1958. In January 1959 
the attache program was again active, with attaches assigned to London, Paris, 
Stockholm, Bonn, Rome, Tokyo, New Delhi, Rio de Janeiro, and Buenos 
Aires. At the present time no real obstacle appears to exist to the fulfillment 
of the original Bush proposal that a scientific attache in Moscow would be 
useful. In addition, the way appears to have been opened for better ex- 
change between the U. S. and the U.S.S.R. of both scientific information and 
scientists under the Bronk-Nesmeyanov Agreement of July 1959. 

As far as international scientific conferences are concerned, the situation is 
probably more satisfactory than at any time since the Bush Report was pub- 
lished. U. S. attendance at such meetings has been strengthened and placed 
on a more orderly basis through the National Science Foundation's authority 
to pay travel expenses of American scientists attending scientific meetings 
abroad and through the continued backing of the scientific unions by the 
National Academy of Sciences. In general, scientists are chosen to represent 
the U. S. by their peers acting usually through the scientific societies. 

With respect to foreign scientists traveling to the U. S. for scientific meet- 
ings, there have been some improvements in the situation. The visa problem 
of recent years has been greatly alleviated. The current problem, which is a 
very real one for science but which transcends scientific considerations, is the 
problem of recognition and non-recognition of certain nations. The inter- 
national scientific community operates without regard to political considera- 
tions and establishes its meetings and selects its delegates solely on the basis 
of their scientific qualifications. When these run head-on into political con- 
siderations involving the entrance of foreign nationals, there are, of course, 
knotty problems to be solved. At the present time, these problems appear to 
admit of no easy solution. 

On the positive side, by far the largest and most impressive example of 
eflfective international cooperation in science was the International Geo- 
physical Year of 1957-58. The U. S. was one of 66 nations participating in the 



XIV 



18-month period of intensive geophysical research. The scientific program 
was under the direction of the U. S. National Committee for the International 
Geophysical Year, National Academy of Sciences. Here again the Bush 
Report anticipated what was to come by citing the International Polar Year 
as an example of significant international scientific activity. The Report rec- 
ommended that "the National Research Foundation be charged with the 
responsibility of participating in such international cooperative scientific enter- 
prises as it deems desirable." The National Science Foundation secured and 
administered Government funds for U. S. participation in the International 
Geophysical Year to the extent of $43,500,000. 

In the contemporary scene, international activities in science have neces- 
sarily widened to include political considerations. Through such mediums as 
the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, the 
nations of the world are working to divert the powerful new forces of nuclear 
energy into constructive uses. Similarly, the nations may find it necessary in 
the common good to agree and cooperate on scientific and practical aspects 
of outer space research. The Antarctic Treaty under which twelve nations 
have agreed to preserve the Antarctic as a great scientific laboratory is a 
major landmark in international relations. 



Renewal of Scientific Talent 

In a chapter entitled "Renewal of Our Scientific Talent," Dr. Bush takes as 
a major premise the statement of James B. Conant that ". . . in every section 
of the entire area where the word science may properly be applied, the limit- 
ing factor is a human one. We shall have rapid or slow advance in this direc- 
tion or in that depending on the number of really first-class men who are 
engaged in the work in question. ... So in the last analysis the future of 
science in this country will be determined by our basic educational policy." 

Dr. Bush and his advisory committee on education were concerned (1) with 
broadening the base from which students with scientific aptitude and talents 
could be drawn, and (2) with filling the wartime deficit in young scientists 
and engineers. They were concerned with quality and with the full opera- 
tion of the democratic process. They felt that all boys and girls should be 
able to feel that, if they have what it takes, there is no limit to the opportunity. 
A ceiling should not be imposed on a young person's educational opportunities 
either by limited family means or negative family attitudes. 

Science, the Endless Frontier also emphasized the importance of teaching 
in these words: "Improvement in the teaching of science is imperative; for 
students of latent scientific ability are particularly vulnerable to high school 
teaching which fails to awaken interest or to provide adequate instruction." 

The specific recommendations of the Bush Report in the area of science 
education were for the establishment of a national program of science scholar- 
ships and science fellowships and for the subsequent enrollment of the re- 
cipients of these awards in a National Science Reserve upon which the Gov- 
ernment could draw in times of emergency. 

In the establishment and operation of the Foundation's program of educa- 
tion in the sciences, there has been fundamental and perhaps unanimous 

XV 



agreement with the Bush thesis. The methods and techniques by which 
these objectives are to be accomphshed do not coincide at every point with 
the rather general proposals set forth in the Bush Report; nevertheless, I 
think it can be said that all the programs that the Foundation has initiated 
and supported have contributed in significant measure to the principal rec- 
ommendation of Dr. Bush, namely, that the Nation's pool of scientific talent 
should be strengthened and improved. 

In the very first year of operation with its total budget only $3.5 million, the 
Foundation awarded 575 predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowships. Over the 
ten-year period the fellowship program has been gradually expanded to include 
fellowships in other categories, and more than 12,000 fellowships in all cate- 
gories have been awarded. 

The Foundation has not embarked upon a program of scholarship support 
for a number of reasons, the principal one being the conviction of the National 
Science Board that an undergraduate program of scholarship support should 
not be limited to a particular field of science or even to science and engineer- 
ing generally. The Foundation does, however, support several programs of 
a different type which provide to gifted students, at both the undergraduate 
and secondary-school levels, research experience and educational opportunities 
far beyond those afforded by the normal curriculum. 

Financial assistance for undergraduate students was anticipated by Dr. 
Bush and his Committee. Although Public Law 346 (G.I. Bill of Rights) had 
been passed in 1944 and is mentioned at some length in Science, the Endless 
Frontier, its ultimate impact was not apparent at that time. The final sum- 
ming up is impressive. Of the more than 7.5 million veterans who took 
advantage of this training, more than two million pursued courses in schools 
of higher learning. Almost 10 per cent of the total (744,000) pursued 
courses in scientific fields. The engineering profession attracted 45,000 and 
medicine and related courses more than 180,000. The remaining 113,000 
who elected to study in the natural sciences were variously distributed among 
geology, chemistry, geography, metallurgy, physics, medicine, dentistry, and 
others. 

About two million veterans of the Korean conflict received similar educa- 
tional opportunities under the Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952. 
Engineering, medical, dental, and scientific fields attracted about a quarter 
million of these. 

Other sources of financial aid for undergraduate students include the 
National Merit Scholarship Corporation, a nonprofit institution established 
and supported by philanthropic foundations and business organizations, and 
the National Defense Education Act of 1958, which provides for loans to 
students in institutions of higher education. 

Dr. Bush's urgent plea that the generation in uniform should not be lost 
seems to have been abundantly answered. The evidence suggests also that 
the military services are making constructi\'e efforts to utilize both draftees 
and officers in positions in which they can make use of specialized skills and 
training. The services also have interesting programs for continuing the 
advanced education of highly qualified men through such mediums as the 
Navy Postgraduate School and through direct subsidy of advanced education 
for military men in colleges and universities. 



xvi 



A comparison of the support levels tor scientific personnel and education 
recommended in Science, the Endless Frontier and those that actually obtain 
is difficult. The Bush recommendation of $7 million lor the first year, rising 
to $29 milhon by the fifth year, was based on an annual program of 6,000 
undergraduate scholarships and 300 graduate fellowships. The National 
Science Foundation's obligations for scientific personnel, education and man- 
power, which in the early years were devoted largely to graduate fellowship 
support, totaled approximately $1.5 million the first year and $4 million about 
the fifth year. During this period, of course. Federal funds for education 
were also available through the G.I. Bill, through the fellowships of the 
National Institutes of Health, and the Atomic Energy Commission, as well 
as from other sources. 

By 1960 the Foundation's obligations for scientific personnel and education 
totaled more than $65 million, of which more than half went for institutes to 
improve the teaching of mathematics and science principally in — biit not 
limited to — the high school. The institutes program initiated by the Founda- 
tion on an experimental basis in 1953 appealed particularly to Congress and 
for several succeeding years funds have been specifically appropriated by Con- 
gress for this purpose. 

A significant assessment of the impact and value of these programs is diffi- 
cult at close range. A number of years, possibly a generation, will be required 
before we may be able to judge fairly the extent to which Federal-support 
programs have met their objectives. 

In the National Science Foundation, quality rather than numbers has been 
stressed. We have felt that it was important for the whole broad rank and 
file of students to be made aware of the opportunities and intellectual satisfac- 
tions of science as well as other fields; it has seemed to us especially important 
that those with special aptitudes and ability from whatever walk of Hfe should 
have the fullest opportunitv for the realization of their talents. 

The Foundation is trying to the extent possible to meet the problem at its 
source. It agrees fully with the Bush stress upon the importance of the 
teaching of science at the high school level. It has been apparent that in 
order to teach modern science effectively, teachers must not only be ade- 
quately trained themselves but must have the opportunity to work with up-to- 
date curriculums and course content and with proper laboratories and equip- 
ment. 

Beginning with the work of the Physical Sciences Study Group at M.I.T., 
the Foundation is supporting studies looking toward the complete revision 
and up-dating of course content in physics, mathematics, chemistry, and 
biology. This work has included the preparation of new textbooks and teach- 
ing aids and the introduction of imaginative and stimulating new equipment. 

It seems reasonable to assume that these constructive efforts must by their 
very nature influence for the better the teaching of science. Nevertheless, 
nothing that has been accomplished thus far provides reason for complacency^- 
As a nation we still seem a long way from a universal understanding and 
appreciation for intellectual activity generally and probably will remain so 
until we attach roughly the same importance to academic achievement as we 
do, for example, to prowess in sports. 



xvn 



Reconversion 

At the close of the war Dr. Bush and the scientific community generally 
were keenly aware of the volume and importance of the scientific information 
generated during the War and which had necessarily been subject to severe 
security restrictions. Of the medical information developed during the 
War, however, the greater part had remained unclassified and had been 
published. Dr. Bush expressed the view ". . . that most of the remainder of 
the classified scientific material should be released as soon as there is ground 
for belief that an enemv will not be able to turn it against us in this war." 

On the whole, this problem seems to have been successfully met. Despite the 
enormous volume of material involved and the shortages of military and tech- 
nical personnel qualified to rule on the security status of technical data, de- 
classification has been steadilv going on since the War. The Department of 
Defense through its Office of Declassification Policy and the Atomic Energy 
Commission through its Division of Classification are actively attacking this 
problem on a continuing basis. In the opinion of some who are dealing with 
this problem, more reports are being declassified than consumers can find 
time to read. 

The latter point, of course, is related to the whole broad problem of the 
dissemination, storage, and retrieval of scientific information. This problem 
has received attention from the National Science Foundation since its in- 
ception, but because of limitation of funds, activities in this area were nec- 
essarily supported at a fairly low level until recently. Early in 1958 the 
President's Science Advisory Committee made a detailed study of what the 
Government should do to improve the flow of scientific information and 
thereby increase its utilization. As a result of the Committee's recommenda- 
tions, the President directed that the scientific information activity of the 
National Science Foundation should be strengthened and expanded. At 
about the same time, under Title IX of Public Law 85-864 (the National 
Defense Education Act of 1958), the Foundation was authorized to establish a 
Science Information Service and also a Science Information Council, which 
would include in its membership outstanding scientists, information experts, 
and heads of Federal Bureaus and agencies that are directly concerned with 
the dissemination of information. 

In a number of programs the Office of Science Information Service of 
the Foundation has sought to improve the dissemination of existing materials 
by helping to provide for prompt publication of research results, reference aids 
and information centers of various kinds, and translations of significant scien- 
tific papers in languages not widely understood by American scientists. In 
addition, the Foundation is supporting a slowly growing body of research 
directed to whole new approaches in various aspects of the information prob- 
lem. Most of the research is concerned with exploration of ways of using 
machines to help with information processing tasks, such as the organization, 
storage and searching of scientific information and the- translation of scientific 
publications from foreign languages into English. Before machines can 
process the texts of documents, however, for either mechanized information 
searching systems or mechanical translation systems, more precise knowledge 
of syntax and semantics is needed. Therefore, current research acti\nties in 

xviii 



these areas are extending our understanding of language with the expectation 
that uhimately machines will be able to handle linguistic data. 

The recommendation of Science, the Endless Frontier that the National 
Research Foundation should include a Division of Publications and Scien- 
tific Collaboration has been substantively realized by the creation within the 
National Science Foundation of the OIHce of Science Information Service. 

The National Science Foundation 

In a final chapter labeled "The Means to the End," Science, the Endless 
Frontier recommends the establishment of a National Research Foundation, 
conceived as the principal means for carrying out the other major recom- 
mendations contained in the Report. The five years of legislative debate 
during which the scientific community urged upon Congress the importance 
of establishing a new foundation are history too familiar to require repetition 
here. 

President 1 ruman's veto of the bill that was finally passed by both Houses 
of Congress in 1947 was a major disappointment. The President's objections 
were directed toward the administrative structure of the new agency under 
which the director would be elected by a board, a provision which he felt 
would render it insufficiently responsive to the will of the people. 

The Bill that was finally passed in May 1950 met the principal objections 
of the President by specifying that both the Director and the Members of 
the 24-member board should be appointed by the President. This unusual 
arrangement left over-all policy determination and program approval largely 
in the hands of the Board, with the Director reporting to the President, al- 
though serving ex officio on the Board and acting as its executive officer. 

In 1958 the Board, through an ad hoc committee appointed for the purpose, 
reviewed the working relationship of the Director and the Board in the light 
of experience and noted that this relationship has been harmonious and con- 
structive largely as a result of the excellent cooperation on the part of both. 
The Board noted further that each year of successful operation, built on a 
clear understanding on the part of each Board Member of his proper func- 
tion, and upon wise statesmanship on the part of the Director and his asso- 
ciates gives assurance of continued success. The Board further observed that 
as each year passes a body of precedents for sound administrative procedures 
is being built up that may ultimately become an unwritten constitution which 
will prevail. 

Some of the organizational anomaly of the Foundation was resolved in 1959 
when Congress amended the National Science Foundation Act to permit the 
Board to delegate authority to the Director and its Executive Committee to 
approve grants and contracts in certain situations. The delegation of author- 
ity has since been implemented by Board action. 

In other details, the structure of the National Science Foundation, as finally 
constituted, does not difter substantially from that proposed by Science, the 
Endless Frontier, except in the omission of a Division of National Defense. 
The Report proposed the following Divisions: Medical Research, Natural 
Science, National Defense, Scientific Personnel and Education, Division of 
Publications and Scientific Collaboration and appropriate staflf offices. 

xix 



The principal divisions of the Foundation are: Biology and Medicine; * 
Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences; and Division of Scientific 
Personnel and Education. There is also an Office of Science Information 
Service, an Office of Special International Programs, an Office of Special 
Studies, as well as an administrative division. 

In 1958 the National Science Board approved the establishment of an 
Office of Social Sciences, thus bestowing formal status on Foundation support 
of the social sciences which has been carried on on a limited basis since the 
early days of the Foundation. The social sciences support program which was 
undertaken on the strength of the permissive phrase in the Act "and other 
sciences ' includes projects in the following fields: physical anthropology, func- 
tional archaeology, cultural anthropology, psycholinguistics, human ecology, 
demography, sociology, social psychology, economic and social geography, 
economics, history of science, and philosophy of science. 

Thus in the National Science Foundation we have a functioning organ- 
ization closely resembling in organization and design the National Research 
Foundation proposed by Dr. Bush. 

Certainly in ideals and objectives it is a prototype of the institution en- 
visioned in Science, the Endless Frontier. The really important question is, 
of course, to what extent has the Foundation been successful in serving the 
high purposes and needs for which it was created? 

Dr. Bush enunciated five basic principles that should characterize an effec- 
tive program of Government support for scientific research and education : 

(1) Whatever the extent of support may be, there must be stability of funds over a 
period of years so that long-range programs may be undertaken. 

(2) The agency to administer such funds should be composed of citizens selected 
only on the basis of their interest in and capacity to promote the work of the agency. 
They should be persons of broad interest in and understanding of the peculiarities of 
scientific research and education. 

(3) The agency should promote research through contracts or grants to organizations 
outside the Federal Government. It should not operate any laboratories of its own. 

(4) Support of basic research in the public and private colleges, universities, and 
research institutes must leave the internal control of policy, personnel, and the method 
and scope of the research to the institutions themselves. This is of the utmost importance. 

(5) While assuring complete independence and freedom for the nature, scope, and 
methodology of research carried on in the institutions receiving public funds, and while 
retaining discretion in the allocation of funds among such institutions, the Foundation 
proposed herein must be responsible to the President and Congress. 

( 1 ) The Foundation is aware that continuity and stabihty are most impor- 
tant in the support of basic research. This can be achieved in two principal 
ways: one, by making the grant or contract for a term of years rather than for 
a single year and renewable; the other, by setting aside a revolving fund for 
the renewal of grants or contracts when the term expires, without reference 
to the annual appropriation. In the early years, budget limitations made it 
difficult for the Foundation to provide long-range support. As funds have 
become available, however, the amount and duration of the average grant 
has steadily increased. The value of the average research grant in fiscal year 
1953 was $10,300, for an average duration of 1.9 years; and in fiscal year 
1960 the average estimated value has risen to $30,500, with an axerage 



* Under the terms of the Act biology and medical research were initially to be separate divisions. 
After consideration during the first year it was decided to combine these into a single division. 

XX 



duration of 2.3 years. Indixidual grants arc being made for as long as five 
years. Thus fuller support is being achicxed, and with grants of longer 
duration the trend is toward increasing stability. 

(2) The National Science Foundation has been extraordinarily fortunate 
in the calibre of the people who have manned its regular staff, as well as in 
the advisors and consultants who have served untiringly. The National 
Science Board, as prescribed by law, is composed of persons "eminent in the 
fields of the basic sciences, medical science, engineering, agriculture, educa- 
tion or public affairs; . . . selected solelv on the basis of established records of 
distinguished service; and ... so selected as to provide representation of the 
views of the scientific leaders in all areas of the Nation." The substantive divi- 
sions ha\'e statutory dixisional committees of scientists eminent in their respec- 
tive fields or specialties, and a similar committee for the Office of Social Sci- 
ences was recentlv named. At the program level there is an advisory panel for 
each program which advises and counsels the program director and provides 
assistance in the formulation of the program in that particular discipline. The 
regular Foundation staff is selected largely from college and university fac- 
ulties — many serving on leave for the term of their appointment. 

The Foundation maintains \'iable relationships with the scientific and edu- 
cational communities which make possible constant interchange of views 
and information. 

(3) The Foundation is permitted to operate no laboratories of its own. 
Early in its history the decision was made that the grant, in general, affords 
the most effective means of support for basic research. As a result of the 
Foundation's efforts, furthermore, the Eightv-Fifth Congress passed Public 
Law 934, which extends the grant-making authority to appropriate Federal 
agencies and permits them, also, in the case of basic research grants, to vest 
title to research equipment with the institution receiving the grant, provided 
such equipment is not needed for government purposes. 

The need for major facilities for basic research purposes — not wholly antici- 
pated by the Bush Report — has given rise to a situation in which the Founda- 
tion is supporting the construction and operation of such facilities by means of 
contracts with qualified organizations. For example, in astronomy, where 
urgent need exists for both photoelectric instruments and radiotelescopes, the 
Foundation is supporting two major facilities: the National Radio Astronomy 
Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia, and the Kitt Peak National Ob- 
servatory near Tucson, Arizona. The former is being operated bv Associated 
Universities Incorporated, composed of nine eastern universities, which has 
had notable experience in the management of large-scale research in the opera- 
tion of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Kitt Peak Observatory is 
being constructed and operated by the Association of Universities for Research 
in Astronomy, a group of eight uni\'ersities with major astronomy depart- 
ments, which was organized specifically for this purpose. 

The Foundation has also contributed substantial support to other large- 
scale facilities for basic research, including high-speed computers, an ocean- 
ographic research vessel, and nuclear reactors. 

An even more recent program, which is somewhat related to the facility 
program, is the development of graduate research laboratories under which 

xxi 



the Foundation provides funds for the reno\'ation and equipment of the re- 
search laboratories of graduate schools. 

(4) In the operation of its program, the National Science Foundation has 
sought to hold to a minimum the burdens imposed upon academic institutions. 
Administrative requirements on grantees, fellows and contractors are the 
minimum consonant with accountability and responsibility for public funds. 
In the last analysis, however, the scientific and academic communities must 
be the final judge of the extent to which Federal support has been given 
without interference in internal affairs or burdensome controls. During its 
first ten years of operation the Foundation has had no serious complaints on 
this score. 

(5) The Foundation has found its responsibilities to the President and 
the Congress in no wise incompatible with its independence and freedom of 
operation. Congress in its wisdom endowed the Foundation with an un- 
usually broad charter. It is so broad, in fact, that the Foundation from time 
to time has had to place its own interpretation on its Act and to make policy 
decisions regarding what not to do. This wide latitude has enabled the 
Foundation to approach the immense and challenging problems of modern 
science in innovational and experimental ways. 

The Director enjoys cordial working relationships with the Special Assist- 
ant to the President and with the President's Science Advisory Committee. 
Whenever circumstances require it, he has direct access to the President. The 
Director is a member of the National Aeronautics and Space Council, the 
Federal Council on Science and Technology, a consultant to the President's 
Science Advisory Committee and a member of the Defense Science Board. 

The foregoing summary probably represents the extent to which we are 
able to comment on the success with which these five fundamentals have 
been met. A more complete judgment must await the perspective of history. 

So far as the operations of the Foundation are concerned, these have been 
substantially covered in the course of commenting on the major recommenda 
tions of Science, the Endless Frontier. Upon examination, the Foundation s 
programs, particularly in the area of research support and education in the 
sciences, will be found to correspond closely with the principal recommenda- 
tions of Science, the Endless Frontier. 

An extremelv troublesome and difficult problem is the Foundation's relation 
to the development of national science policv and to the e\'aluation and corre- 
lation functions. The National Science Foundation Act authorizes and directs 
the Foundation — 

to develop and encourage the pursuit of a national poHcy for the promotion of basic 
research and education in the sciences; 

to evaluate scientific research programs undertaken by agencies of the Federal Govern- 
ment, and to correlate the Foundation's scientific research programs with those under- 
taken by individuals and by public and pri\'ate research groups; . . . 

The number and variety of Federal research programs prompted the Foun- 
dation at the outset to consider what should be the responsibilities of the 
several Federal agencies with respect to the support of extramural research and 
de\'elopment in the sciences. After conferences bv NSF staff members with 
the Bureau of the Budget and other agencies, the Foundation's primary 

xxii 



recommendations were set forth in Executixe Order 10521 of March 17, 1954. 
The Order states that the Foundation "shall . . . recommend to the President 
policies for the promotion and support of basic research and education in the 
sciences, including policies with respect to furnishing guidance toward de- 
fining the res]X)nsibiHtics of the Federal Government in the conduct and 
support oi basic scientific research." 

The Order further directs that the Foundation shall be increasingly re- 
sponsible for the support of general-purpose basic research but recognizes, 
also, the importance and desirability of other agencies' conducting and sup- 
porting basic research in fields closely associated to their missions. The 
Foundation is not expected to have responsibility for the applied research 
and de\ elopment programs of other agencies, and each agency is accountable 
for the scope and quality of its developmental effort. 

With respect to the evaluation function, the Foundation has con- 
sistently pointed out that it is unrealistic to expect one agency to render 
judgment on the o\er-all performance of another agency unless an agency 
requests such help. The Foundation has chosen instead to approach the 
problem in terms of specific areas of science. Through close liaison and 
exchange of information with other science agencies, the Foundation has 
endeavored to identify areas that are receiving inadequate support or that 
require attention for other reasons. In this way it has been possible to bring 
about needed adjustments on an amicable, cooperative basis. 

Executive Order 10807 of March 13, 1959, establishing the Federal Council 
on Science and Technology, also redefines the Foundation's role in the de- 
velopment of national science policy as applying only to basic research. 
Within this more specialized framework, the Foundation has been steadily 
formulating national science policies in the course of day-to-day operations, 
frequently on the basis of agreement and understanding with other agencies. 
Those who insist that policy must be handed down "ready made" in the 
form of a proclamation or edict do not understand the policy-making process. 
To be workable, policy must evolve on the basis of experience. 

In 1959 the Foundation listed a compilation of some fifty science policies 
of a government-wide, national character that had been recommended by the 
Foundation during the previous eight years. Drawn from a variety of public 
statements and published reports the policies are grouped under the following 
broad categories: Basic Research; Government-University Relationships in 
the Conduct of Federally Sponsored Research; Indirect Costs; Education and 
Training; Federal Financial Support of Research Facilities; Government- 
Industry Relationships on Research; International Scientific Activities; Or- 
ganization and Administration of Research; Medical Research, and Scientific 
Information. 

As background data for its own research programs and for policy formula- 
tion concerning the role of the Federal Government in the support of science, 
the Foundation early established a series of studies of the nature and extent 
of the national eflfort in research and development. Comprehensive surveys 
are made on a recurring basis of the research and development effort of in- 
dustry and of universities and other nonprofit institutions. The Foundation's 
analyses of the support of research and development by Federal agencies are 



xxm 



published annually in Federal Funds for Science. In addition to statistical 
surveys of the volume of research and development, the Foundation is also 
engaged in analytical studies of the close relationship that exists between 
research and development and the economy in order to achieve a fuller under- 
standing of the effects of research and development on various economic and 
industrial activities. The whole effort carries out the directive in the Execu- 
tive Order "to make comprehensive studies and recommendations regarding 
the Nation's research effort and its resources for scientific activities. . . ." 

A final word about the Foundation's budget is perhaps of interest. The fol- 
lowing table summarizes Dr. Bush's projected budget for the National Re- 
search Foundation and the National Science Foundation's actual appropria- 
tion for its fifth operating year, fiscal year 1956; 1952 was the first year for 
which operating funds ($3.5 million) were appropriated for the Foundation 
by Congress. 

(millions of dollars) 



Activity "■ 




Bush's Budget for 
the National Re- 
search Foundation 


NSF funds ' 
5th Year 9th Year 




1st Year 


5 th Year 


(FY 1956) (FY 1960) 


Division of Medical Research 


5.0 
10.0 
10.0 

7.0 

.5 
1.0 


20.0 
50.0 
20.0 

29.0 

1.0 
2.5 


3 3 


Division of Natural Sciences '^ 


10.0 67.1 


Division of National Defense 

Division of Scientific Personnel 
Education 


and 


3.4 64.5 


Division of Publications & Scientific 
Collaboration * 


.4 5.4 


Administration 

Other " 


1.3 6.2 
.9 16.0 








Total 


33.5 


122.5 


16.0 159.2 



■^ Except for the "other" category, these were the activities enumerated by Dr. Bush in 
his projected budget for the Foundation. 

= Fiscal year 1956 data from The Budget of the United States, 1956, p. 159. In fiscal 
year 1960 the Foundation's total adjusted appropriation amounts to $154.8 million. 
The total of $159.2 million, shown here, includes $4.4 million carried forward from 
fiscal year 1959. See part 3, Hearings before the Suhccnnnnttee on Appropriations, 
House of Representatives, Eighty-Sixth Congress, Second Session, Independent 
Offices Appropriations for 1961, for further details on program activities. 

■ Funds administered by the Foundation's Biological and Medical Sciences Division are 
included in the total shown for the Division of Natural Sciences. This total also 
includes grants for the social sciences. 

' Scientific information program activities are administered in the Foundation by the 
Office of Science Information Service. 

"^Includes funds for facilities, other program activities, and all adjustments. 

A glance at the chart indicates that by the end of the fifth year the Foun- 
dation was operating at a level fifty per cent lower than that recommended 
b\- Dr. Bush for the first year. By the fifth year the National Science Founda- 
tion was operating at about thirteen per cent of the level suggested by Dr. 
Bush for that year. By 1960, however, the Foundation's appropriation for all 
activities was $159,200,000, almost ten times the 1956 level. 



xxiv 



In order to understand the whole support situation it is necessary to look 
beyond a bare statistical comparison of Dr. Bush's recommendations and the 
Foundation's financial resources. As pre\'iously mentioned, Dr. Bush had 
visualized the Foundation as the sole support of basic research in the Govern- 
ment. This has been far from the fact. As already noted, a number of 
agencies began actively to support basic research during the five years of 
legislative debate of the National Science Foundation bills. It is estimated 
that in 1956 the Federal Government obligated about $200 million for basic 
research. Of this amount somewhat less than $120 million went for basic 
research related to "national defense" (Department of Defense $72 million, 
and Atomic Energy Commission $45 million). Twenty-six million dollars 
represents the total basic research reported bv the National Institutes of 
Health for the year. The remainder of the $200 million is variously distrib- 
uted among the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, National 
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, National Science Foundation, and the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Rough estimates indicate that about $115 million of the $200 million total 
1956 obligation for basic research went to nonprofit institutions, including 
colleges and universities, research centers, research institutions, hospitals, and 
so on. Thus it would appear from these estimates that although the Founda- 
tion itself had not reached the projected level of basic research support pro- 
posed for its fifth year the Federal Government as a whole was providing the 
kind of basic research support visualized by Dr. Bush at a level somewhat 
higher than he projected. 

In the history of the National Science Foundation's appropriations one is 
able to trace something of the public reaction to the international and national 
political situation. A $15 million limit on the Foundation's appropriations 
had been written into the law.* For its first year of operations, however, 
Congress appropriated to the Foundation only a small fraction of that amount 
— $3.5 million. Appropriations for the Foundation climbed slowly but steadily 
as Congress gained confidence in its operations and possibly also as a result 
of some dawning recognition on the part of the public of the importance of 
basic research. By the fifth year, 1956, the appropriation was up to $16 
million. In the summer of 1955 the Foundation published a National Re- 
search Council study, Soviet Professional Manpower, which drew sobering 
comparisons between the rates at w^hich the U. S. and the U.S.S.R. are train- 
ing scientific and technical manpower. One result of these findings was 
that the Congress sharply increased Foundation funds for education in the 
sciences. The Foundation appropriation for fiscal year 1957, $40 million, 
more than doubled that of the preceding year. The next large increment 
came in 1959 when $130 million was appropriated in the wake of intense 
national concern over the Russian sputnik and all that it implied. Funds 
available for fiscal year 1960 total more than $159 million. 

What can be said in summation? The principal mechanisms recommended 
by Dr. Bush for the support and encouragement of basic research and educa- 
tion in the sciences have been realized. All branches of the Federal Govern- 
ment have recognized the importance of these matters to the public welfare, 

* This limitation was repealed by Act of Aug. 8, 1953 (67 Stat. 488). 

XXV 



and support is available in a variety of forms from a variety of sources. The 
universities, which have been the principal recipients of support, have ex- 
pressed their approval of this diversity in the sources of support. Such diver- 
sitv has meant more funds, greater flexibility, and the possibility of more than 
one approach. 

It is difficult to say what the optimum level of support should be except to 
recognize that at some point a finite limit is set by the number of competent 
investigators available. At the present time the ratio of basic research funds 
to the over-all research and development funds of the Federal budget is 
something like seven per cent. Undoubtedly the ratio should be higher. 

We have the organization; to a considerable extent v\'e ha\'e the dollars, 
people, and facilities. Can we conclude, then, that the objectives of the 
Bush Report have been fully met? When one has been verv close to the 
scene it is not possible to speak with complete objectivity and detachment. 
I think it can be said that the Government is doing well, both in the pro- 
vision of funds and in the exercise of leadership. There remains, however, 
one conspicuous difficulty to be overcome. It is that people generally still do 
not clearly understand and appreciate the importance of education and the 
importance of science as distinguished from technology. As Dr. Bush so 
trenchantly observed: 

The distinction between applied and pure research is not a hard and fast one, and 
industrial scientists may tackle specific problems from broad fundamental viewpoints. 
But it is important to emphasize that there is a perverse law governing research: under 
the pressure for immediate resuks, and unless deliberate policies are set up to guard 
against this, applied research invariably drives out pure. 

This moral is clear: It is pure research which deserves and requires special protection 
and specially assured support. 

It must be admitted that as a people and a Nation we have not been prop- 
erly appreciative of intellectual achievement. This awareness and apprecia- 
tion is not something the Government can legislate into being. We must 
build it into our national consciousness through our educational system, and 
until we do, science and all other forms of intellectual activity will lack the 
firm foundation they require. 



XXVI 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Office of Scientific Research and Development 

1530 P Street, NW. 

Washington 25, D. C. 

July 5, 1945. 

Dear Mr. President: 

In a letter dated November 17, 1944, President Roosevelt requested my 
recommendations on the following points: 

(1) What can be done, consistent with military security, and with the 
prior approval of the military authorities, to make known to the world as 
soon as possible the contributions which have been made during our war 
effort to scientific knowledge? 

(2) With particular reference to the war of science against disease, what 
can be done now to organize a program for continuing in the future the 
work which has been done in medicine and related sciences? 

(3) What can the Government do now and in the future to aid research 
activities bv public and private organizations? 

(4) Can an effective program be proposed for discovering and developing 
scientific talent in American youth so that the continuing future of scientific 
research in this country mav be assured on a level comparable to what has 
been done during the war? 

It is clear from President Roosevelt's letter that in speaking of science he 
had in mind the natural sciences, including biology and medicine, and I 
have so interpreted his questions. Progress in other fields, such as the social 
sciences and the humanities, is likewise important; but the program for 
science presented in my report warrants immediate attention. 

In seeking answers to President Roosevelt's questions I have had the 
assistance of distinguished committees specially qualified to advise in respect 
to these subjects. The committees have given these matters the serious 
attention thev deserve; indeed, they have regarded this as an opportunity 
to participate in shaping the policy of the countrv with reference to scien- 
tific research. They have had many meetings and have submitted formal 
reports. I have been in close touch with the work of the committees and 
with their members throughout. I have examined all of the data they 
assembled and the suggestions thev submitted on the points raised in Presi- 
dent Roose\'elt's letter. 

1 



Although the report which I submit herewith is my own, the facts, con- 
clusions, and recommendations are based on the findings of the committees 
which have studied these questions. Since my report is necessarily brief, I 
am including as appendices the full reports of the committees. 

A single mechanism for implementing the recommendations of the several 
committees is essential. In proposing such a mechanism I have departed 
somewhat from the specific recommendations of the committees, but I have 
since been assured that the plan I am proposing is fully acceptable to the 
committee members. 

The pioneer spirit is still vigorous within this Nation. Science offers a 
largelv unexplored hinterland for the pioneer who has the tools for his task. 
The rewards of such exploration both for the Nation and the individual 
are great. Scientific progress is one essential kev to our security as a nation, 
to our better health, to more jobs, to a higher standard of living, and to our 
cultural progress. 

Respectfully vours, 



(s) V. Bush, Director. 



The President of the United States, 
The White House, 
Washington, D. C. 



PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S LETTER 

The White House 
Washington, D. C. 
November 17, 1944 

Dear Dr. Bush: 

The Office of Scientific Research and Development, of which you are the 
Director, represents a unique experiment of team-work and cooperation in 
coordinating scientific research and in applying existing scientific knowledge 
to the solution of the technical problems paramount in war. Its work has 
been conducted in the utmost secrecy and carried on without public recog- 
nition of anv kind; but its tangible results can be found in the communiques 
coming in from the battlefronts all over the world. Some day the full story 
of its achievements can be told. 

There is, howe\er, no reason whv the lessons to be found in this experi- 
ment cannot be profitablv employed in times of peace. The information, the 
techniques, and the research experience developed by the Office of Scientific 
Research and Development and bv the thousands of scientists in the uni- 
versities and in private industry, should be used in the days of peace ahead 
for the improvement of the national health, the creation of new enterprises 
bringing new jobs, and the betterment of the national standard of living. 

It is with that objectixe in mind that I would like to ha\'e your recom- 
mendations on the following four major points: 

First: What can be done, consistent with military security, and with the 
prior approval of the military authorities, to make known to the world as 
soon as possible the contributions which have been made during our war 
effort to scientific knowledge? 

The diffusion of such knowledge should help us stimulate new enterprises, 
provide jobs for our returning servicemen and other workers, and make pos- 
sible great strides for the improvement of the national well-being. 

Second: With particular reference to the war of science against disease, 
what can be done now to organize a program for continuing in the future 
the work which has been done in medicine and related sciences? 

The fact that the annual deaths in this country from one or two diseases 
alone are far in excess of the total number of lives lost by us in battle during 
this war should make us conscious of the duty we owe future generations. 
Third: What can the Government do now and in the future to aid research 
activities by public and pri\'ate organizations? The proper roles of public and 
of private research, and their interrelation, should be carefully considered. 



FoTirth: Can an effective program be proposed for discoxering and devel- 
oping scientific talent in American youth so that the continuing future of 
scientific research in this country may be assured on a level comparable to 
what has been done during the war? 

New frontiers of the mind are before us, and if they are pioneered with 
the same vision, boldness, and drive with which we have waged this war 
we can create a fuller and more fruitful employment and a fuller and more 
fruitful life. 

I hope that, after such consultation as you may deem advisable with your 
associates and others, vou can let me have your considered judgment on 
these matters as soon as convenient — reporting on each when you are ready, 
rather than waiting for completion of your studies in all. 

Very sincerelv vours, 

(s) Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Dr. Vannevar Bush, 

Office of Scientific Research and Development, 

Washington, D. C. 



SUMMARY OF THE REPORT 



Scientific Progress is Essential 

Progress in the war against disease depends upon a flow of new scientific 
knowledge. New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous 
additions to knowledge of the laws of nature, and the application of that 
knowledge to practical purposes. Similarly, our defense against aggression 
demands new knowledge so that we can develop new and improved weapons. 
This essential, new knowledge can be obtained onlv through basic scientific 
research. 

Science can be effective in the national welfare onlv as a member of a 
team, whether the conditions be peace or war. But without scientific prog- 
ress no amount of achievement in other directions can insure our health, 
prosperity, and security as a nation in the modern world. 



For the War Against Disease 

We have taken great strides in the war against disease. The death rate for 
all diseases in the Armv, including overseas forces, has been reduced from 
14.1 per thousand in the last war to 0.6 per thousand in this war. In the 
last 40 vears life expectancy has increased from 49 to 65 vears, largelv as a 
consequence of the reduction in the death rates of infants and children. But 
we are far from the goal. The annual deaths from one or two diseases far 
exceed the total number of American lives lost in battle during this war. A 
large fraction of these deaths in our civilian population cut short the useful 
lives of our citizens. Approximately 7,000,000 persons in the United States 
are mentally ill and their care costs the public over $175,000,000 a vear. 
Clearly much illness remains for which adequate means of prevention and 
cure are not vet known. 

The responsibility for basic research in medicine and the underlying 
sciences, so essential to progress in the war against disease, falls primarily 
upon the medical schools and universities. Yet we find that the traditional 
sources of support for medical research in the medical schools and universi- 
ties, largely endowment income, foundation grants, and private donations, 
are diminishing and there is no immediate prospect of a change in this trend. 
Meanwhile, the cost of medical research has been rising. If we are to main- 



tain the progress in medicine which has marked the last 25 years, the Gov- 
ernment should extend financial support to basic medical research in the 
medical schools and in universities. 



For Our ISational Security 

The bitter and dangerous battle against the U-boat was a battle of scien- 
tific techniques — and our margin of success was dangerously small. The 
new eyes which radar has supplied can sometimes be blinded by new scien- 
tific developments. V— 2 was countered only by capture of the launching 
sites. 

We cannot again relv on our allies to hold off the enemy while we 
struggle to catch up. There must be more — and more adequate — military 
research in peacetime. It is essential that the civilian scientists continue in 
peacetime some portion of those contributions to national security which 
they ha\'e made so effectively during the war. This can best be done through 
a civilian-controlled organization with close liaison with the Armv and Navy, 
but with funds direct from Congress, and the clear power to initiate military 
research which will supplement and strengthen that carried on directly under 
the control of the Armv and Navv- 



And for the Public Welfare 

One of our hopes is that after the war there will be full employment. To 
reach that goal the full creative and productive energies of the American 
people must be released. To create more jobs we must make new and better 
and cheaper products. We want plentv of new, vigorous enterprises. But 
new products and processes are not born full-grown. They are founded on 
new principles and new conceptions which in turn result from basic scien- 
tific research. Basic scientific research is scientific capital. Moreover, we 
cannot any longer depend upon Europe as a major source of this scientific 
capital. Clearly, more and better scientific research is one essential to the 
achievement of our goal of full employment. 

How do we increase this scientific capital? First, we must have plenty of 
men and women trained in science, for upon them depends both the creation 
of new knowledge and its application to practical purposes. Second, we must 
strengthen the centers of basic research which are principally the colleges, 
universities, and research institutes. These institutions provide the environ- 
ment which is most conducive to the creation of new scientific knowledge 
and least under pressure for immediate, tangible results. With some notable 
exceptions, most research in industry and in Government involves applica- 
tion of existing scientific knowledge to practical problems. It is only the 
colleges, universities, and a few research institutes that devote most of their 
research efforts to expanding the frontiers of knowledge. 

Expenditures for scientific research by industry and Goyernment increased 
from $140,000,000 in 1930 to $309,000,000 in 1940. Those for the colleges 
and universities increased from $20,000,000 to $31,000,000, while those for 



research institutes declined from $5,200,000 to $4,500,000 during the same 
period. If the colleges, universities, and research institutes are to meet the 
rapidly increasing demands of industry and Government for new scientific 
knowledge, their basic research should be strengthened by use of public 
funds. 

For science to serve as a powerful factor in our national welfare, applied 
research both in Government and in industry must be vigorous. To improve 
the quality of scientific research within the Government, steps should be 
taken to modifv the procedures for recruiting, classifying, and compensating 
scientific personnel in order to reduce the present handicap of governmental 
scientific bureaus in competing with industry and the universities for top- 
grade scientific talent. To provide coordination of the common scientific 
activities of these governmental agencies as to policies and budgets, a perma- 
nent Science Advisorv Board should be created to advise the executive and 
legislative branches of Government on these matters. 

The most important ways in which the Government can promote industrial 
research are to increase the flow of new scientific knowledge through support 
of basic research, and to aid in the development of scientific talent. In addi- 
tion, the Government should provide suitable incentives to industry to con- 
duct research (a) by clarification of present uncertainties in the Internal 
Revenue Code in regard to the deductibility of research and development 
expenditures as current charges against net income, and (h^ by strengthen- 
ing the patent svstem so as to eliminate uncertainties which now bear heavily 
on small industries and so as to prevent abuses which reflect discredit upon 
a basically sound svstem. In addition, ways should be found to cause the 
benefits of basic research to reach industries which do not now utilize new 
scientific knowledge. 



We Must Renew Our Scientific Talent 

The responsibility for the creation of new scientific knowledge — and for 
most of its application — rests on that small body of men and women who 
understand the fundamental laws of nature and are skilled in the techniques 
of scientific research. We shall have rapid or slow advance on any scientific 
frontier depending on the number of highly qualified and trained scientists 
exploring it. 

The deficit of science and technology students who, but for the war, would 
have received bachelor's degrees is about 150,000. It is estimated that the 
deficit of those obtaining advanced degrees in these fields will amount in 
1955 to about 17,000 — for it takes at least 6 years from college entry— te^ 
achieve a doctor's degree or its equivalent in science or engineering. The 
real ceiling on our productivity of new scientific knowledge and its applica- 
tion in the war against disease, and the development of new products and 
new industries, is the number of trained scientists available. 

The training of a scientist is a long and expensive process. Studies clearly 
show that there are talented individuals in every part of the population, but 
with few exceptions, those without the means of buying higher education 



go without it. If ability, and not the circumstance of family fortune, deter- 
mines who shall receive higher education in science, then we shall be 
assured of constantly impro\'ing quality at eyery leyel of scientific activity. 
The Goyernment should provide a reasonable number of undergraduate 
scholarships and graduate fellowships in order to develop scientific talent in 
American youth. The plans should be designed to attract into science only 
that proportion of youthful talent appropriate to the needs of science in 
relation to the other needs of the Nation for high abilities. 



Including Those in Uniform 

The most immediate prospect of making up the deficit in scientific per- 
sonnel is to develop the scientific talent in the generation now in uniform. 
Even if we should start now to train the current crop of high-school gradu- 
ates none would complete graduate studies before 1951. The Armed Services 
should comb their records for men who, prior to or during the war, have 
given evidence of talent for science, and make prompt arrangements, con- 
sistent with current discharge plans, for ordering those who remain in uni- 
form, as soon as militarily possible, to duty at institutions here and overseas 
where they can continue their scientific education. Moreover, the Services 
should see that those who study o\'erseas have the benefit of the latest 
scientific information resulting from research during the war. 



The Lid Must Be Lifted 

While most of the war research has in\'olved the application of existing 
scientific knowledge to the problems of war, rather than basic research, there 
has been accumulated a \'ast amount of information relating to the applica- 
tion of science to particular problems. Much of this can be used by industry. 
It is also needed for teaching in the colleges and universities here and in the 
Armed Forces Institutes overseas. Some of this information must remain 
secret, but most of it should be made public as soon as there is ground for 
belief that the enemy will not be able to turn it against us in this war. To 
select that portion which should be made public, to coordinate its release, 
and definitely to encourage its publication, a Board composed of Army, Navy, 
and civilian scientific members should be promptly established. 



A Program for Action 

The Government should accept new responsibilities for ]:)romoting the 
flow of new scientific knowledge and the de\'elopmcnt of scientific talent in 
our youth. These responsibilities are the proper concern of the Government, 
for thev xitallv affect our health, our jobs, and our naticjnal security. It is in 
keeping also with basic United States policy that the Government should 
foster the opening of new frontiers and this is the modern way to do it. For 

8 



many years the Government has wisely suppoi'ted research in the agricul- 
tural colleges and the benefits have been great. The time has come when 
such support should be extended to other fields. 

The effective discharge of these new responsibilities will require the full 
attention of some over-all agency devoted to that purpose. There is not now 
in the permanent governmental structure receiving its funds from Congress 
an agency adapted to supplementing the support of basic research in the 
colleges, uni\'ersities, and research institutes, both in medicine and the natural 
sciences, adapted to supporting research on new weapons for both Services, 
or adapted to administering a program of science scholarships and fellowships. 

Therefore I recommend that a new agency for these purposes be estab- 
lished. Such an agencv should be composed of persons of broad interest and 
experience, having an understanding of the peculiarities of scientific research 
and scientific education. It should have stability of funds so that long-range 
programs may be undertaken. It should recognize that freedom of inquiry 
must be preserved and should leave internal control of policy, personnel, 
and the method and scope of research to the institutions in which it is carried 
on. It should be fully responsible to the President and through him to the 
Congress for its program. 

Early action on these recommendations is imperative if this Nation is to 
meet the challenge of science in the crucial years ahead. On the wisdom 
with which we bring science to bear in the war against disease, in the crea- 
tion of new industries, and in the strengthening of our Armed Forces 
depends in large measure our future as a nation. 



Part One 



INTRODUCTION 



Scientific Progress Is Essential 

We all know how much the new drug, penicillin, has meant to our griev- 
ously wounded men on the grim battlefronts of this war— the countless lives 
it has saved — the incalculable suffering which its use has prevented. Science 
and the great practical genius of this Nation made this achievement possible. 

Some of us know the vital role which radar has played in bringing the 
Allied Nations to victory over Nazi Germany and in driving the Japanese 
steadilv back from their island bastions. Again it was painstaking scientific 
research over manv years that made radar possible. 

What we often forget are the millions of pay envelopes on a peacetime 
Saturdav night which are filled because new products and new industries 
have provided jobs for countless Americans. Science made that possible, too. 

In 1939 millions of people were emploved in industries which did not even 
exist at the close of the last war — radio, air conditioning, rayon and other 
synthetic fibers, and plastics are examples of the products of these industries. 
But these things do not mark the end of progress — they are but the begin- 
ning if we make full use of our scientific resources. New manufacturing 
industries can be started and many older industries greatly strengthened and 
expanded if we continue to studv nature's laws and apply new knowledge 
to practical purposes. 

Great advances in agriculture are also based upon scientific research. Plants 
which are more resistant to disease and are adapted to short growing seasons, 
the pre\'ention and cure of livestock diseases, the control of our insect enemies, 
better fertilizers, and improved agricultural practices, all stem from painstak- 
ing scientific research. 

Advances in science when put to practical use mean more jobs, higher 
wages, shorter hours, more abundant crops, more leisure for recreation, for 
studv, for learning how to live without the deadening drudgery whi'ch has 
been the burden of the common man for ages past. Ad\'ances in science wdll 
also bring higher standards of living, will lead to the pre\ention or cure of 
diseases, will promote conser\'ation of our limited national resources, and will 
assure means of defense against aggression. But to achieve these objectives — 
to secure a high level of emplovment, to maintain a position of world lead- 
ership — the flow of new scientific knowledge must be both continuous and 
substantial. 

Our population increased from 75 million to 130 million between 1900 

10 



and 1940. In some countries comparable increases have been accompanied 
by famine. In this country the increase has been accompanied by more 
abundant Food suppK', better lixing, more leisure, longer life, and better 
health. 1 his is, largely, the product of three factors — the free play of initia- 
tive of a vigorous people under democrac)', the heritage of great natural 
wealth, and the advance of science and its application. 

Science, by itself, provides no panacea for individual, social, and economic 
ills. It can be effective in the national welfare onlv as a member of a team, 
whether the conditions be peace or war. But without scientific progress no 
amount of achievement in other directions can insure our health, prosperity, 
and securitv as a nation in the modern world. 



Science Is a Proper Concern of Government 

It has been basic United States policy that Government should foster the 
opening of new frontiers. It opened the seas to clipper ships and furnished 
land for pioneers. Although these frontiers have more or less disappeared, 
the frontier of science remains. It is in keeping with the American tradition 
— one which has made the United States great — that new frontiers shall be 
made accessible for development by all American citizens. 

Moreover, since health, well-being, and security are proper concerns of 
Government, scientific progress is, and must be, of vital interest to Govern- 
ment. Without scientific progress the national health would deteriorate; 
without scientific progress we could not hope for improvement in our stand- 
ard of living or for an increased number of jobs for our citizens; and without 
scientific progress we could not have maintained our liberties against tyranny. 



Government Relations to Science — Past and Future 

From early days the Government has taken an active interest in scientific 
matters. During the nineteenth century the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the 
Naval Observatory, the Department of Agriculture, and the Geological Sur- 
vey were established. Through the Land Grant Gollege Acts the Govern- 
ment has supported research in state institutions for more than 80 vears on 
a gradually increasing scale. Since 1900 a large number of scientific agencies 
have been established within the Federal Government, until in 1939 they 
numbered more than 40. 

Much of the scientific research done by Government agencies is inter- 
mediate in character between the two types of work commonly referred to 
as basic and applied research. Almost all Government scientific work has 
ultimate practical objectives but, in many fields of broad national concern, it 
commonly involves long-teyn investigation of a fundamental nature. Gen- 
erally speaking, the scientific agencies of Government are not so concerned 
with immediate practical objectives as are the laboratories of industry nor, 
on the other hand, are they as free to explore any natural phenomena 
without regard to possible economic applications as are the educational and 
private research institutions. Government scientific agencies have splendid 
records of achievement, but they are limited in function. 

11 



We have no national policy for science. The Government has only begun 
to utilize science in the Nation's welfare. There is no body within the Gov- 
ernment charged with formulating or executing a national science policy. 
There are no standing committees of the Congress devoted to this important 
subject. Science has been in the wings. It should be brought to the center 
of the stage — for in it lies much of our hope for the future. 

There are areas of science in which the public interest is acute but which 
are likely to be cultivated inadequately if left without more support than will 
come from private sources. These areas — such as research on military prob- 
lems, agriculture, housing, public health, certain medical, research, and re- 
search involving expensive capital facilities beyond the capacity of private 
institutions — should be advanced by active Government support. To date, 
with the exception of the intensive war research conducted by the Office of 
Scientific Research and Development, such support has been meager and 
intermittent. 

For reasons presented in this report we are entering a period when science 
needs and deserves increased support from public funds. 



Freedom of Inquiry Must Be Preserved 

The publicly and privately supported colleges, universities, and research 
institutes are the centers of basic research. They are the wellsprings of 
knowledge and understanding. As long as they are vigorous and healthy 
and their scientists are free to pursue the truth wherever it may lead, there 
will be a flow of new scientific knowledge to those who can apply it to 
practical problems in Government, in industrv, or elsewhere. 

Many of the lessons learned in the war-time application of science under 
Government can be profitably applied in peace. The Government is pecul- 
iarly fitted to perform certain functions, such as the coordination and support 
of broad programs on problems of great national importance. But we must 
proceed with caution in carrying over the methods which work in wartime 
to the very different conditions of peace. We must remove the rigid controls 
which we have had to impose, and recover freedom of inquiry and that 
healthy competitive scientific spirit so necessary for expansion of the frontiers 
of scientific knowledge. 

Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of free 
intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated 
by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown. Freedom of inquiry must 
be preserved under any plan for Government support of science in accord- 
ance with the Five Fundamentals listed on page 32. 

The studv of the momentous questions presented in President Roosevelt's 
letter has been made by able committees working diligently. This report 
presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the studies of these 
committees which appear in full as the appendices. Only in the creation of 
one over-all mechanism rather than several does this report depart from the 
specific recommendations of the committees. The members of the committees 
have reviewed the recommendations in regard to the single mechanism and 
have found this plan thoroughly acceptable. 

12 



Part Two 



THE WAR AGAINST DISEASE 



In War 

The death rate for all diseases in the Army, including the overseas forces, 
has been reduced from 14.1 per thousand in the last war to 0.6 per thousand 
in this war. 

Such ravaging diseases as yellow fever, dysentery, typhus, tetanus, pneu- 
monia, and meningitis have been all but conquered by penicillin and the 
sulfa drugs, the insecticide DDT, better vaccines, and improved hvgienic 
measures. Malaria has been controlled. There has been dramatic progress 
in surgery. 

The striking advances in medicine during the war have heen possible only 
because we had a large backlog of scientific data accumulated through basic 
research in many scientific fields in the years before the war. 



In Peace 

In the last 40 years life expectancy in the United States has increased 
from 49 to 65 years largely as a consequence of the reduction in the death 
rates of infants and children; in the last 20 years the death rate from the 
diseases of childhood has been reduced 87 percent. 

Diabetes has been brought under control by insulin, pernicious anemia 
by liver extracts; and» the once widespread deficiency diseases have been 
much reduced, even in the lowest income groups, by accessory food factors 
and improvement of diet. Notable advances have been made in the early 
diagnosis of cancer, and in the surgical and radiation treatment of the disease. 

These results have been achieved through a great amount of basic research 
in medicine and the preclinical sciences, and by the dissemination of this 
new scientific knowledge through the physicians and medical services and 
public health agencies of the country. In this cooperative endeavor the 
pharmaceutical industry has played an important role, especially during the 
war. All of the medical and public health groups share credit for these 
achievements; they form interdependent members of a team. 

Progress in combating disease defends ufon an expanding body of new 
scientifc knowledge. 

13 



Unsolved Problems 

As President Roosevelt observed, the annual deaths from one or two 
diseases are far in excess of the total number of American lives lost in battle 
during this war. A large fraction of these deaths in our civilian population 
cut short the useful lives of our citizens. This is our present position despite 
the fact that in the last three decades notable progress has been made in 
civilian medicine. The reduction in death rate from diseases of childhood 
has shifted the emphasis to the middle and old age groups, particularly to 
the malignant diseases and the degenerative processes prominent in later life. 
Cardiovascular disease, including chronic disease of the kidneys, arterio- 
sclerosis, and cerebral hemorrhage, now account for 45 percent of the deaths 
in the United States. Second are the infectious diseases, and third is cancer. 
Added to these are manv maladies (for example, the common cold, arthritis, 
asthma and hav fever, peptic ulcer) which, though infrequentlv fatal, cause 
incalculable disability. 

Another aspect of the changing emphasis is the increase of mental diseases. 
Approximately 7 million persons in the United States are mentally ill; more 
than one-third of the hospital beds are occupied by such persons, at a cost of 
$175 million a year. Each year 125,000 new mental cases are hospitalized. 

N ot with St an ding great progress in prolonging the span of life and in relief 
of suffering, much illness remains for which adequate means of prevention 
and cure are not yet known. While additional physicians, hospitals, and 
health programs are needed, their full usefidness cannot he attained unless 
we enlarge our knowledge of the human organism and the nature of disease. 
Any extension of medical facilities must he accompanied hy an expanded 
program of medical training and research. 



Broad and Basic Studies Needed 

Discoveries pertinent to medical progress have often come from remote 
and unexpected sources, and it is certain that this will be true in the future. 
It is whollv probable that progress in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, 
renal disease, cancer, and similar refractory diseases will be made as the result 
of fundamental discoveries in subjects unrelated to those diseases, and perhaps 
entirelv unexpected by the investigator. Further progress requires that the 
entire front of medicine and the underlving sciences of chemistrv, phvsics, 
anatomy, biochemistry, phvsiologv, pharmacology, bacteriology, pathology, 
parasitology, etc., be broadly developed. 

Progress in the war against disease residts from discoveries in remote and 
unexpected fields of medicine and the underlying sciences. 



Coordinated Attack on Special Problems 

Penicillin reached our troops in time to save countless li\es because the 
Government coordinated and supported the program of research and develop- 
ment on the drug. The development moved from the early laboratory stage 
to large scale production and use in a fraction of the time it would have 

14 



taken without such leadership. The search for hctter anti-malarials, which 
proceeded at a moderate temjx) for many years, has been accelerated enor- 
mously by Government support during the war. Other examples can be cited 
in which medical progress has been similarly advanced. In achieving these 
results, the Government has provided over-all coordination and support; it 
has not dictated how the work should be done within any cooperating 
institution. 

Discovery of new therapeutic agents and methods usually results from basic 
studies in medicine and the underlying sciences. The development of such 
materials and methods to the point at which they become available- to medical 
practitioners requires teamwork involving the medical schools, the science 
departments of universities. Government and the pharmaceutical industry. 
Government initiative, support, and coordination can be very efifective in this 
development phase. 

Governvient initiative and swpfort for the develofment of newly discov- 
ered therapeutic materials and methods can reduce the time required to bring 
the benefits to the fublic. 



Action is Necessary 

The primary place for medical research is in the medical schools and uni- 
versities. In some cases coordinated direct attack on special problems may be 
made by teams of investigators, supplementing similar attacks carried on by 
the Army, Navy, Public Health Service, and other organizations. Apart from 
teaching, however, the primarv obligation of the medical schools and univer- 
sities is to continue the traditional function of such institutions, namely, to 
provide the individual worker with an opportunitv for free, untrammeled 
study of nature, in the directions and bv the methods suggested by his inter- 
ests, curiosity, and imagination. The history of medical science teaches clearly 
the supreme importance of affording the prepared mind complete freedom 
for the exercise of initiative. It is the special province of the medical schools 
and universities to foster medical research in this way — a duty which cannot 
be shifted to Government agencies, industrial organizations, or to any other 
institutions. 

Where clinical investigations of the human body are required, the medical 
schools are in a unique position, because of their close relationship to teaching 
hospitals, to integrate such investigations with the work of the departments of 
preclinical science, and to impart new knowledge to physicians in training. 
At the same time, the teaching hospitals are especially well qualified to carry 
on medical research because of their close connection with the medical schools, 
on which they depend for staff and supervision. 

Between World War I and World War II the United States overtook all 
other nations in medical research and assumed a position of world leadership. 
To a considerable extent this progress reflected the liberal financial support 
from universitv endowment income, gifts from individuals, and foundation 
grants in the 20's. The growth of research departments in medical schools 
has been verv uneven, however, and in consequence most of the important 
work has been done in a few large schools. This should be corrected by build- 

15 



ing up the weaker institutions, especially in regions which now have no 
strong medical research activities. 

The traditional sources of support for medical research, largely endowment 
income, foundation grants, and private donations, are diminishing, and there 
is no immediate prospect of a change in this trend. Meanwhile, research 
costs have stcadiK' risen. More elaborate and expensive equipment is required, 
supplies are more costlv, and the wages of assistants are higher. Industry is 
onlv to a limited extent a source of funds for basic medical research. 

It is clear that if we are to maintain the progress in medicine which has 
marked the last 25 years, the Government shoidd extend financial support to 
basic medical research in the medical schools and in the universities, through 
grants both for research and for fellowships. The amotint which can he effec- 
tively spent in the first year shotdd not exceed 5 million dollars. After a pro- 
gram is under way perhaps 20 million dollars a year can he spent effectively. 



16 



Part Three 



SCIENCE AND THE PUBLIC WELFARE 



Relation to National Security 

In this war it has become clear beyond all doubt that scientific research is 
absolutely essential to national security. The bitter and dangerous battle 
against the U-boat was a battle of scientific techniques — and our margin of 
success was dangerously small. The new eves which radar supplied to our 
fighting forces quickly evoked the development of scientific countermeasures 
which could often blind them. This again represents the ever continuing 
battle of techniques. The V— 1 attack on London was finally defeated by 
three devices developed during this war and used superbly in the field. V— 2 
was countered only by capture of the launching sites. 

The Secretaries of War and Navy recently stated in a joint letter to the 
National Academy of Sciences: 

This war emphasizes three facts of supreme importance to national security: (1) 
Powerful new tactics of defense and offense are developed around new weapons created 
by scientific and engineering research; (2) the competitive time element in developing 
those weapons and tactics may be decisive; (3) war is increasingly total war, in which 
the armed services must be supplemented by active participation of every element of 
civilian population. 

To insure continued preparedness along farsighted technical lines, the research scien- 
tists of the country must be called upon to continue in peacetime some substantial 
portion of those types of contribution to national security which they have made so 
effectively during the stress of the present war * * *. 

There must be more — and more adequate — military research during peace- 
time. We cannot again rely on our allies to hold off the enemy while we 
struggle to catch up. Further, it is clear that only the Government can under- 
take military research; for it must be carried on in secret, much of it has no 
commercial value, and it is expensive. The obligation of Government to 
support research on military problems is inescapable. 

iModern war requires the use of the most advanced scientific techniques. 
Many of the leaders in the development of radar are scientists who before 
the war had been exploring the nucleus of the atom. While there must be 
increased emphasis on science in the future training of officer^s lor both the 
Army and Navy, such men cannot be expected to be specialists in scientific 

17 



research. Therefore, a professional partnership between the officers in the 
Services and civiHan scientists is needed. 

The Armv and Na\v should continue to carry on research and de\'elopment 
on the improvement of current weapons. For manv years the National 
Ad\'isory Committee for Aeronautics has supplemented the work of the Army 
and Navy by conducting basic research on the problems of flight. There 
should now be permanent ci\'ilian acti\'ity to supplement the research work 
of the Services in other scientific fields so as to carry on in time of peace 
some part of the actixities of the emergency wartime Office of Scientific 
Research and De\'elopment. 

Military preparedness reciiiires a pernianeiit independent, civilian-contyoUed 
organization, having close liaison with the Army and Navy, but with funds 
directly jrovi Congress and with the clear power to initiate military research 
which will supplement and strengthen that carried on directly under the 
control of the Army and Navy. 

I 
Science and Jobs 

One of our hopes is that after the v\'ar there will be full employment, and 
that the production of goods and ser\'ices will ser\'e to raise our standard of 
living. We do not know yet how we shall reach that goal, but it is certain 
that it can be achieved only by releasing the full creati\'e and productive 
energies of the American people. 

Surely we will not get there by standing still, merely by making the same 
things we made before and selling them at the same or higher prices. We 
will not get ahead in international trade unless we offer new and more 
attractive and cheaper products. 

Where will these new products come from? How will we find ways to 
make better products at lower cost? The answer is clear. There must be a 
stream of new scientific knowledge to turn the wheels of pri\'ate and public 
enterprise. There must be plenty of men and women trained in science and 
technology for upon them depend both the creation of new knowledge and 
its application to practical purposes. 

More and better scientific research is essential to the achievement of our 
goal of full employment. 



The Importance of Basic Research 

Basic research is performed without thought of practical ends. It results 
in general knowledge and an understanding of nature and its laws. This 
general knowledge provides the means of answering a large number of im- 
portant practical problems, though it ma\' not give a complete specific answer 
to any one of them. The function of applied research is to provide such 
complete answers. The scientist doing basic research may not be at all inter- 
ested in the practical applications of his work, yet the further progress of 
industrial development would e\entually stagnate if basic scientific research 
were long neolccted. 

One of the peculiarities of basic science is the variety of paths which lead 

18 



to productive advance. Many of the most important discoveries have come as 
a result of experiments undertaken with xerv different purposes in mind. 
Statistically it is certain that important and highly useful discoxeries will result 
from some fraction of the undertakings in hasic science; hut the results of 
any one particular in\ estimation cannot be predicted with accuracy. 

Basic research leads to new knowledge. It provides scientific capital. 
It creates the iund Irom which the practical applications of knowledge must 
be draw n. New products and new processes do not appear full-grown. They 
are founded on new principles and new conceptions, which in turn are 
painstakingK' dex'cloped by research in the purest realms of science. 

Toda\', it is truer than e\er that basic research is the pacemaker of tech- 
nological progress. In the nineteenth century, Yankee mechanical ingenuity, 
building largely upon the basic discoveries of European scientists, could 
greath' advance the technical arts. Now the situation is different. 

A uatiou which depends upon others for its new basic scientific knowledge 
will he slow in its industrial progress and weak in its competitive position 
in world trade, regardless of its mechanical skill. 

Centers of Basic Research 

Publicly and pri\'ately supported colleges and universities and the endowed 
research institutes must furnish both the new scientific knowledge and the 
trained research workers. These institutions are uniquely qualified by tradi- 
tion and h\ their special characteristics to carry on basic research. They are 
charged with the responsibility of conser\'ing the knowledge accumulated 
by the past, imparting that knowledge to students, and contributing new 
knowledge of all kinds. It is chiefly in these institutions that scientists may 
work in an atmosphere which is relatively free from the adverse pressure of 
con\'ention, prejudice, or commercial necessity. At their best they provide 
the scientific worker with a strong sense of solidarity and security, as well as 
a substantial degree of personal intellectual freedom. All of these factors are 
of great importance in the development of new knowledge, since much of 
new knowledge is certain to arouse opposition because of its tendency to 
challenge current beliefs or practice. 

Industry is generally inhibited by preconceived goals, by its own clearly 
defined standards, and by the constant pressure of commercial necessity. Satis- 
factory progress in basic science seldom occurs under conditions prevailing in 
the normal industrial laboratory. There are some notable exceptions, it is true, 
but even in such cases it is rarely possible to match the universities in respect 
to the freedom which is so important to scientific discovery. 

To serve effecti\'ely as the centers of basic research these institutions must 
be strong and healthy. They must attract our best scientists as teachers and 
investigators. They must offer research opportunities and sufficient compen- 
sation to enable them to compete with industry and government for the cream 
of scientific talent. 

During the past 25 years there has been a great increase in industrial 
research involving the application of scientific knowledge to a multitude of 
practical purposes — thus pro\'iding new products, new industries, new invest-- 
ment opportunities, and millions of jobs. During the same period research 

19 



within Government — again largely applied research — has also been greatly 
expanded. In the decade from 1930 to 1940 expenditures for industrial 
research increased from $116,000,000 to $240,000,000 and those for scientific 
research in Government rose from $24,000,000 to $69,000,000. During the 
same period expenditures for scientific research in the colleges and univer- 
sities increased from $20,000,000 to $31,000,000, while those in the endowed 
research institutes declined from $5,200,000 to $4,500,000. These are the 
best estimates available. The figures have been taken from a variety of 
sources and arbitrary definitions have necessarily been applied, but it is 
believed that they may be accepted as indicating the following trends: 

(a) Expenditures for scientific research by industry and Government — 
almost entirely applied research — have more than doubled between 
1930 and 1940. Whereas in 1930 they were six times as large as the 
research expenditures of the colleges, universities, and research insti- 
tutes, by 1940 they were nearly ten times as large. 

(b) While expenditures for scientific research in the colleges and univer- 
sities increased by ope-half during this period, those for the endowed 
research institutes have slowly declined. 

// the colleges, universities, and research institutes are to vieet the rapidly 
increasing demands of industry and Government for new scientific knowledge, 
their basic research shoidd he strengthened l^y ^^se of fiihlic funds. 



Research Within the Government 

Although there are some notable exceptions, most research conducted 
within governmental laboratories is of an applied nature. This has always 
been true and is likely to remain so. Hence Government, like industry, is 
dependent upon the colleges, universities, and research institutes to expand 
the basic scientific frontiers and to furnish trained scientific investigators. 

Research within the Government represents an important part of our total 
research activity and needs to be strengthened and expanded after the war. 
Such expansion should be directed to fields of inquiry and service which are 
of public importance and are not adequately carried on by private organi- 
zations. 

The most important single factor in scientific and technical work is the 
quality of personnel employed. The procedures currently followed within 
the Government for recruiting, classifying and compensating such personnel 
place the Government under a severe handicap in competing with industry 
and the universities for first-class scientific talent. Steps should be taken to 
reduce that handicap. 

In the Government the arrangement whereby the numerous scientific 
agencies form parts of large departments has both advantages and disadvan- 
tages. But the present pattern is firmly established and there is much to be 
said for it. There is, however, a very real need for some measure of coordin- 
ation of the common scientific activities of these agencies, both as to policies 
and budgets, and at present no such means exist. 

A permanent Science Advisory Board shoidd he created to consult with 

20 



these scientific bureaus and to advise the executive and legislative branches 
of Government as to the policies and budgets of Government agencies 
engaged in scientific research. 

This board should be composed of disinterested scientists who have no 
connection with the affairs of any Government agency. 



Industrial Research 

The simplest and most effective way in which the Government can 
strengthen industrial research is to support basic research and to develop 
scientific talent. 

The benefits of basic research do not reach all industries equally or at 
the same speed. Some small enterprises never receive any of the benefits. 
It has been suggested that the benefits might be better utilized if "research 
clinics" for such enterprises were to be established. Businessmen would thus 
be able to make more use of research than they now do. This proposal is 
certainly worthy of further study. 

One of the most important factors affecting the amount of industrial 
research is the income-tax law. Government action in respect to this subject 
will affect the rate of technical progress in industry. Uncertainties as to the 
attitude of the Bureau of Internal Revenue regarding the deduction of 
research and development expenses are a deterrent to research expenditure. 
These uncertainties arise from lack of clarity of the tax law as to the proper 
treatment of such costs. 

The Internal Revenue Code shoidd be amended to remove present uncer- 
tainties in regard to the deductibility of research and development expendi- 
tures as current charges against net income. 

Research is also affected bv the patent laws. They stimulate new invention 
and they make it possible for new industries to be built around new devices 
or new processes. These industries generate new jobs and new products, all 
of which contribute to the welfare and the strength of the country. 

Yet, uncertainties in the operation of the patent laws have impaired the 
ability of small industries to translate new ideas into processes and products 
of value to the Nation. These uncertainties are, in part, attributable to the 
difficulties and expense incident to the operation of the patent svstem as it 
presently exists. These uncertainties are also attributable to the existence of 
certain abuses which have appeared in the use of patents. The abuses should 
be corrected. They have led to extravagantly critical attacks which tend to 
discredit a basicallv sound svstem. 

It is important that the patent svstem continue to serve the countrv in the 
manner intended by the Gonstitution, for it has been a vital element in the 
industrial vigor which has distinguished this Nation. 

The National Patent Planning Commission has reported on this subject. 
In addition, a detailed studv, with recommendations concerning the extent 
to which modifications should be made in our patent laws is currently being 
made under the leadership of the Secretarv of Commerce. It is recommended, 
therefore, that specific action with regard to the patent laws be withheld 
pending the submission of the report devoted exclusively to that subject. 

21 



International Exchange of Scientific Information 

International exchange of scientific information is of growing importance. 
Increasing specialization of science will make it more important than ever 
that scientists in this country keep continually abreast of developments abroad. 
In addition, a flow of scientific information constitutes one facet of general 
international accord which should be cultivated. 

The Government can accomplish significant results in several ways: by 
aiding in the arrangement of international science congresses, in the official 
accrediting of American scientists to such gatherings, in the official reception 
of foreign scientists of standing in this country, in making possible a rapid 
flow of technical information, including translation service, and possibly in 
the provision of international fellowships. Private foundations and other 
groups partially fulfill some of these functions at present, but their scope is 
incomplete and inadequate. 

The Government should take an active role in promoting the international 
flow of scientific information. 

The Special ISeed for Federal Support 

We can no longer count on ravaged Europe as a source of fundamental 
knowledge. In the past we have devoted much of our best eff^orts to the 
application of such knowledge which has been discovered abroad. In the 
future we must pay increased attention to discovering this knowledge for 
ourselves particularly since the scientific applications of the future will be 
more than ever dependent upon such basic knowledge. 

New impetus must be given to research in our country. Such new impetus 
can come promptly only from the Government. Expenditures for research 
in the colleges, universities, and research institutes will otherwise not be 
able to meet the additional demands of increased public need for research. 

Further, we cannot expect industry adequately to fill the gap. Industry 
will fully rise to the challenge of applying new knowledge to new products. 
The commercial incentive can be relied upon for that. But basic research is 
essentially noncommercial in nature. It will not receive the attention it 
requires if left to industry. 

For many years the Government has wisely supported research in the 
agricultural colleges and the benefits have been great. The time has come 
when such support should be extended to other fields. 

In providing Government support, however, we must endeavor to preserve 
as far as possible the private support of research both in industry and in 
the colleges, universities, and research institutes. These private sources should 
continue to carry their share of the financial burden. 

The Cost of a Program 

It is estimated that an adequate program for Federal support of basic 
research in the colleges, universities, and research institutes and for financing 
important applied research in the public interest, will cost about 10 million 
dollars at the outset and may rise to about 50 million dollars annually when 
fully underway at the end of perhaps 5 years. 

22 



Part Four 



RENEWAL OF OUR SCIENTIFIC 

TALENT 



Nature of the Problem 

The responsibility for the creation of new scientific knowledge rests on 

that small body of men and women who understand the fundamental laws 

of nature and are skilled in the techniques of scientific research. While there 

will always be the rare individual who will rise to the top without benefit 

of formal education and training, he is the exception and even he might 

make a more notable contribution if he had the benefit of the best education 

we have to offer. I cannot improve on President Conant's statement that: 

"* * * in every section of the entire area where the word science may properly 
be applied, the limiting factor is a human one. We shall have rapid or slow advance in 
this direction or in that depending on the number of really first-class men Vv'ho are 
engaged in the work in question. * * * So in the last analysis, the future of 
science in this country will be determined by our basic educational policy." 



A Note of Warning 

It would be follv to set up a program under which research in the natural 
sciences and medicine was expanded at the cost of the social sciences, 
humanities, and other studies so essential to national well-being. This point 
has been well stated by the Moe Committee as follows: 

"As citizens, as good citizens, we therefore think that we must have in mind while 
examining the question before us — the discovery and development of scientific talent — 
the needs of the whole national welfare. We could not suggest to you a program which 
would syphon into science and technology a disproportionately large share of the Nation's 
highest abilities, without doing harm to the Nation, nor, indeed, without crippling 
science. * * * Science cannot live by and unto itself alone." 

"The uses to which high ability in youth can be put are various and, to a large 
extent, are determined by social pressures and rewards. When aided by selective devices 
for picking out scientifically talented youth, it is clear that large sums of money for 
scholarships and fellowships and monetary and other rewards in disproportionate amounts 
might draw into science too large a percentage of the Nation's high ability, with a result 
highly detrimental to the Nation and to science. Plans for the discovery and development 
of scientific talent must be related to the other needs of society for high ability * * *. 
There is never enough ability at high levels to satisfy all the needs of the Nation; we 
would not seek to draw into science any more of it than science's proportionate share." 

23 



The W artime Deficit 

Among the voung men and women qualified to take up scientific work, 
since 1940 there have been few students o\'er 18, except some in medicine 
and engineering in Armv and Navy programs and a few 4-F's, who ha\'e 
followed an integrated scientific course of studies. Neither our allies nor, 
so far as we know, our enemies have done anything so radical as thus to 
suspend almost completelv their educational activities in scientific pursuits 
during the war period. 

Two great principles have guided us in this country as we have turned 
our full efforts to war. First, the sound democratic principle that there 
should be no favored classes or special pri\'ilege in a time of peril, that all 
should be readv to sacrifice equallv; second, the tenet that every man should 
serve in the capacity in which his talents and experience can best be applied 
for the prosecution of the war effort. In general we have held these principles 
well in balance. 

In my opinion, however, we ha\'e drawn too heavily for nonscientific pur- 
poses upon the great natural resource which resides in our trained young 
scientists and engineers. For the general good of the countrv too manv such 
men have gone into uniform, and their talents have not always been fully 
utilized. With the exception of those men engaged in war research, all 
physically fit students at graduate level ha\'e been taken into the armed 
forces. Those readv for college training in the sciences have not been per- 
mitted to enter upon that training. 

There is thus an accumulating deficit of trained research personnel which 
will continue for many years. The deficit of science and technology students 
who, but for the war, would have recei\'ed bachelor's degrees is about 150,000. 
The deficit of those holding advanced degrees — that is, voung scholars trained 
to the point where thev are capable of carrving on original work — has been 
estimated as amounting to about 17,000 bv 1955 in chemistrv, engineering, 
geologv, mathematics, phvsics, psvchologv, and the biological sciences. 

With vioitntir2g demands for scientists both for teaching and for research, 
we will enter the postwar period with a serious deficit in our trained 
scientific personnel. 



Improve the Quality 

Confronted with these deficits, we are compelled to look to the use of our 
basic human resources and formulate a program which will assure their 
conservation and effectixe development. The committee advising me on 
scientific personnel has stated the following principle which should guide 
our planning: 

"If we were all-knowing and all-wise we might, but we think probably not, write you 
a plan whereby there might be selected for training, which they otherwise would not 
get, those who, 20 vears hence, would be scientific leaders, and we might not bother 
about any lesser manifestations of scientific ability. But in the present state of knowledge 
a plan cannot be made which will select, and assist, only those young men and women 
who will gi\'e the top future leadership to science. To get top leadership there must be 
a relatively large base of high ability selected for development and then successive skim- 
mings of the cream of ability at successive times and at higher levels. No one can select 

24 



from the bottom those who will be the leaders at the top because unmeasured and 
unknown factors enter into scientific, or any, leadershij). There are brains and character, 
strength and health, happiness and spiritual vitality, interest and motivation, and no one 
knows what else, that must needs enter into this supra-mathematical calculus. 

"We think we probablv would not, even if we were all-wise and all-knowing, write 
you a plan whereby you would be assured of scientific leadership at one stroke. We 
think as we think because we are not interested in setting up an elect. We think it 
much the best plan, in this constitutional Republic, that opportunity be held out to all 
kinds and conditions of men whereby they can better themselves. This is the American 
way; this is the way the United States has become what it is. We think it very important 
that circumstances be such that there be no ceilings, other than ability itself, to intel- 
lectual ambition. We think it very important that everv boy and girl shall know that, if 
he shows that he has what it takes, the sky is the limit. Even if it be shown subsequently 
that he has not what it takes to go to the top, he will go farther than he would otherwise 
go if there had been a ceiling bevond v\'hich he alwavs knew he could not aspire. 

"By proceeding from point to point and taking stock on the way, by giving further 
opportunity to those who show themsekes worthy of further opportunity, by giving the 
most opportunity to those who show themselves continually developing — this is the way 
v^'e propose. This is the American way: a man works for what he gets." 



Remove the Barriers 

Higher education in this country is largely for those who have the means. 
If those who have the means coincided entirely with those persons who have 
the talent we should not be squandering a part of our higher education on 
those undeserving of it, nor neglecting great talent among those who fail 
to attend college for economic reasons. There are talented individuals in 
everv segment of the population, but with few exceptions those without the 
means of buying higher education go without it. Here is a tremendous waste 
of the greatest resource of a nation — the intelligence of its citizens. 

If ability, and not the circumstance of family fortune, is made to determine 
who shall receive higher education in science, then we shall he assured of 
constantly improving qjiality at every level of scientific activity. 



The Generation in Uniform Must !Sot Be Lost 

We have a serious deficit in scientific personnel partly because the men 
who would have studied science in the colleges and universities have been 
serving in the Armed Forces. Many had begun their studies before they went 
to war. Others with capacitv for scientific education went to war after 
finishing high school. The most immediate prospect of making up some of 
the deficit in scientific personnel is by salvaging scientific talent from the 
generation in uniform. For even if we should start now to train the current 
crop of high school graduates, it would be 1951 before thev would complete 
graduate studies and be prepared for effective scientific research. This fact 
underlines the necessity of salvaging potential scientists in uniform. 

The Armed Services shoidd comb their records for vien who, prior to or 
during the war, have given evidence of talent for science, and make prompt 
arrangements, consistent with current discharge plans, for ordering those 
who remain in iiniforui as soon as militarily possible to duty at institutions 

25 



here and overseas where the\ can continue their scientific education. More- 
over, they should see that those who study overseas have the benefit of the 
latest scientific developments. 



A Program 

The countr\' ma\' be proud of the fact that 95 percent of bovs and girls 
of fifth grade age are enrolled in school, but the drop in enrollment after 
the fifth grade is less satisfying. For e\'erv 1,000 students in the fifth grade, 
600 are lost to education before the end of high school, and all but 72 have 
ceased formal education before completion of college. While we are con- 
cerned primarily with methods of selecting and educating high school grad- 
uates at the college and higher le\'els, we cannot be complacent about the 
loss of potential talent which is inherent in the present situation. 

Students drop out of school, college, and graduate school, or do not get 
that far, for a variety of reasons: they cannot aflford to go on; schools and 
colleges prox'iding courses equal to their capacity are not available locally; 
business and industry recruit many of the most promising before they have 
finished the training of which they are capable. These reasons apply with 
particular force to science: the road is long and expensix'C; it extends at least 
6 years beyond high school; the percentage of science students who can obtain 
first-rate training in institutions near home is small. 

Improvement in the teaching of science is imperative, for students of latent 
scientific abilitx' are particularly xulnerable to high school teaching which 
fails to awaken interest or to provide adequate instruction. To enlarge the 
group of specially qualified men and women it is necessary to increase the 
number who go to college. This involves improved high school instruction, 
provision for helping indi\'idual talented students to finish high school 
(primarily the responsibility of the local communities), and opportunities 
for more capable, promising high school students to go to college. Anything 
short of this means serious waste of higher education and neglect of human 
resources. 

To encoiirage and enable a larger number of young tnen and women of 
ability to take wp science as a career, and in order gradually to reduce the 
defcit of trained scientifc personnel, it is recommended that provision be 
made for a reasonable number of ia) undergraduate scholarships and gradu- 
ate fellowships and (b) fellowships for advanced training and fundamental 
research. The details shoidd be worked out with reference to the interests 
of the several States and of the universities and colleges; and care shotdd 
be taken not to impair the freedom of the institutions and individuals 
concerned. 

The program proposed by the Moe Committee in Appendix 4 would pro- 
vide 24,000 undergraduate scholarships and 900 graduate fellowships and 
would cost about $30,000,000 annually when in full operation. Each year 
under this program 6,000 undergraduate scholarships would be made avail- 
able to high school graduates, and 300 graduate fellowships would be offered 
to college graduates. Approximately the scale of allowances provided for 

26 



under the educational |)ro!4iain \ov returning veterans has heen used in 
estimating the cost ot this program. 

The plan is, further, that all those who recei\'e such scholarships or fellow- 
ships in science should be enrolled in a National Science Reserve and be 
liable to call into the ser\'ice of the Government, in connection with scientific 
or technical work in time ol war or other national emergency declared by 
Congress or proclaimed b\ the President. Thus, in addition to the general 
benefits to the Nation by reason of the addition to its trained ranks of such 
a corps of scientific workers, there would be a definite benefit to the Nation 
in ha\ing these scientific workers on call in national emergencies. The 
Government would be well advised to invest the money involved in this 
plan e\en if the benefits to the Nation were thought of solely — which they 
are not — in terms of national preparedness. 



27 



Part Five 



A PROBLEM OF SCIENTIFIC 
RECONVERSION 



Effects of Mobilization of Science for War 

We have been living on our fat. For more than 5 years many of our 
scientists have been fighting the w^ar in the laboratories, in the factories and 
shops, and at the front. We have been directing the energies of our scientists 
to the development of weapons and materials and methods on a large number 
of relatively narrow projects initiated and controlled by the Office of Scientific 
Research and Development and other Government agencies. Like troops, 
the scientists have been mobilized and thrown into action to serv^e their 
country in time of emergency. But thev have been diverted to a greater extend 
than is generally appreciated from the search for answers to the funda- 
mental problems — from the search on which human welfare and progress 
depends. This is not a complaint — it is a fact. The mobilization of science 
behind the lines is aiding the fighting men at the front to win the war and 
to shorten it; and it has resulted incidentally in the accumulation of a vast 
amount of experience and knowledge of the application of science to par- 
ticular problems, much of which can be put to use when the war is over. 
Fortunately, this country had the scientists — and the time — to make this 
contribution and thus to advance the date of victory. 



Security Restrictions Shotild be Lifted Promptly 

Much of the information and experience acquired during the war is 
confined to the agencies that gathered it. Except to the extent that military 
security dictates otherwise, such knowledge should be spread upon the record 
for the benefit of the general public. 

Thanks to the wise provision of the Secretary of War and the Secretary 
of the Navy, most of the results of wartime medical research have been 
published. Sc\'eral hundred articles have appeared in the professional jour- 
nals; many are in process of publication. The material still subject to security 
classification should be released as soon as possible. 

It is my view that most of the remainder of the classified scientific material 
should be released as soon as there is ground for belief that the enemy will 
not be able to turn it against us in this war. Most of the information needed 
by industry and in education can be released without disclosing its embodi- 

28 



ments in actual militarv material and devices. Basically there is no reason 
to believe that scientists of other countries will not in time rediscover every- 
thing we now know which is held in secrecy. A broad dissemination of 
scientific information upon which further advances can readily be made 
furnishes a sounder foundation lor our national security than a policy of 
restriction which would impede our own progress although imposed in the 
hope that possible enemies would not catch up with us. 

During the war it has been necessary for selected groups of scientists to 
work on specialized problems, with relatively little information as to what 
other groups were doing and had done. Working against time, the Office 
of Scientific Research and Development has been obliged to enforce this 
practice during the war, although it was realized by all concerned that it 
was an emergency measure which prevented the continuous cross-fertilization 
so essential to fruitful scientific effort. 

Our ability to overcovie jwssihle future enemies defends upon scientific 
advances which will proceed more rapidly with diffusion of knowledge than 
under a policy of continued restriction of knowledge now in our possession. 



Need for Coordination 

In planning the release of scientific data and experience collected in 
connection with the war, we must not overlook the fact that research has 
gone forward under many auspices — the Army, the Navy, the Office of 
Scientific Research and Development, the National Advisory Committee for 
Aeronautics, other departments and agencies of the Government, educational 
institutions, and many industrial organizations. There ha\'e been numerous 
cases of independent discovery of the same truth in different places. To 
permit the release of information by one agency and to continue to restrict 
it elsewhere would be unfair in its effect and would tend to impair the 
morale and efficiency of scientists who have submerged individual interests 
in the controls and restrictions of war. 

A part of the information now classified which should be released is 
possessed jointly by our allies and ourselves. Plans for release of such 
information should be coordinated with our allies to minimize danger of 
international friction which would result from sporadic uncontrolled release. 



A Board to Control Release 

The agency responsible for recommending the release of information from 
military classification should be an Army, Navy, civilian body, well grounded 
in science and technology. It should be competent to advise the Secretary 
of War and the Secretary of the Navy. It should, moreover, have sufficient 
recognition to secure prompt and practical decisions. 

To satisfy these considerations I recommend the estahlishmcnt of a 
Board, made up equally of scientists and military men, whose function would 
he to pass upon the declassification and to control the release for puhlication 
of scientific inforviation which is now classified. 

29 



Publication Should Be Encouraged 

The release of information from security regulations is but one phase of 
the problem. The other is to provide for preparation of the material and its 
publication in a form and at a price which will facilitate dissemination and 
use. In the case of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, 
arrangements have been made for the preparation of manuscripts, while the 
staffs under our control are still assembled and in possession of the records, as 
soon as the pressure for production of results for this war has begun to relax. 

We should get this scientific material to scientists everywhere with great 
promptness, and at as low a price as is consistent with suitable format. We 
should also get it to the men studving overseas so that they will know what 
has happened in their absence. 

It is recommended that measures which will encourage and facilitate the 
■preparation and fmhlication of reports he adopted forthwith hy all agencies, 
governmental and private, possessing scientific information released from 
security control. 



30 



Part Six 



THE MEANS TO THE END 



New Responsibilities for Government 

One lesson is clear from the reports of the several committees attached as 
appendices. The Federal Go\'ernment should accept new responsibilities for 
promoting the creation of new scientific knowledge and the development of 
scientific talent in our vouth. 

The extent and nature of these new responsibilities are set forth in detail 
in the reports of the committees whose recommendations in this regard are 
fullv endorsed. 

In discharging these responsibilities Federal funds should be made avail- 
able. We ha\'e given much thought to the question of how plans for the 
use of Federal funds mav be arranged so that such funds will not drive out 
of the picture funds from local governments, foundations, and private donors. 
We believe that our proposals will minimize that effect, but we do not think 
that it can be completely avoided. We submit, however, that the Nation's 
need for more and better scientific research is such that the risk must be 
accepted. 

It is also clear that the effective discharge of these responsibilities will 
require the full attention of some over-all agency devoted to that purpose. 
There should be a focal point within the Government for a concerted pro- 
gram of assisting scientific research conducted outside of Government. Such 
an agencv should furnish the funds needed to support basic research in the 
colleges and universities, should coordinate where possible research programs 
on matters of utmost importance to the national welfare, should formulate a 
national policv for the Government toward science, should sponsor the inter- 
change of scientific information among scientists and laboratories both in 
this country and abroad, and should ensure that the incentives to research in 
industry and the universities are maintained. All of the committees advising 
on these matters agree on the necessitv for such an agency. 



The Mechanism 

There are within Government departments many groups whose interests 
are primarilv those of scientific research. Notable examples are found within 
the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, and the Federal Secu- 
ritv Agencv. These groups are concerned with science as collateral and 

31 



peripheral to the major problems of those Departments. These groups should 
remain where they are, and continue to perform their present functions, 
including the support of agricultural research by grants to the land grant 
colleges and experimental stations, since then- largest contribution lies in 
apph'ing fundamental knowledge to the special problems of the Departments 
within which thc\ are established. 

By the same token these groups cannot be made the repository of the new 
and large responsibilities in science which belong to the Government and 
which the Government should accept. The recommendations in this report 
which relate to research within the Go\'ernment, to the release of scientific 
information, to clarification of the tax laws, and to the recovery and develop- 
ment of our scientific talent now in uniform can be implemented by action 
within the existing structure of the Government. But nowhere in the gov- 
ernmental structure recei\'ing its funds from Congress is there an agency 
adapted to supplementing the support of basic research in the universities, 
both in medicine and the natural sciences; adapted to supporting research 
on new weapons for both Services; or adapted to administering a program of 
science scholarships and fellowships. 

A new agenc\' should be established, therefore, bv the Congress for the 
purpose. Such an agencv, moreover, should be an independent agency 
dex'oted to the support of scientific research and advanced scientific education 
alone. Industr\' learned manv vears ago that basic research cannot often be 
fruitfulK' conducted as an adjunct to or a subdixision of an operating agency 
or department. Operating agencies ha\e immediate operating goals and are 
under constant pressure to produce in a tangible wav, for that is the test of 
their value. None of these conditions is favorable to basic research. Research 
is the exploration of the unknown and is necessarily speculati\e. It is in- 
hibited bv con\'entional approaches, traditions, and standards. It cannot 
be satisfactorily conducted in an atmosphere where it is gauged and tested 
by operating or production standards. Basic scientific research should not, 
therefore, be placed under an operating agency whose paramount concern 
is anything other than research. Research will always suffer when put in 
competition with operations. The decision that there should be a new and 
independent agencx' was reached bv each of the committees advising in 
these matters. 

I am con\ inced that these new functions should be centered in one agency. 
Science is fundamcntalK a unitary thing. The number of independent 
agencies should be kept to a minimum. Much medical progress, for example, 
will come from fundamental ad\'ances in chemistrw Separation of the sci- 
ences in tight comjiartments, as would occur if more than one agency were 
involved, would retard and not ad\'ance scientific knowledge as a whole. 



Five Fiindanieiilnls 

There are certain basic principles which must underlie the program of 
Government supjiort for scientific research and education if such support is 
to be effecti\c and if it is to a\()id impairing the \'erv things we seek to 
foster. These principles are as follows: 

32 



(1) Whatever the extent of support may be, there must be stability of 
funds over a period of years so that long-range programs may be undertaken. 

(2) The agencv to administer such funds should be composed of citizens 
selected only on the basis of their interest in and capacity to promote the 
work of the agency. They should be persons of broad interest in and under- 
standing of the peculiarities of scientific research and education. 

(3) The agency should promote research through contracts or grants to 
organizations outside the Federal Government. It should not operate any 
laboratories of its own. 

(4) Support of basic research in the public and private colleges, uni- 
versities, and research institutes must leave the internal control of policy, 
personnel, and the method and scope of the research to the institutions 
themselves. This is of the utmost importance. 

(5) While assuring complete independence and freedom for the nature, 
scope, and methodology of research carried on in the institutions receiving 
public funds, and while retaining discretion in the allocation of funds among 
such institutions, the Foundation proposed herein must be responsible to the 
President and the Congress. Only through such responsibility can we main- 
tain the proper relationship between science and other aspects of a democratic 
system. The usual controls of audits, reports, budgeting, and the like, should, 
of course, apply to the administrative and fiscal operations of the Foundation, 
subject, however, to such adjustments in procedure as are necessary to meet 
the special requirements of research. 

Basic research is a long-term process — it ceases to be basic if immediate 
results are expected on short-term support. Methods should therefore be 
found which will permit the agency to make commitments of funds from 
current appropriations for programs of five years duration or longer. Conti- 
nuity and stability of the program and its support may be expected (a) from 
the growing realization by the Congress of the benefits to the public from 
scientific research, and (1?) from the conviction which will grow among 
those who conduct research under the auspices of the agency that good 
quality work will be followed by continuing support. 



Military Research 

As stated earlier in this report, military preparedness requires a permanent, 
independent, civilian-controlled organization, having close Haison with the 
Army and Navy, but with funds direct from Congress and the clear power 
to initiate military research which will supplement and strengthen that 
carried on directly under the control of the Army and Navy. As a temporary 
measure the National Academy of Sciences has established the Research 
Board for National Security at the request of the Secretary of War and the 
Secretarv of the Navy. This is highly desirable in order that there may be 
no interruption in the relations between scientists and military men after 
the emergencv wartime Office of Scientific Research and Development goes 
out of existence. The C'ongress is now considering legislation to provide 
funds for this Board by direct appropriation. 

33 



I belie^•e that, as a permanent measure, it would be appropriate to add to 
the agenc\- needed to perform the other functions recommended in this 
report the responsibihties for civihan-initiated and civihan-controllcd mihtary 
research. The function of such a ci\iHan group would be primarily to con- 
duct long-range scientific research on military problems — leaving to the 
Services research on the improvement of existing weapons. 

Some research on military problems should be conducted, in time of peace 
as well as in war, b\ ci\ilians independently of the military establishment. 
It is the primary responsibility of the /\rm\- and Na\'y to train the men, make 
available the weapons, and employ the strategy that will bring victor)^ in 
combat. The Armed Ser\'ices cannot be expected to be experts in all of the 
complicated fields which make it possible for a great nation to fight success- 
fully in total war. There are certain kinds of research — such as research on 
the improvement of existing weapons — which can best be done within the 
military establishment. Howexer, the job of long-range research involving 
application of the newest scientific disco\'eries to military needs should be 
the responsibilitx' of those cix'ilian scientists in the universities and in indus- 
try who are best trained to discharge it thoroughly and successfully. It is 
essential that both kinds of research go forward and that there be the closest 
liaison between the two groups. 

Placing the civilian military research function in the proposed agency 
would bring it into close relationship with a broad program of basic research 
in both the natural sciences and medicine. A balance between military' and 
other research could thus readily be maintained. 

The establishment of the new agency, including a civilian military re- 
search group, should not be delayed by the existence of the Research Board 
for National Security, which is a temporary measure. Nor should the creation 
of the new agency be delayed by uncertainties in regard to the postwar 
organization of our militar\' departments themselves. Clearly, the new 
agency, includinp a civilian military research group within it, can remain 
sufficiently flexible to adapt its operations to whatever may be the hnal 
organization of the military departments. 



National Research Foundation 

It is m\' judgment that the national interest in scientific research and 
scientific education can best be promoted by the creation of a National 
Research Foundation. 

I. Purposes 

The National Research Foundation should develop and promote a national 
policy for scientific research and scientific education, should support basic 
research in nonprofit organizations, should develop scientific talent in Amer- 
ican youth by means of scholarships and fellowships, and should by contract 
and otherwise support long-range research on military matters. 

II. Members 

1. Responsibility to the people, through the President and Congress, should 
be placed in the hands of, say nine Members, who should be persons not 

34 



otherwise eonneeted with the Government and not representative of any 
special interest, who shoidd be known as National Research Foundation 
Members, selected b\ the President on the basis of their interest in and 
capacitv to promote the purposes of the Foundation. 

2. The terms of the Members should be, say, 4 vears, and no Member 
should be eligible for immediate reappointment prox'ided he has served a 
full 4-vear term. It should be arranged that the Members first appointed 
ser\'e terms of such length that at least two Members are appointed each 
succeeding year. 

3. The Members should serve without compensation but should be en- 
titled to their expenses incurred in the performance of their duties. 

4. The Members should elect their own chairman annually. 

5. The chief executive oflicer of the Foundation should be a director 
appointed by the Members. Subject to the direction and supervision of the 
Foundation Members (acting as a board), the director should discharge all 
the fiscal, legal, and administrative functions of the Foundation. The direc- 
tor should receive a salary that is fully adequate to attract an outstanding 
man to the post. 

6. There should be an administrative office responsible to the director to 
handle in one place the fiscal, legal, personnel, and other similar admin- 
istrative functions necessary to the accomplishment of the purposes of the 
Foundation. 

7. With the exception of the director, the division members, and one 
executive ofiicer appointed by the director to administer the affairs of each 
division, all employees of the Foundation should be appointed under Civil 
Service rcpulations. 



"is" 



III. Ormnization 

1. In order to accomplish the purposes of the Foundation, the Members 
should establish several professional Divisions to be responsible to the Mem- 
bers. At the outset these Divisions should be: 

a. Division of Medical Research. — The function of this Division should 

be to support medical research. 
h. Division of Natural Sciences. — The function of this Division should 

be to support research in the physical and natural sciences. 

c. Division of National Defense. — It should be the function of this Divi- 
sion to support long-range scientific research on military matters. 

d. Division of Scientific Personnel and Education. — It should be the func- 
tion of this Division to support and to supervise the grant of scholar- 
ships and fellowships in science. 

e. Division of Pid?lications and Scientific Collaboration. — This Division 
should be charged with encouraging the publication of scientific knowl- 
edge and promoting international exchange of scientific information. 

2. Each Division of the Foundation should be made up of at least five 
members, appointed by the Members of the Foundation. In making such 
appointments the Members should request and consider recommendations 
from the National Academy of Sciences which should be asked to establish 
a new National Research Foundation nominating committee in order to 

35 



bring together the recommendations of scientists in all organizations. The 
chairman of each Division should be appointed by the Members of the 
Foundation. 

3. The Division Members should be appointed for such terms as the 
Members of the Foundation may determine, and may be reappointed at the 
discretion of the Members. They should receive their expenses and com- 
pensation for their services at a per diem rate of, say, $50 while engaged on 
business of the Foundation, but no Division Member should receive more 
than, say, $10,000 compensation per year. 

4. Membership of the Division of National Defense should include, in 
addition to, say, five civilian members, one representative designated by the 
Secretary of War, and one representative of the Secretary of the Navy, who 
should serve without additional compensation for this duty. 



Proposed Organization of National Research Foundation 



NATIONAL RESEARCH 
FOUNDATION 



MEMBERS 



DIRECTOR 



DIVISION OF 
MEDICAL RESEARCH 



MEMBERS 



EXECUTIVE OFFICER 



STAFF OFFICES 

GENERAL COUNSEL 
FINANCE OFFICER 
ADMINISTRATIVE PLANNING 
PERSONNEL 



DIVISION OF 
NATURAL SCIENCES 



MEMBERS 



EXECUTIVE OFFICER 



DIVISION OF SCIENTIFIC 
PERSONNEL & EDUCATION 



MEMBERS 



DIVISION OF 
NATIONAL DEFENSE 



MEMBERS 



EXECUTIVE OFFICER 



DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS 
& SCIENTIFIC COLLABORATION 



MEMBERS 



EXECUTIVE OFFICER 



EXECUTIVE OFFICER 



36 



IV. Functions 

1. The Mevihers of the Foundation should have the following functions, 
powers, and duties: 

a. To formulate over-all policies of the Foundation. 

h. To establish and maintain such offices within the United States, its 
territories and possessions, as they may deem necessary. 

c. To meet and function at any place within the United States, its terri- 
tories and possessions. 

d. To obtain and utilize the services of other Government agencies to the 
extent that such agencies are prepared to render such services. 

e. To adopt, promulgate, amend, and rescind rules and regulations to 
carrv out the provisions of the legislation and the policies and practices 
of the Foundation. 

f. To review and balance the financial requirements of the several Divi- 
sions and to propose to the President the annual estimate for the funds 
required by each Division. Appropriations should be earmarked for 
the purposes of specific Divisions, but the Foundation should be left 
discretion with respect to the expenditure of each Division's funds. 

g. To make contracts or grants for the conduct of research by negotiation 
without advertising for bids. 

And with the advice of the National Research Foundation Divisions 
concerned — 

h. To create such advisory and cooperating agencies and councils, State, 
regional, or national, as in their judgment will aid in effectuating the 
purposes of the legislation, and to pay the expenses thereof. 

i. To enter into contracts with or make grants to educational and non- 
profit research institutions for support of scientific research. 

j. To initiate and finance in appropriate agencies, institutions, or organi- 
zations, research on problems related to the national defense. 

k. To initiate and finance in appropriate organizations research projects 
for which existing facilities are unavailable or inadequate. 

/. To establish scholarships and fellowships in the natural sciences includ- 
ing biology and medicine. 

m. To promote the dissemination of scientific and technical information 
and to further its international exchange. 

n. To support international cooperation in science by providing financial 
aid for international meetings, associations of scientific societies, and 
scientific research programs organized on an international basis. 

o. To devise and promote the use of methods of improving the transition 
between research and its practical application in industi'y. 

2. The Divisions should he responsible to the Members of the Founda- 
tion for — 

a. Formulation of programs and policy within the scope of the particular 

Divisions. 
h. Recommendation regarding the allocation of research programs among 

research organizations. 

37 



c. Recommendation of appropriate arrangements between the Foundation 
and the organizations selected to carry on the program. 

d. Recommendation of arrangements with State and local authorities in 
regard to cooperation in a program of science scholarships and fellow- 
ships. 

e. Periodic review of the quality of research being conducted under the 
auspices of the particular Division and revision of the program of sup- 
port of research. 

/. Presentatidn of budgets of financial needs for the work of the Division. 
g. Maintaining liaison with other scientific research agencies, both gov- 
ernmental and private, concerned with the work of the Division. 

V. Patent Policy 

The success of the National Research Foundation in promoting scientific 
research in this country will depend to a very large degree upon the coop- 
eration of organizations outside the Government. In making contracts with 
or grants to such organizations the Foundation should protect the public 
interest adequately and at the same time leave the cooperating organizations 
with adequate freedom and incentive to conduct scientific research. The 
public interest will normally be adequately protected if the Government 
receives a royaltv-free license for governmental purposes under any patents 
resulting from work financed by the Foundation. There should be no obli- 
gation on the research institution to patent discoveries made as a result of 
support from the Foundation. There should certainly not be anv absolute 
requirement that all rights in such discoveries be assigned to the Government, 
but it should be left to the discretion of the Director and the interested Divi- 
sion whether in special cases the public interest requires such an assignment. 
Legislation on this point should leave to the Members of the Foundation 
discretion as to its patent policv in order that patent arrangements mav be 
adjusted as circumstances and the public interest require. 

VI. Special Authority 

In order to insure that men of great competence and experience may be 
designated as Members of the Foundation and as Members of the several 
professional Divisions, the legislation creating the Foundation should contain 
specific authorization so that the Members of the Foundation and the Mem- 
bers of the Divisions may also engage in private and gainful employment, 
notwithstanding the provisions of anv other laws: provided, however, that 
no compensation for such employment is received in any form from any 
profit-making institution which receives funds under contract, or otherwise, 
from the Division or Divisions of the Foundation with which the individual 
is concerned. In normal times, in view of the restrictive statutory prohibi- 
tions against dual interests on the part of Government officials, it would be 
virtually impossible to persuade persons having private employment of any 
kind to serve the Government in an official capacity. In order, however, to 
secure the part-time services of the most competent men as Members of the 
Foundation and the Divisions, these stringent prohibitions should be relaxed 
to the extent indicated. 

Since research is unlike the procurement of standardized items, which are 

38 



susceptible to competitive bidding on fixed specifications, the legislation 
creating the National Research Foundation should free the Foundation from 
the obligation to place its contracts for research through advertising for bids. 
This is particularK' so since the measure of a successful research contract lies 
not in the dollar cost but in the qualitative and quantitative contribution 
which is made to our knowledge. The extent of this contribution in turn 
depends on the creative spirit and talent which can be brought to bear within 
a research laboratory. The National Research Foundation must, therefore, 
be free to place its research contracts or grants not only with those institu- 
tions which have a demonstrated research capacity but also with other insti- 
tutions whose latent talent or creative atmosphere affords promise of research 
success. 

As in the case of the research sponsored during the war by the Ofhce of 
Scientific Research and Development, the research sponsored by the National 
Research Foundation should be conducted, in general, on an actual cost 
basis without profit to the institution receiving the research contract or grant. 

There is one other matter which requires special mention. Since research 
does not fall within the category of normal commercial or procurement 
operations which are easily covered by the usual contractual relations, it is 
essential that certain statutory and regulatory fiscal requirements be waived 
in the case of research contractors. For example, the National Research 
Foundation should be authorized by legislation to make, modify, or amend 
contracts of all kinds with or without legal consideration, and without per- 
formance bonds. Similarlv, advance payments should be allowed in the 
discretion of the Director of the Foundation when required. Finally, the 
normal vouchering requirements of the General Accounting Office with 
respect to detailed itemization or substantiation of vouchers submitted under 
cost contracts should be relaxed for research contractors. Adherence to the 
usual procedures in the case of research contracts will impair the efficiency 
of research operations and will needlesslv increase the cost of the work to 
the Government. Without the broad authority along these lines which was 
contained in the First War Powers Act and its implementing Executive 
Orders, together with the special relaxation of vouchering requirements 
granted by the General Accounting Office, the Office of Scientific Research 
and Development would have been gravely handicapped in carr)nng on 
research on military matters during this war. Colleges and universities in 
which research will be conducted principally under contract with the 
Foundation are, unlike commercial institutions, not equipped to handle the 
detailed vouchering procedures and auditing technicalities which are re- 
quired of the usual Government contractors. 

VIL Budget 

Studies by the several committees provide a partial basis for making an 
estimate of the order of magnitude of the funds required to implement the 
proposed program. Clearly the program should grow in a healthy manner 
from modest beginnings. The following very rough estimates are given for 
the first year of operation after the Foundation is organized and operating, 
and for the fifth year of operation when it is expected that the operations 
would have reached a fairlv stable level: 

39 



Activity 


Millions of dollars 




First year 


Fifth year 


Division of Medical Research ._ _ _ 


$5.0 
10.0 
10.0 

7.0 
.5 

1.0 


$20.0 


Division of Natural Sciences 

Division of National Defense 


50.0 
20.0 


Division of Scientific Personnel and Education 


29.0 


Division of Publications and Scientific Collaboration 

Administration . . . _ _ _ . 


1.0 
2.5 








33.5 


122.5 



Action by Congress 

The National Research Foundation herein proposed meets the urgent 
need of the davs ahead. The form of the organization suggested is the result 
of considerable deliberation. The form is important. The very successful 
pattern of organization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 
which has promoted basic research on problems of flight during the past 
thirty years, has been carefully considered in proposing the method of 
appointment of iMembers of the Foundation and in defining their respon- 
sibilities. Moreover, whate\'er program is established it is vitally important 
that it satisf\' the Fi\'e Fundamentals. 

The Foundation here proposed has been described only in outline. The 
excellent reports of the committees which studied these matters are attached 
as appendices. They will be of aid in furnishing detailed suggestions. 

Legislation is necessar\-. It should be drafted with great care. Early action 
is imperative, hovyever, if this Nation is to meet the challenge of science and 
fully utilize the potentialities of science. On the wisdom with which we 
bring science to bear against the problems of the coming years depends in 
large measure our future as a Nation. 



40 



APPENDICES 



41 



IN MEMORIAM 

The following members of the 
advisory committees have died 
since the publication of Science, 
the Endless Frontier in 1945: 
Isaiah Bowman 
Walter C. Coffey 
Karl T. Compton 
r. e. doherty 
Clarence A. Dykstra 
Farnham p. Griffiths 
W. S. Hunter 
W. Rupert Maclaurin 
Charles E. MacQuigg 
Cleveland Norcross 
J. Hugh ODonnell 
W. W. Palmer 
J. T. Tate 
Kenneth B. Turner 



42 



Appendix 1 



Committees Consulted 



Question 

"With particular reference to the war of science against disease, what 
can be done now to organize a program for continuing in the future the 
work which has been done in medicine and related sciences?" 

Committee 

Dr. W. W. Palmer, chairman; Bard professor of medicine, Columbia Uni- 
versity; director of medical service of Presb\'terian Hospital, New York 
City.' 

Dr. Homer VV. Smith, secretary; director, physiology laboratory, School of 
Medicine, New York University. 

Dr. Kenneth B. Turner, assistant secretary; assistant professor of medicine, 
Columbia University. 

Dr. VV. B. Castle, professor of medicine, Harvard Unixersitv; associate di- 
rector, Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, Boston City Hospital. 

Dr. Edward A. Doisy, director, department of physiology and biochemistry, 
St. Louis Llniversity School of Medicine (recipient of Nobel Award). 

Dr. Ernest Goodpasture, professor of pathology. School of Medicine, Van- 
derbilt Unix'ersitv. 

Dr. Alton Ochsner, professor of surgery and head of the department of 
surgery at Tulane LIni\'ersity School of Medicine. 

Dr. Linus Pauling, head of the division of chemistry and chemical engineer- 
ing and director of the chemical laboratories at the California Institute of 
Technology. 

Dr. James |. Waring, professor of medicine, Llniversity of Colorado School 
of Medicine. 



43 



Question 

"What can the Government do now and in the future to aid research 
activities bv pubhc and private organizations? The proper roles of public 
and of pri\ate research, and their interrelation, should be carefully 
considered. ' 

Committee 

Dr. Isaiah Bowman, chairman; president of Johns Hopkins University. 

Dr. J. T. Tate, vice chairman; research professor of physics, University of 
Minnesota. 

Dr. W. Rupert Maclaurin, secretarv; professor of economics, Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. 

Dr. 01i\er E. Bucklev, president of the Bell Telephone Laboratories. 

Dr. Weaker C. Coffev, president of the Uni\ersitv of Minnesota. 

Mr. Oscar S. Cox, deputy administrator of the Foreign Economic Admin- 
istration. 

Col. Bradlev Dewev, president of Dewey & Almv Chemical Co. 

Dr. Clarence A. Dvkstra, prox'ost of the Uni\'ersitv of California at Los 
Angeles. 

Dr. C. P. Haskins, director of Haskins Laboratories. 

Dr. Edwin H. Land, president and director of research, Polaroid Corpora- 
tion. 

Dr. Charles E. MacOuigg, dean of the College of Engineering, Ohio State 
Uni\'ersitv. 

Dr. Harold G. Moulton, president of the Brookings Institution. 

Re\'. ]. Hugh O'Donnell, president of the LIni\ersit\' of Notre Dame. 

Dr. I. I. Rabi, professor of phvsics, Columbia Uni\'ersit^' (recipient of Nobel 
Award). 

Dr. Warren Wea\'er, director for natural sciences. Rockefeller Foundation. 

Dr. Robert E. Wilson, chairman of the board, Standard Oil Co. of Indiana. 

Dr. William E. \\^-ather, director, LI. S. Geological Survev. 

Question 

"Can an effective program be proposed for discovering and developing 
scientific talent in American vouth so that the continuing future of scien- 
tific research in this country mav be assured on a le\'el comparable to what 
has been done during the war? ' 

Committee 

Dr. Henr\' Allen Moe, chairman; secretar\'-general of the John Simon Gug- 
genheim Memorial Foundation. 

Mr. Lawrence K. Frank, secretary. 

Mr. Henrv Chauncev, assistant secretarv. 

Dr. Henr\' A. Barton, director of the American Institute of Phvsics. 

Dr. C. Lalor Burdick, special assistant to the president, E. I. du Pont de 
Nemours & Co. 

Co]itinHL>d, next pngf 

44 



Dr. J. B. Conant, president of Harvard University; chairman of the National 

Defense Research Committee. 
Dr. Watson Davis, editor and director of Science Service. 
Dr. R. E. Dohertv, president of the Carnegie Institute of Technology. 
Dr. Paul E. Elicker, executive secretary, National Association of Secondary 

School Principals. 
Mr. Farnham P. Griffiths, lawyer, San Francisco. 
Dr. W. S. Hunter, professor of psychology at Brown University. 
Dr. T. R. McConnell, dean of the College of Science, Literature, and Arts 

at the Universitv of Minnesota. 
Mr. Walter S. Rogers, director of the Institute of Current World Affairs. 
Dr. Harlow Shapley, director of the Harvard College Observatory. 
Dr. Hugh S. Taylor, dean of the Graduate School, Princeton University. 
Dr. E. B. Wilson, professor of vital statistics. Harvard Universitv School of 

Public Health. 



Question 

"What can be done, consistent with military security, and with the prior 
approval of the military authorities, to make known to the world as soon as 
possible the contributions which have been made during our war eflfort to 
scientific knowledge"?" 

Committee 

Dr. lr\'in Stewart, chairman; executive secretary of the Office of Scientific 
Research and Development; director of the Committee on Scientific Aids 
to Learning of the National Research Council. 

Mr. Cleveland Norcross, secretary; executive assistant to the executive sec- 
retary of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. 

Dr. 1. P. Baxter III, president of Williams College; historian of the Office 
of Scientific Research and Development. 

Dr. Karl T. Compton, president of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology; chairman of the Research Board for National Security; member 
of the National Defense Research Committee. 

Dr. 1. B. Conant, president of Harvard University; chairman of the National 
Defense Research Committee. 

Dr. A. N. Richards, vice president of the University of Pennsylvania in 
charge of Medical Affairs; chairman of the Committee on Medical Re- 
search of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. 

Dr. M. A. Tuve, director, applied physics laboratory, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versitv; staff member of the department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Mr. Carroll L. Wilson, executive assistant to the Director of the Office of 
Scientific Research and Development. 



45 



Appendix 2 



Report of tlie Medical 
Advisory Coramlttee 



Table of Contents 

Page 

Letter of transmittal 47 

Members of the Committee — 48 

Summary 49 

Recommendations 51 

Part I. Considerations on which the recommendations of the Committee are 

based 52 

1. The record of medicine in World War II 52 

2. The Committee on Medical Research of the Office of Scientific Research 

and Development 53 

3. Effect of war on medical research 54 

4. The need for continued medical research 54 

5. Importance of fundamental research to the progress of medicine 55 

6. The place of medical schools and universities in medical research 56 

7. Medical research under State sponsorship in Great Britain 56 

8. The need for Federal aid to medical research 57 

9. How financial aid should be supplied 58 

10. Estimated cost of program 60 

11. The need for an independent agency 60 

12. Compensation 61 

13. Patent rights 61 

Part II. Fundamental principles governing the use of Federal funds for medical 

research 62 

Part III. Recorrunendations outlining the establishment of a "National Founda- 
tion for Medical Research" as an independent Federal agency 64 

1. Composition of the Foundation 64 

Board of trustees 64 

Technical board 65 

Office of the executive secretary 66 

2. Functions of the Foundation 66 

Financial aid 67 

a. General research funds 67 

b. Fellowships 67 

c. Grants-in-aid 68 

Coordination and initiation of research 68 

3. Reports 68 

4. Authority to modify procedure -— 69 



46 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Dr. Vannevar Bush, Director, 

Office of Scientific Research and Developinent, 

1530 P Street NW., Washington 25, D. C. 

My Dear Dr. Bush: 

It is my privilege to submit herewith the report of the Medical Advisory 
Committee appointed by you in January of this year to answer the second 
question in President Roosevelt's letter of November 17, 1944, which was 
worded : 

With particular reference to the war of science against disease, what can be done 
now to organize a program for continuing in the future the work which has been done 
in medicine and related sciences? The fact that the annual deaths in this country from 
one or two diseases alone are far in excess of the total number of lives lost by us in 
battle during this war should make us conscious of the duty we owe future generations. 

In preparing this report, the Committee has consulted some 350 repre- 
sentatives from 73 of the 77 medical schools of the United States, from the 
Services, from various research institutions, from the pharmaceutical indus- 
trv, and from philanthropic foundations; it has conferred in joint meeting 
with the Committee on Medical Research; and it has received written com- 
ment and advice from many leaders in medicine and allied sciences through- 
out the country. 

The report, which is preceded by a summarv, is in three parts: (1) Con- 
siderations on which the recommendations of the Committee are based, (2) 
fundamental principles governing the use of Federal funds for medical re- 
search, (3) recommendations outlining the establishment of a National 
Foundation for Medical Research as an independent Federal agency. 

The Committee recognizes a great and urgent need for the expansion and 
renovation of medical school laboratories. However, our study has taken no 
account of this requirement, pertinent as it is to medical research, since a 
building program was considered outside the scope of our assignment. 

This report has the unanimous approval of mv Committee and I submit 
it with the conviction that it has, almost without exception, the endorsement 
of the manv individuals to whom the Committee is so deeplv indebted for 
freely gi\'en and \aluable ad\ice. 

Respectfully vours, 

Walter W. Palmer, Chairman, 

Medical Advisory Committee. 

April 25, 1945. 

47 



MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE 



Dr. Walter W. Palmer, chairman, Bard professor of medicine, Columbia 
University; director of medical service of the Presbyterian Hospital, New 
York City. 

Dr. Homer W. Smith, secretary, director, physiology laboratory. School of 
Medicine, New York University. 

Dr. Kenneth B. Turner, assistant secretary, assistant professor of medicine, 
Columbia University. 

Dr. William B. Castle, professor of medicine. Harvard University; associate 
director, Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, Boston City Hospital. 

Dr. Edward A. Doisy, director, department of physiology and biochemistry, 
St. Louis University School of Medicine (recipient of Nobel Award). 

Dr. Ernest Goodpasture, professor of pathology. School of Medicine, Van- 
derbilt University. 

Dr. Alton Ochsner, professor of surgery and head of the department of 
surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine. 

Dr. Linus Pauling, head of the division of chemistry and chemical engineer- 
ing, director of the chemical laboratories at the California Institute of 
Technology. 

Dr. James J. Waring, professor of medicine, Uni\'ersity of Colorado School 
of Medicine. 



48 



SUMMARY 



Impressed by the contributions medicine has made in the present world 
struggle, President Roosevelt asked what could be done by the Government 
in the future to aid "the war of science against disease." 

Recognition of the brilliant record of medicine in World War II has 
brought comfort to thousands of families with members in the armed forces. 
Compared to World War I the death rate for all diseases in the Army, includ- 
ing overseas forces, has fallen from 14.1 to 0.6 per 1,000 strength. Penicillin 
and the sulfonamides, the insecticide DDT, better vaccines, and improved 
hygienic measures have all but conquered yellow fever, dysentery, typhus, 
tetanus, pneumonia, meningitis. Malaria has been controlled. Disability 
from venereal disease has been radically reduced by new methods of treat- 
ment. Dramatic progress in surgery has been aided by the increased avail- 
ability of blood and plasma for transfusions. 

Much of the credit for these advances is properly assignable to the Com- 
mittee on Medical Research of the Office of Scientific Research and Devel- 
opment. In 3 years this organization has developed penicillin and DDT; 
supported blood fractionation studies resulting in serum albumin as a blood 
substitute and immune globulin as a new countermeasure against infections; 
and standardized the effective treatment of malaria with atabrine now used 
by the armed forces. Up to July 1944, this program had cost $15,000,000, 
a modest outlay for the saving in suffering and lives. 

These dramatic advances in medicine during the war have been the result 
of developmental rather than fundamental research, and have come through 
the application, to problems of wartime importance, of a large backlog of 
scientific data accumulated through careful research in the years prior to 
the war. 

In the meantime, sorely needed additions to- basic knowledge have been 
prevented. The war has forced us to set aside fundamental research to a 
large extent. Our capacity to carry out research in the future has been 
impaired bv the curtailment of medical education, the absorption of physi- 
cians into the armed forces, the prohibition against training draft-eligible 
men in the basic medical sciences, and the diversion into developmental 
problems of those scientists who were able to remain in their laboratories. 

The universities are the chief contributors to pure science, for research 
thrives best in an atmosphere of academic freedom. It is to the universities 

49 



that we must turn to train more men for research and to provide the infor- 
mation that will enable us to solve the problems of cancer, degenerative 
disease and the ageing process, neuropsychiatric disorders, peptic ulcer, 
asthma, and e\'en the common cold. 

Universitv funds that can be used for medical research are decreasing as 
research costs rise. Income from endowment is steadily shrinking, while 
endowment itself is no longer being increased bv large new gifts. Medical 
schools must continue to meet relativelv fixed expenses of teaching and 
overhead from smaller budgets, with the result that less money is left for 
research. 

Medical research will continue in the future, regardless of any adverse 
circumstances. The Go\'ernment, however, has an opportunity to play an 
important role in supplementing the depleted research budgets of medical 
schools. Federal aid will increase the volume of medical research; it will 
strengthen the promise of important discoverv and speed its fulfillment; it 
will encourage and develop the financiallv weaker schools now at a serious 
disad\'antage; and it will enable the United States to maintain its position 
of world leadership in medical research in competition with the nations of 
Europe where State funds have long been available for scientific research. 
When a government wiselv invests the people's monev in medical research, 
the people receive huge dividends in the form of better health and longer 
lives. 

If Federal funds are to be used to aid medical research, they should be 
provided in three forms: 

1. Funds should be made available as unrestricted grants, with no portion 
earmarked for a specific purpose, to supplv technical help and materials; to 
enable a limited number of voung people to obtain research experience 
during their regular course in medicine; to build up research in institutions 
where, for financial reasons, it is not now well-developed; and to cover a 
multitude oF research requirements within each institution. The admin- 
istration of these funds should be decentralized to the fullest possible extent, 
allowing full plav to the wisdom and experience of medical school faculties 
and administrators. If a central agency were to attempt to underwrite a 
program of this sort item by item, the costs of administration would be pro- 
hibitive, and the organization would be too rigid and ponderous to meet the 
numerous, diverse, and sometimes rapidly varying needs of the institutions. 

2. Funds should be made available to support fellowships in order that 
young people with aptitude for research mav be selected, trained, and given 
an opportunity to carry on research. 

3. Funds should be made available to support special projects of consid- 
erable magnitude and importance bv grants-in-aid. 

The Federal agency should receive its funds by such means as to permit 
it to fa\'or long term grants, up to 10 years. 

Federal aid should be initiated modestly. Funds exceeding the capacity 
of the Nation's research institutions to utilize them effectively would do 
harm bv encouraging mediocre work and by driving away unix'crsitv and 
foundation support. The responsible agency must remain free from political 
influence and resistant to special pressures. Its policies must be determined 

50 



by scientists who bring sympathetic understanding to the problems of 
research. The agency must have the necessary flexibility to modify its 
procedures in the light of experience. 

From available information it is estimated that approximately 5 to 7 
million dollars annually could be used effectively in the immediate postwar 
period. As the research program develops a larger sum may be required. 



Recommendations 

The Committee recommends that Government aid be provided for medi- 
cal research through the creation of an independent Federal agency to be 
called the National Foundation for Medical Research. The Foundation 
would consist of a board of trustees, a technical board, and the necessary 
administrative organization. 

The board of trustees would consist of five eminent scientists appointed 
by the President with the approval of the Senate for terms of 5 years, and 
in such a way initially as to secure rotation by the retirement of one member 
each year. The trustees would serve on a part-time basis, be paid for their 
work, and be appointed without regard to civil-service laws. Meetings of 
the trustees would be held monthly with one meeting annually in each of 
six geographical regions. The trustees would determine the policies of the 
Foundation and act on all requests for funds. 

The technical board would consist of 12 scientists, representing special 
fields of medical science, appointed by the trustees for terms of 3 years, and 
in such a way initially as to secure rotation by the retirement of 4 members 
each year. Technical board members would serve on a part-time basis, be 
paid for their work, and be appointed without regard to the civil-service 
laws. Members of the technical board would have the necessary aides and 
ad hoc committees to assist them in the performance of their duties. The 
technical board would forward all requests for funds to the trustees with 
recommendations for appropriate action, follow the progress of work sup- 
ported by the Foundation, and prepare reports or appraisals requested by 
the trustees. 

The financial and other business affairs of the Foundation would be in 
charge of a full-time executive secretary responsible to the trustees. 

The Foundation would not engage in research but would initiate and 
coordinate research in existing institutions and maintain liaison with inter- 
ested domestic and foreign agencies. 



51 



Part One 



Considerations on which the Recommendations of the Committee are Based 



1. The Record of Medicine in 
World War II 

We believe that at no time has su- 
perior medical and surgical care been 
a\'ailable to the public generally than 
is now recei\ed by our armed forces 
even in the most remote parts of the 
world. Public knowledge of the ex- 
cellence of this care has brought com- 
fort to thousands of anxious families 
and has strengthened the morale of 
our fighting men. 

The magnificent records of the 
medical departments of the Arm\' and 
Navy are directly attributable to two 
factors: (1) The training men re- 
cei\'ed before the war in American 
medical schools and teaching hospi- 
tals was the best in the world, and, 
when war came, large reserves of 
superbly trained physicians and sur- 
geons were available for the armed 
forces. (2) Medical progress had 
been rapid before the war and was 
continued at an accelerated rate dur- 
ing the war under the stimulus of 
the Committee on Medical Research 
and the Army Epidemiologv Board. 

The results are spectacular. Be- 
tween World War I and World War 
II, the death rate for all diseases in 
the Army, including overseas forces, 
has been reduced from 14.1 to 0.6 
per 1,000 strength. Dysentery, for- 
merly the scourge of armies, has be- 
come a minor problem. Tetanus, 
typhoid, paratyphoid, cholera, and 
smallpox have been practicallv elimi- 
nated. As a result of a potent vaccine 

52 



and impro\'ed mosquito control, yel- 
low fever has not appeared in the 
Armv or Navy. The prompt arrest 
of the Naples epidemic of typhus 
by means of the insecticide DDT is 
a dramatic example of preventive 
medicine. 

The use of the sulfa drugs has 
lowered the death rate from lobar 
pneumonia in the Armv from 24 per- 
cent in World War I to less than 1 
percent at present. The death rate 
from meningitis has been reduced 
to one-tenth of that in World War I. 
Penicillin is one of the great tri- 
umphs of modern therapeutics. By 
its use death rates and disability from 
infections due to the staphylococcus, 
streptococcus, pneumococcus, and an- 
thrax bacillus have been greatly re- 
duced. It has also proved to be a 
most effective weapon in limiting 
mfection and in accelerating healing 
of wounds and burns. As a result 
of treatment with penicillin the days 
per man per year lost from active 
duty in 1944 because of venereal dis- 
ease were one-third of those for 1940. 
The temporary disabling complica- 
tions of gonorrhea have been cut in 
this period to one twenty-fourth. 

Ad\'ances in surgery have been 
scarcely less dramatic. Despite dev- 
astating antipersonnel munitions, the 
fatality rate among the wounded has 
been as low as in any war in history. 
Prolonged and difficult operations are 
performed successfully in field hos- 
pitals close to the front. Surgical 
skill has been aided by the avail- 



ability of large quantities of plasma 
and whole blood for the treatment of 
severely wounded men. 

2. The Committee on Medical 
Research of the Office of Scien- 
tific Research and Development 

In the summer of 1940, the advice 
of the Di\'ision of Medical Sciences 
of the National Research Council 
was sought by the Surgeons General 
in many fields of medicine and sur- 
pery. Ultimately 13 committees and 
43 subcommittees were set up in avi- 
ation medicine, chemotherapy, con- 
valescence and rehabilitation, drugs 
and medical supplies, industrial medi- 
cine, medicine including malarial 
studies, infectious diseases, nutrition, 
tropical disease, tuberculosis, venereal 
diseases, etc., neuropsychiatry, path- 
ology, sanitary engineering, shock 
and transfusion, surgery, and the 
treatment of gas casualties. 

In June 1941, the Committee on 
Medical Research was organized un- 
der the Office of Scientific Research 
and Development, to "initiate and 
support scientific research on medical 
problems affecting the national de- 
fense." The existing committees of 
the National Research Council acted 
in an advisory capacity to the new 
organization. 

As of December 1, 1944, 496 re- 
search contracts had been executed 
by the Committee on Medical Re- 
search with 120 different institutions. 
Over 95 percent of these contracts 
were with universities or teaching 
hospitals. The personnel represented 
in this work numbered about 2,670, 
of whom 553 were physicians. These 
investigators have studied dysentery, 
bubonic plague, cholera, gas gan- 
grene, influenza, tuberculosis, hemo- 
lytic streptococcal disease, encepha- 
litis, primary atypical pneumonia, 



airborne infections, venereal diseases, 
infected wounds, burns, neurosur- 
gery. X-rays, surgical sutures, shock, 
blood substitutes, treatment of gas 
casualties, convalescence and reha- 
bilitation, insect and rodent control, 
antimalarial drugs, and the develop- 
ment and use of penicillin. 

Among the most conspicuous 
achievements of this program are 
the following: 

a. The acquisition, in civilian hos- 
pitals and laboratories, of suffi- 
cient knowledge of the thera- 
peutic value of penicillin to 
warrant its official adoption by 
the medical divisions of the 
Army and Navy and to provide 
the impetus for the great pro- 
duction program that has made 
this remarkable drug available 
in large quantities for both mili- 
tary and civilian use. 

h. Developments in insect repel- 
lents and insecticides, particu- 
larly DDT, important in guard- 
ing troops against insect-borne 
diseases such as typhus and 
malaria. 

c. The study of human blood 
plasma which has led to use by 
the armed forces of serum al- 
bumin as a blood substitute, of 
immune globulins to combat in- 
fections, and of fibrin foam to 
stop bleeding. 

d. The improvement and stand- 
ardization of the treatment of 
malaria by atabrine. 

e. The determination of the rela- 
tive usefulness of sulfonamide 
drugs in the treatment of 
wounds and burns. 

f. The physiological indoctrination 
of our airmen and the develop- 
ment of devices which enable 
them to endure the rigors of 



53 



high altitudes without disastrous 
loss of fighting capacity or life. 

It is fair to say that without the 
Office of Scientific Research and De- 
\'elopment or its equivalent few or 
none of the investigations listed above 
would have been carried out with the 
same speed and thoroughness. This 
research program to June 30, 1944, 
had cost over $15,000,000. Private 
funds were not available to finance 
this work. 



3. Effect of War on Medical 
Research 

Despite this imposing record of 
practical achievement, the war has 
seriously retarded the long-range de- 
velopment of medicine in ways per- 
haps not immediately apparent to 
the uninformed, but nevertheless 
with effects that will be longlasting. 
Because those physicians and scien- 
tists who have remained in their 
laboratories have, for patriotic rea- 
sons, devoted themselves to special 
problems raised by the exigencies of 
war, essential fundamental research 
has decreased to an extent which can 
only be viewed with grave concern. 

Our hospitals and medical schools 
have suffered serious depletions of 
staff in order to supply the armed 
forces with needed physicians. Medi- 
cal education has been hurried and 
impaired by the accelerated program, 
and the advanced training of young 
men has been in practically complete 
abeyance throughout the war. This 
diversion of physicians, coupled with 
an effective prohibition against gradu- 
ate training in the ancillary sciences 
has left the fields of medical science 
barren and without the seed to pro- 
duce a new generation of investi- 
gators. It will be many years before 
medicine fully recovers. 



4. The Need for Continued 
Medical Research 

It must be emphasized that nearly 
all that was good or apparently new 
in war medicine had its roots in 
civilian medicine. The pressure of 
war served chiefly to accelerate the 
development and large scale applica- 
tion to military needs of previously 
known facts. Medicine must consider 
now how to attack the medical prob- 
lems of peace. 

As President Roosevelt noted, the 
annual deaths in this country from 
one or two diseases alone are far in 
excess of the total number of lives 
lost by us in battle. This is true even 
though notable progress has been 
made in civilian medicine during the 
past three decades. Diabetes has been 
brought under control by the dis- 
covery of insulin; pernicious anemia 
by the use of liver therapy; and the 
once widespread deficiency diseases 
hav^e been almost eradicated, even in 
the poorest income groups, by the 
discovery of accessory food factors 
and the improvement of the diet. 
Notable advances have been made 
in the early diagnosis of cancer, and 
in the surgical and radiation treat- 
ment of this dreaded disease. 

In the period of 1900 to 1942, the 
average life expectancy of the Ameri- 
can people increased from 49 to 65 
years, largely as a result of the re- 
duction in the death rates of infants 
and children. In the last two decades, 
the death rate from diseases of child- 
hood has been reduced 87 percent. 
Deaths from scarlet fever have been 
reduced 92 percent, from whooping 
cough 74 percent, and from measles 
91 percent. The death rate from diph- 
theria among children (5 to 14) is 
only one eighteenth what it was two 
decades ago. Only one-fourth as 
many children die today from tuber- 



54 



culosis and pneumonia as would if 
the mortality rate of 20 years ago 
still preyailed. The death rate among 
children between the ages of 5 and 
14 from all causes combined was cut 
57 percent between 1922 and 1942. 
For eyery three children who die 
under current conditions, more than 
seyen would haye died if the death 
rate of two decades ago had continued. 
This reduction in the death rate in 
childhood has shifted the emphasis 
in medicine to the middle- and old- 
age groups, and particularly to the 
malignant diseases and the degenera- 
tiye processes which are prominent in 
the later decades of life. Cardioyas- 
cular disease, including chronic dis- 
ease of the kidneys, arteriosclerosis, 
and cerebral hemorrhage, now ac- 
counts for 45 percent of the deaths 
in the United States. Second in im- 
portance are the infectious diseases, 
and third is cancer. Added to these 
are many maladies (for example, the 
common cold, arthritis, asthma and 
hay feyer, peptic ulcer) which, 
though infrequently fatal, cause in- 
calculable disability. 

Another aspect of the changing 
emphasis in clinical medicine is the 
increasing incidence of mental dis- 
ease. Approximately 7,000,000 per- 
sons in the United States are men- 
tally ill. More than one-third of the 
hospital beds in this country are filled 
with such persons at a cost of $175,- 
000,000 annually. Each year nearly 
125,000 mentally ill new patients are 
hospitalized. 

In short, despite notable progress 
in prolonging the span of human 
life and in alleyiating suffering, ade- 
quate methods of preyention and 
cure are not yet ayailable for many 
diseases. Additional hospitals, physi- 
cians, and mechanisms for dispersing 
knowledge, howeyer useful, cannot 



su])ply a complete solution. We sim- 
ply do not know enough, and in- 
creased facilities for medical care will 
not supply the missing answers. The 
basic task faced by medicine is con- 
tinued exploration of the human 
organism and the nature of disease. 
This exploration has only begun. 

5. Importance of Fundamental 
Research to the Progress of 
Medicine 

Research in medicine may be car- 
ried out eflfectiyely in two ways: 
First, by a coordinated attack on a 
particular disease; or second, by inde- 
pendent studies of the fundamental 
nature of the human body and its 
physiological mechanisms, of the 
nature of bacteria, yiruses, and other 
agents of disease, and of the influence 
of enyironment on both. An example 
of the first method is the attack on 
malaria carried out under the Army, 
Nayy, Public Health Seryice, the 
National Research Council, and the 
Office of Scientific Research and De- 
yelopment. The discoyery of peni- 
cillin is an example of the second 
method: Fleming noted that a com- 
mon mold, Penicilliuvi notatum, in- 
hibited the growth of a culture of 
bacteria in which it appeared as a 
contaminant. Thus an incidental ob- 
servation in the course of studies un- 
related to chemotherapy furnished 
the basis for the ultimate deyelop- 
ment of the most valuable chemo- 
therapeutic agent known. 

Discoveries in medicine have often 
come from the most remote and un- 
expected fields of science in the past; 
and it is probable that this will be 
equally true in the future. It is not 
unlikely that significant progress in 
the treatment of cardiovascular dis- 
ease, kidney disease, cancer, and other 



55 



refractory conditions will be made, 
perhaps unexpectedly, iis the result 
of fundamental discoveries in fields 
unrelated to these diseases. 

To discover is to "obtain for the 
first time sight or knowledge of some 
fact or principle hitherto unknown." 
Discovery cannot be achieved by di- 
rective. Further progress requires that 
the entire field of medicine and the 
underlying sciences of chemistry, 
physics, anatomy, biochemistry, physi- 
ology, pharmacology, bacteriology, 
pathology, parasitology, etc., be de- 
veloped impartially. 

6. The Place of Medical Schools 
and Universities in Medical 
Research 

The medical schools and universi- 
ties of this country can contribute to 
medical progress by carrying on re- 
search to the limit of available facili- 
ties and personnel, and by training 
competent investigators for an en- 
larged program in the future. 

In some cases coordinated direct 
attacks will be made on special prob- 
lems by teams of investigators from 
the medical schools, supplementing 
similar direct attacks carried on by 
the Army, Navy, Public Health Serv- 
ice, and other organizations. How- 
ever, the main obligation of the 
medical schools and universities, in 
addition to teaching, will be to con- 
tinue the traditional function of these 
institutions — that of providing the in- 
dividual worker with an opportunity 
for the voluntary and untrammeled 
study in the directions and by the 
methods suggested by his imagination 
and curiosity. The entire history of 
science bears testimony to the su- 
preme importance of affording the 
prepared mind complete freedom for 
the exercise of initiative. The special 



duty and privilege of the medical 
schools and universities is to foster 
medical research in this way, and this 
duty cannot be shifted to Govern- 
ment agencies, industrial organiza- 
tions, or any other institutions. 

Because of their close relationship 
to teaching hospitals, the medical 
schools are in a unique position to 
integrate clinical investigation with 
the work of the departments of pre- 
clinical science, and to impart new 
knowledge to physicians in training. 
Conversely, the teaching hospitals are 
especially well organized to carry on 
medical research because of their 
close relationship to the schools, on 
which they depend for staff and 
supervision. 

Not all our medical schools are 
equally developed. Because of inade- 
quate financial support or lack of 
trained personnel, some of them can 
contribute little to medical research. 
A great increase in the resources of 
the Nation would be achieved by 
stimulating research in these less fa- 
vored schools. It is imperative that 
we employ all possible methods of 
improving the research facilities and 
research staffs of our present medical 
schools before considering the estab- 
lishment of new institutions. 



7. Medical Research Under State 
Sponsorship in Great Britain 

Although Federal aid for medical 
research was brought about in the 
United States largely under pressure 
of war, Government support of re- 
search has been general in Europe 
for many years. As a rule this support 
has been delegated to organizations 
separate from the ordinary Govern- 
ment bureaus in order to remove it 
as far as possible from political influ- 
ence and to place the administration 



56 



of funds in the hands of men experi- 
enced in research. 

In Great Britain as early as 101 I 
the promotion of medical research 
was explicitly recognized as a respon- 
sibility of the State by the establish 
ment of the Medical Research Com- 
mittee, which became the Medical 
Research Council in 1920. The 
Council has administrative autonomy 
with general responsibility to a com- 
mittee of ministers in the Priyy 
Council. It receives money from 
both Parliament and nongovernmen- 
tal sources specifically for furthering 
medical research and has no connec- 
tion with any system of medical care 
or health insurance. 

The Medical Research Council has 
continued to play an increasingly im- 
portant and eminently successful role 
in its field. Through it Government 
support for medical research and the 
aid of medical science to the Govern- 
ment are assured. 

Medical research in Great Britain 
also receives indirect Government aid 
through the University Grants Com- 
mittee, a Standing Committee of the 
Treasury. Its members are independ- 
ent experts of acknowledged repute 
and thoroughly familiar with the 
problems of university administration. 
The Committee's terms of reference 
are "To inquire into the financial 
needs of university education in the 
United Kingdom, and to advise the 
Government as to the application of 
any grants that may be made by 
Parliament toward meeting them." 

Although the University Grants 
Committee does not give direct grants 
for specific medical research projects, 
it holds that research is one of the 
primary functions of a university and 
an indispensable element in the work 
of university teachers. Grants to the 
institutions are in the form of unre- 



stricted funds with no portion ear- 
marked for a s[)ecilic jiurpose. 
Through a recent act of Parliament 
whereby this Committee is enabled 
to award $4,000,000 annually to 
medical schools and $2,000,000 to 
teaching hospitals, this indirect sup- 
port of medical research by the 
Government has been substantially 
increased. 



8. The Need for Federal Aid to 
Medical Research 

Between World War I and World 
War II the United States overtook 
the other nations in medical research 
and forged ahead to a position of 
world leadership. If this leadership 
is to be maintained, some form of 
Go\'ernment financial aid to the medi- 
cal schools will be necessary. This 
view is accepted by the Committee 
and by nearly all whom the Com- 
mittee has consulted. 

Dr. A. N. Richards, Chairman of 
the Committee on Medical Research, 
reported to the Subcommittee on 
Wartime Health and Education of 
the Committee on Education and 
Labor of the United States Senate 
that, in connection with medical re- 
search, "The experience of the Office 
of Scientific Research and Develop- 
ment has proved that none of the 
universities which were called upon 
for Office of Scientific Research and 
Development work could afford to 
undertake it on the scale which the 
emergency demanded at the expense 
of its own resources. Hence, if the 
concerted efforts of medical investi- 
gators which have yielded so much of 
value during the war are to be con- 
tinued on any comparable scale dur- 
ing the peace, the conclusion is in- 
escapable that they must be supported 
by government." 



57 



At the same hearing, Dr. Lewis H. 
Weed, Chairman of the Di\'ision of 
Medical Sciences of the National Re- 
search Council, stated '"" "" '^ Much 
of medical research will necessarily 
have to be abandoned in the private 
and semiprivate institutions of the 
country unless Go\'ernment subsidv 
is made available in some form for the 
general support of medical research." 

Without Federal support American 
medical research will not stop, but 
without it our opportunities to ad- 
\'ance medical knowledge cannot 
fully be exploited, and our objectives 
will be reached more slowlv. 

It has been computed that the an- 
nual budgets of the 77 medical 
schools in the United States total 
about $26,000,000. The portion of 
this sum spent for medical research 
cannot be determined accurately. In- 
come from tuition amounts to 
$8,000,000, leaving a deficit of 
$18,000,000 annually. To meet this 
deficit the schools, apart from those 
connected with State universities and 
financed by the respective States, 
draw upon many sources. 

A substantial part comes from uni- 
versity endowment, but during the 
past 10 years the amount of new 
endowment to medical schools has 
greatly diminished. At the same time 
the income from present endowment 
has been cut by one-third. With con- 
tinued high taxation it is improbable 
that large gifts and bequests for scien- 
tific work can be expected in the 
future. 

In many instances funds are allo- 
cated to the medical schools from 
tuition fees dcri\cd from other de- 
partments of the university. 

Another source of research funds 
is the foundations, but, as in the case 
of the universities, the income from 
foundation endowment is decreasing. 



Moreo\'er. the foundations in general 
favor short-term grants to projects 
which carry promise of yielding im- 
mediate results. 

Industry is a potential source of 
funds, but gifts from this source 
are usually for specific problems of 
a developmental nature. Universit\' 
alumni associations contribute only 
relatively small sums. Direct gifts 
from indi\'iduals are a substantial aid 
at times, but the medical schools 
must compete with all charities and 
churches for these funds. Further- 
more, it is estimated that gifts from 
individuals, while perhaps more nu- 
merous, are far smaller in total than 
the large contributions of individual 
donors in the past. 

When the funds available to a 
medical school are cut, the institution 
usually retrenches by curtailing the 
portion used for research. Overhead 
and teaching expenses must be met, 
and research becomes a luxury. 

Finally, while research funds are 
decreasing, the costs of research are 
steadily rising. More elaborate and 
expensive equipment is required, sup- 
plies are more costly, and the wages 
of assistants are higher. 

9. How Financial Aid Should be 
Supplied 

Federal financial aid to the medi- 
cal schools should be provided in 
three forms: General research funds, 
fellowships, and grants-in-aid. 
General research funds 

It is the Committee's opinion that 
unrestricted grants, with no portion 
earmarked for specific purposes, and 
with administration delegated to local 
research boards, would be the most 
\'aluable and productive form in 
which Government support could be 
given. 



58 



A medical school consists of a 
dozen or more semi-autonomous de- 
partments, each with its own budget. 
In the schools fa\'ored with a large 
endowment, research projects arc con- 
stantly in progress in all departments; 
in financially weaker schools, the 
budget of a department may be too 
small to supply as much as a secretary 
for the department head, and research 
is, of course, a financial impossibility. 
E\'en in the most fayorcd depart- 
ments, the quality and quantity of re- 
search would be greatly increased if 
it were possible to employ an extra 
technical assistant or tvyo, to purchase 
additional supplies or a necessary 
piece of equipment, to improve or 
enlarge animal quarters, or to meet 
other countless small financial re- 
quirements that may arise suddenly 
and may be of a temporary nature. 
In departments with small budgets 
such requirements are eyen more 
pressing. Many medical schools at 
present haye small likelihood of se- 
curing grants-in-aid because they 
ha\'e neither personnel nor equip- 
ment to conduct successfully the type 
of research project appropriately fi- 
nanced by this method. 

If a central agency were to attempt 
to meet item by item these many 
requirements by means of specific 
grants, the administrative costs would 
be prohibitixe. The amount needed 
for each item is small, but the total 
amount needed by an institution may 
be relatively large. 

Furthermore, a central agency 
would lack the flexibility to meet the 
rapidly varying and often temporary 
research needs that arise in the medi- 
cal schools. A promising lead in re- 
search mav prove patently false 
within a month or two. It is equally 
important that the project should 
then be stopped, and its personnel 



and equipment promptly diverted to 
more producti\'e work, as it is that the 
project should have been given a trial. 

A special use for general research 
funds would be to provide "junior 
fellowships" which would allow a 
medical student to interrupt his 
course, usually between the preclini- 
cal and clinical years, and to devote 
himself full-time to research for a 
year or two. The chances in this 
country for medical students to gain 
research experience prior to gradua- 
tion are few, and as a result much 
research ability goes undiscovered. 
Candidates for these fellowships 
would be unknown to a central 
agency, which would have to rely 
entirely upon the judgment of the 
local research board for their selec- 
tion. Hence it would be proper and 
economical to provide these fellow- 
ships from the general research funds 
administered by the local board. 

The provision of funds as block 
grants to local research boards would 
exercise to greatest advantage the 
principle of decentralization of con- 
trol of research; would eliminate 
costly overhead; would create a flexi- 
ble mechanism to meet rapidly vary- 
ing needs; would allow full play to 
the wisdom and experience of medi- 
cal school faculties and administra- 
tors, whose knowledge in aggregate 
and whose particular knowledge of 
local needs must always exceed that 
of a central agency; would promote 
research in laboratories where it is 
now poor!)' developed; would foster 
investigations of an exploratory na- 
ture; and would provide the greatest 
and most eff'ective stimulus to medi- 
cal research. 

¥e\\o\vs\i\fs 

Federal funds should be used to 
support fellowships, extending over 
periods up to 6 years, to be awarded 



59 



bv the Government agency to enable 
selected men to obtain training in re- 
search, to learn techniques in fields 
other than those of their basic scien- 
tific education, or to undertake re- 
search on a full-time basis. Since 
1921 the fellowship program, sup- 
ported by the Rockefeller Foundation 
and administered by the Medical Fel- 
lowship Board of the National Re- 
search Council, has made an impor- 
tant contribution to the ad\ance of 
medical science and to the training 
of teachers and investigators in the 
United States. An increase in the 
number of such fellowships is greatly 
needed. 

Grants-in-aid 

A limited number of important re- 
search projects both of immediate and 
long-range consequence, will require 
special grants-in-aid. On occasion, 
through grants-in-aid, support should 
be given to medical schools, hospitals, 
or nonprofit scientific institutions to 
enable a senior investigator to develop 
the problems of his interest more 
rapidly and effectively. 

10. Estimated Cost of Program 

No final statement on costs is 
possible at this time. From informa- 
tion received from the deans of medi- 
cal schools, from the expenditures of 
the Committee on Medical Research, 
and from other sources, it is estimated 
that approximately 5 to 7 million dol- 
lars annually can be used effectively 
in the immediate postwar period. A 
larger sum mav be required when the 
program is fully underway. This esti- 
mate does not include the possible 
assumption of present commitments 
of the Office of Scientific Research 
and Development. A more definite 
statement would require prolonged 
studv. 



11. The ISeed for an Independent 
Agency 

Advances in medical science have 
come and will continue to come pre- 
ponderantly from medical schools or 
science departments of universities. 
Therefore the problem of improving 
medical research and of training more 
top-flight in\'estigators is primarily 
one of aiding the medical schools and 
unixersities to utilize their research 
and educational facilities to the full- 
est extent. 

In the Committee's opinion, medi- 
cal research could best be promoted 
by the creation of an independent 
Federal agency. 

This new organization would not 
conflict with the medical interests of 
existing Government agencies, none 
of which is primarily concerned with 
developing the basic medical sciences 
or with training personnel, both of 
which are functions of the unixer- 
sities. Some duplication of investiga- 
tion would occur in problems in 
which civilian investigators and one 
or more Government agencies were 
mutually interested. However, it can- 
not be too strongly emphasized that, 
far from being wasteful, duplication 
is imperative in medical research, 
where each new discovery can be 
accepted only after repeated confirma- 
tion by independent observers ap- 
proaching the problem from different 
points of view. The duplication is 
more apparent than real, as the re- 
sults of independent in\'estigators 
working on a common problem rarely 
agree exactly, and the differences 
are frequently the basis for new dis- 
coveries. 

Rather than conflicting with exist- 
ing agencies, the proposed body 
would supplement the research activ- 
ities of these agencies in a valuable 
manner. Only through the efforts of 



60 



such a body can our Gcncrnnicnt 
agencies be supplied with the neces- 
sary increase in numbers oi expert 
personnel and with the all-important 
increase in basic scientific knowledge 
on which medical ad\ance depends. 
As the function of the proposed 
agency is broadly conceiyed. as it 
must be concerned not onl\' with 
research but \yith the training of 
personnel required b\' all existing 
agencies, and as it must operate 
through non-Goyernmental education 
institutions, the future of which rests 
heavily upon private endowment or 
support by the States, it is the Com- 
mittee's con\iction that the Federal 
agency concerned with medical re- 
search should be created de novo and 
be independent of all existing agen- 
cies, none of which is sufficiently free 
of specialization of interest to vyarrant 
assigning to it the sponsorship of a 
program so broad and so intimately 
related to civilian institutions. 



12. Compensation 

The Committee belie\'es that better 
effort will be put into the work of the 
agency by members if they are paid. 
The question of adjustment of salary 
from parent institutions should be 
left to the parties concerned. 

It is estimated that members of the 
board of trustees and technical board, 
as proposed below, will be called 
upon to gi\'e an a\'erage of one-third 
of their time to the work of the 
agency. One-half the time of the 
aides may be required. This includes 
time devoted by members to the work 
of the agency at their official stations 
and in traveling. 

Over the past 25 years there has 
been an increasing draft of expert 
personnel from the medical schools 
to meet the demand for scientists in 



acti\ities related to the national wel- 
fare, until at present, exen discount- 
ing the increased demands of war, 
man\' teachers and investigators are 
unable to discharge their responsibili- 
ties to the institutions which pay their 
salaries. A further increase in this 
borrowing of personnel without com- 
pensation can inflict only injury upon 
the medical schools. 

Moreover, many competent inves- 
tigators in medicine and surgery draw 
a negligible fraction of their income 
as salary, depending financially upon 
clinical practice. Participation in the 
work of the agency may interrupt this 
practice and the resulting loss of in- 
come may exclude such persons from 
service. 



13. Patent Rights 

The practice in regard to patent 
rights on discoveries and inventions 
bearing on human health varies in 
diflferent medical institutions in this 
country. The Committee has made 
no effort to codify them, or to arrive 
at a generally acceptable policy. 

It seems to the Committee that 
under the present patent laws the 
principle of patenting certain types 
of discoveries and in\'entions to ex- 
clude misuse is sound. Since perhaps 
the majority of institutions do not 
capitalize their patent privileges, and 
since such practice would be incom- 
patible with Government sponsored 
research, it is suggested that, where 
a patent be granted on research 
which has been sponsored by Gov- 
ernment in whole or in part, the 
ownership of the patent remain in 
the inventor, and that the Govern- 
ment receive, in addition to a royalty- 
free license, the power to require the 
licensing of others. 



61 



Part Two 



Fundamental Principles Governing the Use of Federal Funds 

for Medical Research 



As stated above, the Committee is 
convinced that Federal aid is neces- 
sary to ensure maximal progress in 
the development of medical science. 
It is also convinced that this aid, if 
misdirected, mav do serious harm. 
It believes that among the major 
principles which should govern the 
application of Federal aid to medical 
research are the following: 

a. Until experience has indicated 
the best plan of organization 
and procedure, the Federal 
agency created to aid medical 
research should be kept as flexi- 
ble as possible. One of our 
colleagues has written "The 
common history of social organi- 
zations has been their creation 
in response to an idea, their 
flowering under the influence 
of the idea, their loss of the 
idea, and their perpetuation for 
the maintenance of the prestige 
of the office-holder." Onlv if 
authority to experiment with or- 
ganization is written into its 
charter will an agency designed 
to aid medical research escape 
this fate. 

h. The administration of Federal 
aid to medical research must be 
free from political influence and 
protected against special pres- 
sures. 

c. Men who are experienced in 
research and who understand 
the problems of the investigator 



should administer the agency 
and determine its policies. Since 
the agency will be concerned 
primarily with basic scientific 
research in, and scientific train- 
ing and policies pertinent to, 
endowed or State supported 
civilian institutions, and since 
the armed forces, the Public 
Health Service, and other exist- 
ing governmental services have 
specialized interests, the Com- 
mittee believes that it is as im- 
proper for any one of these serv- 
ices to hold the power of vote 
in matters pertaining to the pro- 
posed new agencv as it would 
be for one or more members of 
the agency to vote in the medi- 
cal councils of the services. 

d. The agency should not attempt 
to dominate or regiment medical 
research but should function by 
creating greater opportunities 
and more freedom for investiga- 
tion, and by aiding in coopera- 
tive eff^orts. It should not at- 
tempt to influence the selection 
of personnel, the conditions of 
tenure, the salary level, or other 
internal aff^airs of the institu- 
tions to which it gives aid. 

e. Any program of Federal aid to 
medical research should be mod- 
estly initiated in terms of actual 
needs and conservatively in- 
creased as the capacity of the 
medical schools to utilize addi- 



62 



tional funds is demonstrated. If 
the Government spends too 
much in medical research, other 
funds will be driven out and the 
Government will be the sole 
source of support. The schools 
should remain free to elect the 
potential donor to whom they 
wish to apply. As Senator Pep- 
per has stated, "Government 
can not, and must not, take 
the place of philanthropy and 
industry in the sponsorship of 
research." 

/. The establishment of life-time 
research professorships, or of 
protracted research fellowships, 
at the expense of Federal funds 
is considered unwise. In excep- 
tional instances, as for example 
when an in\'estigator demon- 
strates unusual ability, or it is 
desirable to relieve a senior and 
experienced person from aca- 
demic or clinical responsibilities 
in order to free him for research, 
support should be obtained from 
general research funds or 
through a grant-in-aid. 

g. A grave danger in any effort to 
accelerate discovery is the ease 
with which the quality of the 
work can be lowered by encour- 
aging men to undertake research 
who are inadequately prepared 
or unfitted for the task. Medi- 
ocre research work in medicine 
is not only apt to be useless, but 
may prove dangerous by mis- 
leading medical practice and by 
fostering false hopes in the 



public. This danger must be 
guarded against by constantly 
encouraging confirmatory work 
or "challenging investigations." 

h. The agency should not serve 
merely as a mechanism for dis- 
bursing funds for particular re- 
search projects, but should 
always attempt to maintain a 
broad view of the needs of the 
whole field of medical research. 

i. It is belie\'ed that it would be 
unwise for a national body con- 
cerned with medical research to 
give prizes or otherwise to dis- 
pense praise or blame. It is also 
believed that this agency should 
avoid even the semblance of 
scientific authority. What is ac- 
ceptable or unacceptable in 
medicine must be established by 
tested methods of examination 
and not be made to appear as 
such because of the imprimatur 
of a national body. 

j. The agency should come to 
share in the leadership of medi- 
cal investigation by encouraging 
individual initiative and free- 
dom of research, and with a 
careful avoidance of coercion 
and regimentation, which might 
lead not only to mediocre work 
but to disastrous impairment of 
the spirit of cooperation, and of 
research itself. Individual scien- 
tific curiosity, community of in- 
terest and regard for the com- 
mon weal must in peace replace 
as a cohesive force the patriotism 
of war. 



63 



Part Three 



Recommendations Outlining the Establishment of a "National Foundation 
for Medical Research" as an Independent Federal Agency 



It is recommended that an inde- 
pendent agency of the Federal Gov- 
ernment be estabhshed, to be known 
as the National Foundation for Medi- 
cal Research.^ 

1. Composition of the 
Foundation 

The foundation is to be composed 
of (a) a board of trustees, (1?) a tech- 
nical board, and (c) an executive 
secretarv s office. 

Board of Trustees 

The board of trustees is to consist 
of five persons appointed without 
regard to the Civil Service Laws by 
the President of the United States 
and subject to confirmation by the 
Senate. They are to be chosen on the 
basis of scientific achievement and 
leadership, wide knowledge of medi- 
cal problems, capacity for adminis- 
tration and organization, and with 
reasonable regard for geographical 
representation. The board of trustees 
is to elect its own chairman. 

A member of the board of trustees 
is to serve on a part-time basis for 
a term of 5 vears and is not to be 
eligible for reappointment. A mem- 
ber appointed to a vacancy caused by 
death or resignation is eligible for 
reappointment for a full term pro- 

1 Wherever used the term "medical research" 
is intended to include related aspects of den- 
tistry, veterinary medicine, biology, entomology, 
protozoology, and similar fields. 



viding his short term has been less 
than 2 vears. No two members serv- 
ing simultaneously shall be chosen 
from the same institution. The suc- 
cessor to a retiring member shall not 
be chosen from the same institution 
except in unusual instances. 

The original members of the board 
of trustees are to be appointed for 
2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 vears, respectively, 
in order to assure continuity and ro- 
tation. Whenever a vacancy occurs 
or is to occur, the chairman is to 
transmit to the President of the 
United States for his information a 
list of suitable candidates. In pre- 
paring this list, the chairman is in- 
structed to seek the advice of the 
President of the National Academy 
of Sciences. 

The chairman is to represent the 
Foundation in matters affecting medi- 
cal research where the interests of 
other Government agencies are in- 
voh'cd. 

The board of trustees is to meet 
not less than once each month. At 
least one regular meeting each year 
is to be held in each of the following 
geographical areas: North Atlantic, 
South Atlantic, North Central, South 
Central, Rocky Mountain, and Pa- 
cific coast areas. 

The board of trustees is to deter- 
mine the broad policies of the Foun- 
dation. It is to appoint members of 
the technical board and is to have the 
authority to approve or disapprove 



64 



all recommendations ol the technical 
board. It may request the chairman 
and other members oi the tech 
nical board to sit with it whenever 
necessary. 

The board of trustees is to establish 
necessary liaison offices to insure a 
free exchange of information with 
all domestic and foreign agencies or 
services interested in medical re- 
search. It is to in\'ite the Surgeons 
General of the Armv, the Navy, the 
United States Public Health Service, 
the Air Force, or responsible officers 
of other domestic or foreign organi- 
zations as may be indicated, to ap- 
point appropriate liaison officers to 
sit with it during deliberations of 
interest to those agencies. Liaison 
officers are not to have the power 
of vote. 

Remuneration 

Each member of the board of trus- 
tees is to be paid a salary of seventy- 
five hundred dollars ($7,500) per 
annum for that portion of his time 
which he devotes to the services of 
the Foundation. In accordance with 
Government regulations, a member 
is to receive travel expenses and suit- 
able per diem to cover other costs 
when traveling. 

Technical Board 

A technical board, composed ini- 
tially of 12 persons, is to be ap- 
pointed, without regard to the Civil 
Service Laws, by the board of trus- 
tees. The members of the technical 
board are to be chosen on the basis 
of their knowledge and experience 
in special fields of medical research 
and the related sciences, and with 
reasonable regard for geographical 
representation. The office of a board 
member is to remain in his parent 
institution. At the discretion of the 



board oi trustees the membership of 
the technical board mav be increased 
or decreased in number. 

A member of the technical board 
should not ordinarily be considered 
eligible lor reappointment, but a re- 
tired member may be appointed to 
the board of trustees. A member ap- 
pointed to fill an unexpired term is 
eligible for reappointment for a full 
term. No two members serving simul- 
taneously shall be chosen from the 
same institution. The successor to a 
retiring member shall not be chosen 
from the same institution except in 
unusual instances. 

The chairman of the technical 
board is to be designated by the board 
of trustees. He is to represent the 
technical board before the trustees, 
is to call meetings of the technical 
board as frequently as necessary, and 
is to be responsible for the supervision 
of the activities of the board and the 
preparation of reports required by the 
board of trustees. 

The original members of the tech- 
nical board are to be appointed in 
groups of 4 to serve 2, 3, and 4 years, 
respectively, in order to assure con- 
tinuity and rotation. 

Remuneration 

Each member of the technical 
board is to serve on a part-time basis 
for 3 years, and is to receive a salary 
to be determined by the Board of 
Trustees, but not to exceed five thou- 
sand dollars ($5,000) a year for that 
portion of his time which he devotes 
to the services of the Foundation. In 
accordance with Government regula- 
tions, a member is to receive travel 
expenses and suitable per diem to 
cover other costs when traveling. 
Aides 

Each member of the technical 
board may, with the approval of the 
technical board, appoint one or more 



65 



aides without regard to the Ci\il 
Service Laws. These aides are to be 
selected on the basis of quahfication 
in a special research field and are to 
serve on a part-time basis for periods 
up to 3 years. 

As determined bv the board of 
trustees, aides are to be compensated 
for time spent in the work of the 
Foundation, and when traveling are 
to receive tra\'el expenses in accord- 
ance with Government regulations 
and a suitable per diem to cover 
other costs. 

As aides are scientists in a poten- 
tially productive period, provision is 
to be made to insure that thev remain 
professionally acti\'e, and that service 
with the technical board does not 
jeopardize their academic careers. 

Committees 

The technical board is to appoint 
ad hoc committees to advise with a 
particular member on medical prob- 
lems. Members of such committees 
are to be appointed consultants with 
per diem compensation up to twenty- 
five dollars ($25), and in accordance 
with Go\ernment regulations are to 
receive travel expenses and suitable 
per diem to cover other costs when 
tra\'eling. 

Aides and committees appointed 
for a technical board member are to 
be discharged on the expiration of 
the member's term, but continued 
service may be in\ ited bv the mem- 
ber's successor. 

Authority of the technical hoard 

The technical board is to receive, 
review and recommend to the board 
of trustees on all requests for gen- 
eral research funds, fellowships, and 
grants-in-aid. 

It is to take such steps as are neces- 
sary to put appro\cd programs into 
effect. 



It is to maintain reasonable super- 
vision of work under general research 
funds and grants-in-aid and of the 
acti\'ities of Fellows, and keep the 
trustees informed on the progress of 
this work. 

It is to arrange for the preparation 
of reports or appraisals as requested 
by the board of trustees. 

Its members are to keep themselves 
informed on the status of pertinent 
medical problems, to which end thev 
are authorized to convene round-table 
discussions, to invite competent per- 
sons to prepare summaries of specific 
problems, and to seek authoritative 
information in any other appropriate 
manner. 

It is to recei\e and consider recom- 
mendations from individual investi- 
gators with regard to the further 
development of problems of possible 
scientific interest. 



Office of the Executive Secretary 

A full-time executive secretary is 
to be appointed bv the board of trus- 
tees after consultation with appropri- 
ate Government fiscal and accounting 
agencies. The executive secretarv is 
to organize administrative, fiscal, and 
accounting offices for the conduct of 
the business of the Foundation. Fiscal 
actions approved bv the board of 
trustees are to be put into effect by 
the executi\'e secretary and his affili- 
ated officers. 

Except for the executi\e secretarv, 
all members of the stafii^ of the execu- 
ti\e secretarv are to be drawn from 
qualified ci\'il-ser\ice lists. 



2. Functions of the Foundation 

The functions of the Foundation 
are to be (a) to further medical re- 



66 



search by providing financial aid 
through general research funds, fel- 
lowships and grants-in-aid; (1?) to 
coordinate research in progress and 
to initiate new work considered essen- 
tial; (c) to establish necessary liaison 
to secure a free exchange of medical 
information. 



Financial Aid 

a. General research funds 

On application, a block grant may 
be made to a medical school for gen- 
eral use over a period of 1 to 10 vears 
for the promotion of research pro- 
vided the institution can present evi- 
dence that it can efficiently utilize 
for scientific research the funds re- 
quested, and that it is prepared to 
give a reasonable accounting of the 
expenditure of funds received. The 
institution is to have a research com- 
mittee, drawn preferablv from the 
executive faculty and active investi- 
gators, which is to be informed on 
all local research expenditures, and is 
to be responsible for the administra- 
tion of the grant and for reports and 
accounting required by the Founda- 
tion. 

The institutions are to be allowed 
wide latitude in the expenditure of 
general research funds, but these ex- 
penditures are to be subject to review 
periodically by the Foundation, 
which is to have the power of can- 
cellation. 

It is recommended that general re- 
search funds be used in part for 
junior fellowships to be awarded, 
without reference to the Foundation, 
to students working for an M.D. de- 
gree, in order to permit the recipients 
to devote 1 or 2 years on a full-time 
basis to acquiring more specialized 
knowledge of the techniques of medi- 
cal research than is possible during 



the regular course. Junior fellowships 
are not to be used as scholarships to 
defray medical school tuition. The 
policy of each institution in regard 
to number of Junior Fellows, the 
value of the stipend, and other fea- 
tures of general importance is to be 
subject to review by the Foundation. 

Formal discussions concerning re- 
newal of general research funds 
should be completed 1 to 3 years in 
advance of termination. 

If an application for general re- 
search funds is refused, the applicant 
institution may appeal directly to the 
board of trustees for a review. 

In allocating general research 
funds, the Foundation is to consider 
both the immediate needs and prom- 
ise of development of the applicant 
institutions, and is to take cognizance 
of the effects of such funds upon the 
support of medical schools bv their 
parent institutions. 

Equipment purchased under gen- 
eral research funds is to become the 
property of the institution to which 
the block grant is made. 

b. Fellowships 

Fellowships are to be awarded by 
the Foundation, for a period of 1 to 
3 years, to approved applicants having 
the M.D., Ph.D., or D.D.S. degree 
or equivalent attainment, to enable 
the recipients to acquire research 
training, to undertake research, to 
learn special techniques, or to pursue 
studies in related sciences. Fellow- 
ships may be renewed for a period 
up to 3 years, but onlv in exceptional 
instances should the term of a fellow- 
ship exceed 6 vears. The holder of a 
fellowship is to be publicly desig- 
nated as a 'Tellovv of the National 
Foundation for Medical Research." 

In the initial selection of Fellows, 
potentialities for dexelopment of lead- 



67 



ership in medicine should be vveiglied 
as heavily as past performance in re 
search work. Fellows are to be en- 
couraged to take further work in the 
fundamental sciences to remedy any 
deficiencies in a contemplated re- 
search career, but fellowships are not 
to be used to pro\'ide residencies, or 
primarily for obtaining postgraduate 
degrees or for qualifying for Certifi- 
cation by the Specialty Boards. 

Fellowships are primarily intended 
to enable men to recei\'e research 
training and to engage in acti\'e re- 
search, but they should include ex- 
perience in teaching or the clinical 
care of patients, as these exercises are 
essential to balanced research train- 
ing and are imperatiye if a Fellow is 
to fit himself for. maximal usefulness 
in medicine or the medical sciences. 

Fellowship stipends are to be de- 
termined by the Foundation with due 
consideration of uni\'ersity salaries 
paid persons with equivalent training 
and experience, and to the desira- 
bility of encouraging relatively senior 
men to devote themsehes to research. 

Research expenses of a Fellow may 
be met by the Foundation. If an in- 
stitution matches insurance or an- 
nuity payments bv its faculty, a 
similar payment is to be added by the 
Foundation to the Fellow's stipend. 

A fellowship is to lapse automati- 
cally if a Fellow transfers to another 
institution without approxal by the 
Foundation. 

c. GrafJts-in-aid 

On application, grants-in-aid ex- 
tending for 1 to 10 years may be 
made to universities, medical schools, 
or other nonprofit scientific institu- 
tions for the support of specific proj- 
ects or of specified investigators. Ap- 
plications for grants-in-aid are to 
carry the endorsement of the appli- 
cant institution. Formal discussions 



concerning renewal should be com- 
pleted prior to the beginning of the 
last third of the period of the grant. 

Reasonable overhead expenses may 
be included in the financial statement 
accompanying a request for a grant, 
but overhead payments are not to be 
automatic. 

Reports are to be submitted under 
each grant as required by the Foun- 
dation. Equipment purchased under 
a grant is to become the property of 
the institution to which the grant is 
made. 

If a request for a grant or for the 
extension of a grant is refused, the 
applicant institution may appeal di- 
rectly to the board of trustees for a 
review. 

Coordination and Initiation 
of Research 

The Foundation is to consider 
methods designed to stimulate re- 
search, to impro\'e research conditions 
in institutions where it is now not 
well developed, to effect coordination 
among investigators working in a 
common field, and to facilitate publi- 
cation, dissemination, and experi- 
mental application of scientific in- 
formation. 

The Foundation is to initiate and 
support such new research work as 
may be indicated, but it is not itself 
to enpage in research. Its integrative 
and catalytic efforts are to be carried 
out by recommendation and invita- 
tion rather than by direction. 

3. Reports 

The Foundation is to report annu- 
ally to the President, in the form he 
requests, on the progress of work car- 
ried out under its authority. With 
the President's approval, all or part of 
the annual report is to be published. 



68 



4. Authority to Modify to make and alter speeific regulations 

Procedure -ji-jj iq experiment in proecdures for 

The organization and responsibility fostering medieal research is to be 

of the Foundation are to be defined incorporated in the charter of the 

as broadly as possible. The authority Foundation. 



69 



Appendix 3 



Report of the Committee on Science 
and the Public Welfare 



Table of Contents 

Page 

Letter of transmittal 7 1 

Members of the Committee — - 72 

Preface 73 

Summary 74 

A National Research Foundation 75 

Research carried on by the Federal Government 75 

Environmental aids to industrial research 76 

Part 

I. Introduction 77 

II. Present status and trends in American science 81 

A. The nature of scientific research 81 

B. Development of scientific research in the United States 83 

C. The national research budget 85 

III. Scientific research in American universities and colleges 90 

A. The university as a research environment 90 

B. Form of aid to universities 93 

IV. Scientific research in the Government service 99 

A. Suggested reforms — _ 100 

V. Aids to industrial research and technology 107 

A. Assistance to technical clinics for small business enterprise 107 

B. Grants to nonprofit industrial institutes for fundamental 

research 108 

C. Encouragement for new scientific enterprises 108 

D. Strengthening the patent system -.. 109 

VI. Taxation and research 110 

A. Present tax treatment of research and development expendi- 

tures ._ 1 1 

B. Recommendations for legislative action 111 

C. Broad tax considerations 112 

Vn. International scientific cooperation 113 

A. Support and sponsorship of international cooperative scien- 
tific enterprises 113 

VIII. A National Research Foundation 115 

A. Organization 115 

B. Powers and responsibilities 116 

C. Patent policies of the Foundation 117 

Appendix A. Library aids 118 

Appendix B. Analysis of university research expenditures 122 



70 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



April 16, 1945. 
Dr. Vannevar Bush, Director, 
Office of Scientific Research and Development, 
16th and P Streets NW., 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Dr. Bush: 

It is with satisfaction that I hand you herewith a copy of the report of 
the Committee on Science and the Public Welfare. 

We have had a number of meetings with good attendance and excellent 
discussion. We have unanimously agreed on practically all essential points. 
If the report aids in any degree in completing the task assigned you by the 
late President Roosevelt all members of the committee, I feel sure, will be 
gratified. 

Sincerely yours, 

Isaiah Bowman, Chairman, 
Committee on Science and the Public Welfare. 



71 



MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE 



Isaiah Bowman, Chairman, President, Johns Hopkins University. 

John T. Tate, Vice Chairman, Research Professor of Phvsics, University of 

Minnesota. 
W. Rupert Maclaurin, Secretary, Professor of Economics, Massachusetts 

Institute of Technology. 
Ohver E. Buckley, President, Bell Telephone Laboratories. 
Walter C. Coffey, President, University of Minnesota. 
Oscar S. Cox, Deputy Administrator, Foreign Economic Administration. 
Bradley Dewey, President, Dewey & Almy Chemical Company. 
Clarence A. Dvkstra, Provost, University of California at Los Angeles. 
Caryl P. Haskins, Director, Haskins Laboratories. 

Edwin H. Land, President and Director of Research, Polaroid Corporation. 
Charles E. MacOuigg, Dean of Engineering, Ohio State LIniversity. 
Harold G. Moulton, President, Brookings Institution. 
J. Hugh O'Donnell, President, Notre Dame LIniversity. 
I. I. Rabi, Professor of Physics, Columbia University (recipient of Nobel 

Award). 
Warren Weaver, Director for Natural Sciences, Rockefeller Eoundation. 
Robert E. Wilson, Chairman of the Board, Standard Oil Company of Indiana. 
William E. Wrather, Director, U. S. Geological Survey, Department of 

Interior. 



72 



f 



PREFACE 



Dr. Isaiah Bowman was named by Dr. Vannevar Bush, Director of the 
Office of Scientific Research and Development, as chairman of a committee 
to consider this question raised by President Roosevelt in his letter of Novem- 
ber 17, 1944, to Dr. Bush: "What can the Government do now and in the 
future to aid research activities by public and private organizations? The 
proper roles of public and of private research and their interrelationship should 
be carefully considered." 

The Bowman Committee has confined its attention to research activities 
in the natural sciences, engineering, and agriculture. Clinical medicine has 
been considered bv another committee. The support of the social sciences, 
it is believed, represents an important problem in itself which should be 
handled as a separate issue. 

In analvzing the task assigned to the Bowman Committee, the project was 
divided into the following major questions: 

1. What should the Government do to assist research in universities 
and nonprofit research institutes? 

2. What should the Government do to assist scientific research con- 
ducted by the Government itself? 

3. What should the Government do to assist research in industrv? 

4. What changes, if any, should be made in our present tax structure 
to stimulate industrial research? 

5. What policv should the Government follow to encourage greater 
international interchange of scientific knowledge and engineering art 
after the war? 

6. What are the proper roles of public and private research? 

The Committee was divided into working groups to consider each of these 
questions except the last. The whole report is concerned with the basic 
problem of the proper roles of public and private agencies in scientific re- 
search. The analyses undertaken by the working groups have been combined 
into a final report which is submitted herewith. 

In addition to numerous meetings of the subcommittees the main Com- 
mittee has held three full meetinos, the first of which was devoted to 
resolving the problem into its major parts, the second to discussing the 
concept of the Federal Go\'ernment in relation to research, and the last to 
considering the recommendations of the subcommittees. 

73 



SUMMARY 



Interest in the question of Federal aid to research reflects widespread 
recognition by the American people that the security of a modern nation 
depends in a vital way upon scientific research and technological progress. 
It is equally clear that public health, higher standards of living, conserva- 
tion of national resources, new manufacturing which creates new jobs and 
investment opportunities — in short, the prosperity, well-being and progress 
of the American Nation — all require the continued flow of new scientific 
knowledge. Even if a nation's manpower declines in relative numbers, even 
if its geographical frontiers become fixed, there always remains one inex- 
haustible national resource — creative scientific research. 

In view of the importance of science to the Nation, the Federal Govern- 
ment, by virtue of its charge to provide for the common defense and general 
welfare, has the responsibility of encouraging and aiding scientific progress. 
It has recognized this responsibility by providing research laboratories within 
the structure of government, by providing a climate of law within which 
industry could progress on its ov>/n initiative, and by making limited appro- 
priations to certain types of educational institutions. Study of the present 
status of research has shown convincingly that certain basic parts of our 
research structure require increased financial support. Since the evidence 
is clear that private sources cannot assume the entire burden, the committee 
has been forced to the conclusion that an increased measure of direct Federal 
aid is necessary. We believe that it is possible to devise methods whereby 
great benefits to research may be achieved by such aid without sacrificing 
the freedom essential for scientific advance or the academic independence 
of our traditional institutions. 

We therefore urge that the Federal Government take a more active interest 
in promoting scientific research, and in assuring that the Nation gain there- 
from the benefits of increased security and increased welfare. We are con- 
vinced that the most effective way for the Federal Government to serve these 
purposes is to provide to our educational institutions and research institutes 
support for basic research and training for research. By so doing, the Gov- 
ernment will increase the flow of new knowledge and the supply of young 
scientists trained in research. It is on this new knowledge that applied science 
must build, and it is from the ranks of those trained in research that the 
leaders in applied science must come. 

74 



If this new knowledge and an adequate supply of trained men are pro- 
vided, it is our opinion that the ordinary course of industrial activity can be 
relied upon to convert to practical application in industry most of the 
advances made in research. However, we believe that in certain instances 
measures can and should be devised to expedite the transition from scientific 
discovery to technological application. To this end we recommend that 
procedures be devised for supplying research information to small companies 
and stimulating them in the application of the latest technology. 

In the international sphere the lack of any official Federal support for 
scientific meetings or experimental programs organized on an international 
scale has been a frequent source of embarrassment and difficulty. By pro- 
viding official recognition and financial support to such undertakings the 
Government could do much to facilitate scientific interchange and promote 
international good will. 



A National Research Foundation 

We believe that our national and international needs and responsibilities 
in the field of science require the creation of a new Federal instrumentaHty. 
We therefore recommend that a National Research Foundation be created 
for the promotion of scientific research and of the applications of research 
to enhance the security and welfare of the Nation. 

The control of the Foundation should be in the hands of a board of 
trustees. This board should be appointed by the President of the United 
States from a panel nominated by the National Academy of Sciences. 

The Foundation shall be empowered, among other things, to: 

1. Distribute funds in support of scientific research in educational 
and nonprofit research institutions, such research to be wholly under 
the control of such institutions. 

2. Initiate and finance, in appropriate agencies, research projects for 
which existing facilities are unavailable or inadequate. 

3. Establish scholarships and fellowships in the natural sciences. 

4. Promote dissemination of scientific and technical information. 

5. Support international cooperation in science by providing finan- 
cial aid for international congresses, worldwide associations of scientific 
societies and scientific research programs organized on an international 
basis. 

6. Devise methods of improving the transition between pure research 
and its practical applications in industry. 

Research Carried on by the Federal Government 

Research carried on directly by the Federal Government represents an 
important part of our total research activity and needs to be strengthened 
and expanded after the war. Expansion, however, should be limited to fields 
of inquirv and service which are of public importance and are not ade- 
quatelv carried on bv private enterprise. 

75 



To increase the effectiveness of research done within the various depart- 
ments and laboratories of Government a number of important changes in 
existing practices are desirable. 

1. The most important single factor in scientific and technical work 
is the quality of personnel employed. Separate and distinct procedures 
for recruiting and classifying scientific personnel are warranted bv the 
exacting technical requirements in these services. No one change from 
current practice would do more to improve the quality of research con- 
ducted by the Government than to establish a separate branch of the 
Civil Service for scientific and technical positions. 

2. A general up-grading of positions and salaries in the scientific 
services of Go\ernment, accompanied bv a careful selection of new 
talent, would be a major contribution to improvement of the quality of 
research conducted by the Government. 

3. Research programs of Government should be assured in terms of 
their long-run objectives. Appropriations bv Congress to the principal 
Government scientific departments should be made in lump sums for 
broad programs of research extending over several years. Appropriations 
within the assured sum might then be made available as at present in 
the annual budget. 

4. A permanent science advisory board should be created to consult 
with Government agencies and to advise the executi\e and legislative 
branches of Government as to the policies and budgets of Government 
agencies engaged in scientific research. 

Environmental Aids to Intlustrial Research 

The structure of Federal taxation and the operation of the patent system 
have an important impact on the research and development policies of indus- 
try. In designing postwar taxes, consideration should be given to increasing 
incentives to industrial research. The proper treatment of research costs for 
tax purposes should receive clear legislative definition. Specific recommenda 
tions on this point are included in the main body of the report. 



76 



Introduction 



Part One 



President Roosevelt has asked: 

What can tlie Go\'ernmcnt do now and 
in the future to aid research activities bv 
public and private organizations? * * * 
The information, the techniques, and the 
research experience developed by the 
Office of Scientific Research and Develop- 
ment and by the thousands of scientists in 
the universities and in private industry, 
should be used in the days of peace ahead 
for the improvement of the national health, 
the creation of new enterprises bringing 
new jobs, and the betterment of the na- 
tional standard of living. New frontiers of 
the mind are before us, and if they are 
pioneered with the same vision, boldness, 
and drive with which we have waged this 
war we can create a fuller and more fruit- 
ful employment and a fuller and more 
fruitful life. 

The President's request reflects 
widespread recognition by the Amer- 
ican people that the security of a 
modern nation depends in a vital 
way upon scientific research and tech- 
nological progress. It is equally clear 
that public health, higher standards 
of living, conservation of national re- 
sources, new jobs and investment op- 
portunities — in short, the prosperity, 
well-being and progress of the Amer- 
ican Nation — all require the con- 
tinued flow of new scientific knowl- 
edge. Even if a nation's manpower 
declines in relative numbers, even if 
its geographical frontiers become 
fixed, there always remains one in- 
exhaustible national resource — crea- 
tive scientific research. 

The advanced state of technology 
in the American economy, of which 
we are justly proud, could not have 



been realized without sound institu- 
tional foundations. Our public and 
prix'ate universities and nonprofit re- 
search institutes, our industrial re- 
search laboratories, the research agen- 
cies operated by the State and Fed- 
eral Governments, all constitute part 
of a cooperative pattern within which 
tremendous achievements have al- 
ready been made. We are confident 
that within that same framework 
even greater developments in science 
will mark the future. 

The continued progress of science 
is a matter of the highest national 
importance. The Federal Govern- 
ment, by virtue of its charge to pro- 
vide for the common defense and 
general welfare, has the responsibility 
of encouraging and aiding such prog- 
ress. It has recognized this responsi- 
bilitv in the past bv providing re- 
search laboratories within the struc- 
ture of government, bv providing a 
climate of law within which industry 
could advance on its own initiative, 
and by making limited appropriations 
to certain types of educational and 
research institutions. As far as the 
committee can determine, there is no 
major dissent from the view that the 
first two methods of aiding scientific 
progress fall within the proper func- 
tion of government. 

The time has come, however, for 
a careful evaluation of the questions 
raised by direct Federal aid to private 
institutions. Our universities clearly 
stand in need of increased financial 



77 



support if they are to strengthen their 
basic contributions to the scientific 
fife of the Nation. Financial aid may 
also be required to speed up the 
transition between basic discoveries 
in university laboratories and their 
practical industrial applications. The 
committee has therefore felt com- 
pelled to examine from the stand- 
point of public policy the question: 
"Is a substantial increase in Federal 
financial aid to scientific research in 
educational and other nonprofit re- 
search institutions necessary and de- 
sirable?" 

If the necessity were not clearly 
demonstrable, several considerations 
might argue for the undesirability of 
such Federal support. These center 
upon the fear that Federal aid might 
lead to centralized control. It is the 
firm conviction of the committee that 
centralized control of research by any 
small group of persons would be dis- 
astrous whether such persons were in 
government, in industry, or in the 
universities. There might be a dan- 
ger, too, that increased Federal aid 
would discourage existing sources of 
financial support. Private individuals 
might lose interest in contributing to 
research institutions and the great 
foundations might turn their atten- 
tion to other fields. The States might 
reduce the support given their large 
universities. These varied sources of 
support have contributed materially 
to the development of vigorous 
centers of independent initiative 
throughout the United States and 
prevented control by any one group. 

The committee has had to weigh 
these considerations against an analy- 
sis of the adequacy of the over-all 
support for science in America rela- 
tive to the needs of society. Our na- 
tional pre-eminence in the fields of 
applied research and technology 



should not blind us to the truth that, 
with respect to pure research — the 
discovery of fundamental new knowl- 
edge and basic scientific principles 
— America has occupied a secondary 
place. Our spectacular development 
of the automobile, the airplane, and 
radio obscures the fact that they were 
all based on fundamental discoveries 
made in nineteenth-century Europe. 
From Europe also came formulation 
of most of the laws governing the 
transformation of energy, the physi- 
cal and chemical structure of matter, 
the behavior of electricity, light, and 
magnetism. In recent years the 
United States has made progress in 
the field of pure science, but an ex- 
amination of the relevant statistics 
suggests that our efforts in the field 
of applied science have increased 
much faster so that the proportion of 
pure to applied research continues to 
decrease. 

Several reasons make it imperative 
to increase pure research at this stage 
in our history. First, the intellectual 
banks of continental Europe, from 
which we former Iv borrowed, have 
become bankrupt through the ravages 
of war. No longer can we count 
upon those sources for fundamental 
science. Second, in this modern age, 
more than ever before, pure research 
is the pace-maker of technological 
progress. In the nineteenth century, 
Yankee mechanical ingenuitv, build- 
ing upon the basic discoveries of 
European science, could greatly ad- 
vance the technical arts. Today the 
situation is different. Future prog- 
ress will be most striking in those 
highly complex fields — electronics, 
aerodynamics, chemistry — which are 
based directly upon the foundations 
of modern science. In the next gen- 
eration, technological advance and 
basic scientific discoverv will be in- 



78 



separable; a nation which borrows its 
basic knowledge will be hopelessly 
handicapped in the race for innova- 
tion. The other world powers, we 
know, intend to foster scientific re- 
search in the future. Moreover, it is 
part of our democratic creed to affirm 
the intrinsic cultural and aesthetic 
worth of man's attempt to ad\'ance 
the frontiers of knowledge and un- 
derstanding. By that same creed the 
prestige of a nation is enhanced by 
its contributions — made in a spirit of 
friendlv cooperation and competition 
— to the world-wide battle against 
ignorance, want, and disease. 

The increasing need for the culti- 
vation of science in this country is 
onlv too apparent. Are we equipped 
to meet it? Traditional support from 
private gifts, from endowment in- 
come, from grants by the large foun- 
dations, and from appropriations by 
State legislatures cannot meet the 
need. Research in the natural sci- 
ences and engineering is becoming 
increasingly costly; and the infla- 
tionary impact of the war is likely 
to heighten the financial burden of 
university research. The committee 
has considered whether industry 
could or should assume most of the 
burden of support of fundamental 
research or whether other adequate 
sources of private assistance are in 
sight. The answer appears to be in 
the negative. 

The committee has therefore be- 
come convinced that an increased 
measure of Federal aid to scientific 
research is necessary. Means must 
be found for administering such aid 
without incurring centralized control 
or discouraging private support. 

Basically this problem is but one 
example of a series of similar prob- 
lems of government in a democracy. 
Many of our important political de- 



cisions invoKe the necessity of bal- 
ancing irreducible national functions 
against the free play of individual 
initiative. It is the belief of this com- 
mittee that if certain basic safe- 
guards are observed in designing a 
plan for Government support to sci- 
ence, great benefits can be achieved 
without loss of initiative or freedom. 

The experience of the land-grant 
colleges represents an important prece- 
dent. The scale of Federal aid has 
been modest but has led to very sig- 
nificant results especially in agricul- 
ture; it has not led to domination 
by small groups; it has not been ca- 
pricious and uncertain. On the con- 
trary, it has progressed on a slowly 
expanding scale for o\ex 80 years. 
No evidence has been brought before 
the committee that this sort of Fed- 
eral aid has discouraged other sources 
of support. The land-grant colleges 
are examples of harmonious coopera- 
tion among State and Federal Gov- 
ernments, private indi\'iduals, and 
industry. American experience with 
support of higher education by State 
and local governments has been ex- 
tremely satisfactory, our vigorous 
State universities standing as impres- 
sive testimonials. 

The committee foresees that an in- 
creased measure of Federal support 
will raise new problems. We have, 
therefore, carefully considered the 
possibility of increasing Federal aid 
for scientific research without, at the 
same time, introducing undesirable 
paternalism. For, in order to be 
fruitful, scientific research must be 
free — free from the influence of 
pressure groups, free from the neces- 
sity of producing immediate practical 
results, free from dictation by any 
central board. 

Many have been impressed by the 
vyay in which certain fields of applied 



79 



science have benefited, during the 
war, from an increased measure of 
planned coordination and direction. 
It has thus been very natural to sup- 
pose that peacetime research would 
benefit equally from the application 
of similar methods. There are, of 
course, types of scientific inquiry that 
require planning and coordination, 
and a large degree of control is in- 
evitable and proper in applied re- 
search. However, there are several 
reasons why pure science in peace- 
time cannot wisely or usefully adopt 
some of the procedures that have 
worked so well during the war. War 
is an enterprise that lends itself al- 
most ideally to planning and regi- 
mentation, because immediate ends 
are more rigidly prescribed than is 
possible in other human activities. 
Much of the success of science dur- 
ing the war is an unhealthy success, 
won by forcing applications of sci- 
ence to the disruption or complete 
displacement of that basic activity in 
pure science which is essential to 
continuing applications. Finally, and 
perhaps most important of all, scien- 
tists willingly suffer during war a 
degree of direction and control which 
they would find intolerable and stul- 
tifying in times of peace. 

It is the belief of this committee 
that increased support of research in 
American universities and nonprofit 
institutes will provide the most posi- 
tive aid to science and technology. 
But we do not believe that any pro- 
gram is better than no program — - 
that an ill-devised distribution of Fed- 
eral funds will aid the growth of 
science. Our concrete proposals seek 
to augment the quality as well as the 



quantity of scientific research. We 
believe that there are historical prece- 
dents of Goyernment aid to research, 
both in this country and abroad, 
which show the possibilftv of pro- 
viding, within the framework of 
sound administrative practice, sus- 
tained nonpolitical grants which 
would operate in such a manner as 
to call forth from existing institu- 
tions even greater initiative, effort, 
and accomplishment. 

The organization or instrument 
finally set up should not attempt to 
play the role of an all-seeing, all- 
powerful planning board trying to 
guide in detail the normal growth- 
processes of science. The first and 
most essential requirement is that the 
groups administering a program of 
research assistance be composed of 
men of the highest integrity, ability, 
and experience, with a thorough un- 
derstanding of the problems of sci- 
ence. The committee believes that 
an independent Government body, 
created by the Congress, free from 
hampering restrictions, staffed with 
the ablest personnel obtainable, and 
empowered to give sustained and far- 
sighted assistance to science with 
assurance of continuing support, 
would constitute the best possible 
solution. 

It is our belief that the desired 
purposes can best be served and the 
possible dangers minimized by cen- 
tering the responsibility for this pro- 
gram in a new organization, a Na- 
tional Research Foundation, whose 
function should be the promotion of 
scientific research and of the appli- 
cations of research to enhance the 
security and welfare of the Nation. 



80 



Part Two 



Present Status and Trends In American Science 



To aid in formulating policies of 
assistance to research, it will be help- 
ful first to analyze the important 
types of scientific activity and to 
sketch the deyelopment of the prin- 
cipal types of American scientific 
institutions. 

A. The Nature of Scientific 
Research 

Scientific research may be divided 
into the following broad categories: 
(1) pure research, (2) background 
research, and (3) applied research 
and development. The boundaries 
between them are by no means clear- 
cut and it is frequently difficult to 
assign a given investigation to any 
single category. On the other hand, 
typical instances are easily recog- 
nized, and study of them reveals that 
each category requires different in- 
stitutional arrangements for maxi- 
mum development. 

1. Pure Research 

Pure research is research without 
specific practical ends. It results in 
general knowledge and understand- 
ing of nature and its laws. This gen- 
eral knowledge provides the means 
of answering a large number of im- 
portant practical problems, though it 
may not give a specific solution to 
any one of them. The pure scientist 
may not be at all interested in the 
practical applications of his work; vet 
the development of important new 
industries depends primarily on a 



continuing vigcuous progress of pure 
science. 

One of the peculiarities of [)ure 
science is the variety of paths which 
lead to productive advance. Many of 
the most important discoveries have 
come as a result of experiments un- 
dertaken with quite different pur- 
poses in mind. Statistically it is cer- 
tain that important and highly useful 
discoveries will result from some frac- 
tion of the work undertaken; but the 
results of any one particular inves- 
tigation cannot be predicted with 
accuracy. 

The unpredictable nature of pure 
science makes desirable the provision 
of rather special circumstances for its 
pursuit. Pure research demands from 
its followers the freedom of mind to 
look at familiar facts from unfamiliar 
points of view. It does not always 
lend itself to organized efforts and is 
refractory to direction from above. In 
fact, nowhere else is the principle of 
freedom more important for signifi- 
cant achievement. It should be 
pointed out, however, that many 
branches of pure science increasingly 
involve the cooperative efforts of nu- 
merous, individuals, and expensive 
capital equipment shared by many 
workers. 

By general consent the discoveries 
of pure science have for centuries 
been immediately consigned to the 
public domain and no valid prece- 
dent exists for restricting the advan- 
tages of knowledge of this sort to any 



81 



individual, corporation, State, or Na- 
tion. All the people are the bene- 
ficiaries. Go\'ernments dedicated to 
the public welfare, therefore, ha\'e a 
responsibilitN' for encouraging and 
supporting the production of new 
knowledge on the broadest possible 
basis. In the United States this re- 
sponsibility has long been recognized. 

2. Background Research 

The preparation of accurate topo- 
graphic and geologic maps, the col- 
lection of meteorological data, the 
determination of physical and chemi- 
cal constants, the description of spe- 
cies of animals, plants, and minerals, 
the establishment of standards for 
hormones, drugs, and X-ray therapy; 
these and similar types of scientific 
work are here grouped together un- 
der the term background research. 
Such background knowledge pro\'ides 
essential data for ad\ances in both 
pure and applied science. It is also 
widely used by the engineer, the 
physician and the public at large. In 
contrast to pure science, the objec- 
tives of this type of research and the 
methods to be used are reasonably 
clear before an in\'estigation is under- 
taken. Thus, comprehensive pro- 
grams may be mapped out and the 
work carried on by relatively large 
numbers of trained personnel as a 
coordinated effort. 

Scientific work of this character is 
necessarily carried on in all t\'pes of 
research organizations — in universi- 
ties, in industry, and in Government 
bureaus. Much of it e\'olves as a nec- 
essary byproduct either of applied 
research or of dexelopment. Only 
\'ery rarely, however, does the knowl- 
edge obtained emerge in patentable 
form and the public welfare is usu- 
allv best ser\'ed by prompt publica- 
tion of the results. 



There seems to be little disagree- 
ment with the view that these sur- 
veys and descriptions of basic facts 
and the determination of standards 
are proper fields for Government ac- 
tion and that centralization of cer- 
tain aspects of this work in Federal 
laboratories carries many advantages. 
There are few private organizations 
equipped to carry out more than a 
small fraction of the research needed 
in these fields. And it is obvious, for 
example, that topographic maps are 
most useful when maps for the entire 
country observe similar rules in re- 
gard to scale, contour lines, conven- 
tional markings for roads, dwellings, 
etc. Similarly, standard units for hor- 
mones should be based on uniform 
test procedures and be stated, so far 
as is possible, in uniform units. The 
Federal Government has recognized 
these responsibilities in principle and 
the Bureau of Standards serves as an 
excellent example of how such work 
can be carried out most efficiently. 

Recent technical advance in such 
fields as synthetic chemistry and in- 
dustrial biology have resulted in a 
stream of new compounds and mate- 
rials too rapid for present laboratories 
to catalogue. Many substances of 
great potential usefulness are either 
completely unknown, or their prop- 
erties inadequately described. Com- 
plex minerals such as coal, and a 
wealth of agricultural products, are 
composed of chemical compounds, 
any one of which may become the 
basis of a new industry. What is 
needed is enough knowledge about 
their potentialities to justify the pri- 
\'ate investment necessary for their 
practical application. If the problem 
is left entirely in pri\'ate hands, prog- 
ress may be very slow. At present, 
only the larger industrial laboratories 
have the capacity to engage exten- 



82 



sivelv in such research. It seems de- 
sirable, therefore, for the Government 
to arrange for work of this sort, either 
in its own laboratories or in outside 
institutions, and to make the results 
of this research generally available in 
a systematic manner. 

3. Applied Research and Devel- 
opment 

Applied research and development 
differs in several important respects 
from pure science. Since the objec- 
tive can often be definitelv mapped 
out beforehand, the work lends itself 
to organized effort. If successful, the 
results of applied research are of a 
definitely practical or commercial 
value. The very heavy expenses of 
such work are, therefore, undertaken 
by private organizations onlv in the 
hope of ultimately recovering the 
funds in\'ested. 

In several fields, admittedly, such 
as agriculture and in various special 
industries where the individual pro- 
ducing units are small and widely 
dispersed, the presence of a profit 
motive does not ensure the existence 
of adequate research and develop- 
ment. The substantial research work 
initiated by the Department of Agri- 
culture has developed in response to 
these special needs. 

The distinction between applied 
and pure research is not a hard and 
fast one, and industrial scientists may 
tackle specific problems from broad 
fundamental \'iewpoints. But it is 
important to emphasize that there is 
a perverse law governing research: 
Under the pressure for immediate re- 
sults, and unless deliberate policies 
are set up to guard against this, ap- 
plied research invariably drives out 
pure. 

The moral is clear: It is pure re- 
search which deserves and requires 



special protection and specially as 
sured support. 



B. Development of Scientific Re- 
search in the United States 

During the colonial period of 
American history, scientific work was 
carried on in random, sporadic fash- 
ion, and for the most part outside the 
universities. Franklin and Jefferson 
are outstanding examples of the type 
of gifted amateur whose influence 
upon American science continued to 
be felt well into the nineteenth cen- 
tury. In the first decades of the Re- 
public, the older American colleges 
began to gi\'e science increased at- 
tention in the curriculum. But de- 
spite the presence on their faculties 
of such outstanding individuals as 
the Sillimans, Louis Agassiz, and 
Joseph Henry, it cannot be concluded 
that the colleges were active centers 
of research, or that science received 
much emphasis in institutions which, 
if they were not so exclusively con- 
cerned with religious instruction as 
heretofore, were still devoted to the 
ideals of a liberal education along 
the lines of strict classical and liter- 
ary tradition. 

With the college environment in- 
imical or at least cool toward the 
growth of scientific research, neither 
Government support nor private en- 
dowment was available in the United 
States for the promotion of pure re- 
search until late in the nineteenth 
century. This is in marked contrast 
to the principal European countries 
where, almost without exception, 
science was directly supported by the 
governments. Gradually in response 
to a steadily increasing need, the 
Federal Government established the 
scientific bureaus that it needed to 
fulfill its obligations to the public. 



83 



During the course of the century it 
created the Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey, the Naval Observatory, the De- 
partment of Agriculture, and the 
Geological Survey. In 1836, to cite 
an early example of Federal support 
of a scientific venture, the Wilkes 
Exploring Expedition was authorized 
"to expand the bounds of science and 
to promote knowledge." But the 
practical nature of all these acti\'ities 
is evident. Despite several eloquent 
expressions by scientific men of the 
important long-run utility of sponsor- 
ing pure science, the Congress turned 
a deaf ear to all proposals for creating 
scientific institutions having anything 
but limited and strictly utilitarian 
purposes. Washington's plan for a 
national university, and the various 
suggestions for a Government-spon- 
sored academy or a national institu- 
tion had the support of public figures 
like Jefferson, Madison, and John 
Quincy Adams but were unpopular 
in Congress and were often strenu- 
ously opposed by the older private 
colleges. 

If Government support for science 
was not forthcoming, neither was 
support from private gifts or bequests. 
It is significant that the first consid- 
erable sum for the support of pure 
science came from a foreigner, the 
Englishman James Smithson, with 
whose bequest Congress — after de- 
bating its acceptance and disposition 
for nearly 10 years — created the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

As a result of the profound forces 
which were converting America in 
the last decade of the nineteenth cen- 
tury from an essentially backward 
agricultural Nation to a world power, 
changes took place in our attitudes 
toward science and learning and to- 
ward the encouragement that should 
properly be accorded them. The State 



universities and land-grant colleges 
grew and prospered through generous 
public support. Science also became 
one of the beneficiaries of the pri\'ate 
fortunes built up in the later nine- 
teenth century. Whereas earlier it 
had been evident that only the Gov- 
ernment could assume the burden of 
erecting and supporting an astronomi- 
cal observatory, there were now men 
like James Lick with fortunes large 
enough to build and endow such ex- 
pensive centers of research. Equally 
important were the contributions of 
private philanthropy in developing 
universities and in the direct support 
of research through the creation of 
nonprofit science institutions and 
philanthropic foundations. 

Two of our best-known privately 
endowed institutions devoted to pure 
research, the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington and the Rockefeller In- 
stitute, were created shortly after the 
turn of the century. From the same 
gigantic fortunes stemmed the Rocke- 
feller Foundation and the Carnegie 
Corporation. Their tremendous con- 
tributions to the progress of scientific 
research, not only in America, but 
throughout the world, cannot be ex- 
aggerated. 

The latter part of the nineteenth 
and the early twentieth centuries 
witnessed the de\'elopment of the 
American medical schools, which to- 
day serve as research centers not only 
for applied or practical medicine but 
for fundamental research in many 
biological problems which are basic 
to medicine. The medical schools 
appear to have been particularly at- 
tractive objects of private philan- 
thropy. Various factors, such as the 
regulation of standards by the pro- 
fession at large and the active inter- 
est of two or three of the largest 
foundations, haye gi\'en to the medi- 



84 



cal schools of the country a uniformly 
ad\'anced status not enjoved hv other 
di\'isions of our uni\crsities. In fact, 
only in the case of medical schools 
can the United States be said to excel 
all other countries in the number of 
first-rate research institutions per unit 
of population. 

Almost equally significant is the 
growth of the Federal Government's 
own scientific bureaus. The existing 
agencies and departments, especially 
the Department of Agriculture, un- 
derwent an extraordinary develop- 
ment. An outstanding feature was 
the expanding program of grants-in- 
aid to the State agricultural experi- 
ment stations. The first decades of 
the twentieth century saw the crea- 
tion of a number of new scientific 
bureaus and laboratories: the Bureau 
of Mines, the Bureau of Standards, 
and the National Institute of Health. 
The First World War led to the crea- 
tion of the principal service labora- 
tories, the Na\'al Research Labora- 
tory, for example, and the National 
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. 
By 1932 the total Government ex- 
penditure for research had risen to 
over 40 million dollars, more than 
double the figure for 1922. 

But no factor in the gradual emer- 
gence of American science from its 
dependent state is more striking than 
the growth of research laboratories in 
industry. Prior to 1880 there were 
few, if any, commercial laboratories 
worthy of the name; but in the last 
decades of the nineteenth century 
powerful new industries, especially 
in the electrical field, grew out of 
basic technological discoveries and 
the inventive genius of men like Bell, 
Edison, and Elihu Thomson. Firms 
in these new industries almost from 
the outset adopted the policy of main- 
taining their lead by energetic pro- 



grams of scientific and technological 
research resulting in patents based 
in large part on the work of their own 
laboratories. 

The First World War provided a 
further stimulus to the growth of 
commercial laboratories by revealing 
the inadequacies of our position in 
industrial research as compared to 
Germany, especially in the chemical 
field. Much of our present chemical 
industry, together with its vast re- 
search potential, grew up in response 
to needs which were demonstrated in 
the war, aided by the availability of 
patents seized from their former 
German owners. 



C. The National Research Budget 

The over-all picture of the devel- 
opment of research in the United 
States, as reflected in the changed 
structure and magnitude of the na- 
tional research expenditures of the 
last 15 years, is shown in table I and 
in the corresponding figure I. 

Since statistical information is nec- 
essarily fragmentary and dependent 
upon arbitrary definitions, most of 
the estimates are subject to a very 
considerable margin of error. Never- 
theless, the following generalizations 
seem warranted: 

(1) Of the three principal groups 
engaged in research, private industry 
contributes by far the largest portion 
of the total national expenditures, 
with the Government coming next 
and the educational institutions last. 

(2) Research expenditures of in- 
dustry, Government, and industrial 
institutes have been expanding con- 
siderably more rapidly (fig. I), than 
research in uni\'ersities and science 
institutes. 

During the war, the Government 
expanded its research budget from 



85 



$69,000,000 in 1940 to $720,000,000 dustry and to the universities. This 

in 1944. Not all of this large increase resulted in changing the trend of 

took place in Government labora- university research expenditures. The 

tories. Substantial sums went to in- universities spent $28,000,000 on 



Table 



Scientific Research Expenditures and National Income 



Year 


National 
income ' 


Industry ■ 


Nonprofit 

industrial 

research 

institutes = 


Government 

(Federal 
and State)' 


Colleges 
and univer- 
sities " 


Research 
Institutes « 


Total 
scientific 
research ex- 
penditures 


1920 


Millions 

$74,200 
59,400 
60,700 
71,600 
72,100 
76,000 
81,600 
80,100 
81,700 
87,200 
77,300 
60,300 
42,900 
42,200 
49,500 
54,400 
62,900 
70 , 500 
64,600 
70,829 
77,809 
96,900 
122,200 
149,400 
160,700 


Thousands 

$29,468 

37,400 

44 ,-000 

50,000 

58,000 

64,000 

70,000 

75,928 

88,000 

106,000 

116,000 

131,320 

120,000 

110,268 

124,000 

136,000 

152,000 

160,000 

177,168 

200,000 

234,000 


Thousands 


Thousands 


Thousands 


Thousands 


Thousands 


1921- - .. 












1922 












1923 




$560 

1,240 

990 

740 

1,540 

2,470 

2,530 

3,580 

4,080 

5,000 

6,110 

9,139 

14,079 


$15,615 
16,336 
18,087 
16,995 
17,119 
17,757 
22,825 
24,066 
26,945 
40,081 








1924 








1925 - 








1926 








1927 








1928 








1929 -_. .- 








1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 


$20,353 
"24^840" 


$5,212 
5,218 
5,159 
4,887 
4,767 
4,785 
4,701 
4,635 
4,596 
4,531 
4,549 


$166,191 
191^676 


1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 


22,243 
25,328 
33,891 
40,786 
49,382 


19,286 

"25^660" 

28^496' 


171,836 
"218^22 
"263^722 


1940 

1941 


69,136 
207,259 
332,151 
561,507 
719,813 


31,450 


345,245 


1942 


39,575 






1943 






1944 

























' Kuznets, Simon S., National Income and Its Composition, 1919-38, Vol. I (New York, National Bureau 
of Economic Research, 1941), p. 137. 

■ National Resources Committee, Research — A National Resource, Vol. II, Industrial Research (Washing- 
ton, Supt. Docs., 1938), p. 174; Perazich, G. and Field, P., Industrial Research and Changing Technology 
(Philadelphia, WPA, National Research Project, Rep. No. M-4, Jan. 1940), p. 65. 

' Includes the industrial research institutes supported primarily by contributions from industry. Esti- 
mated $5,000,000 spent by nonprofit industrial research institutes for 1939 and extrapolated for other years 
by the Battelle Memorial Institute figures given in their publication Research in Action (Columbus, 1944), 
p. 51. 

' Report on Federal Government expenditures on scientific research. Excludes Federal grants to agricul- 
tural experiment stations. 3 percent of Federal Government expenditures estimated as equivalent to scien- 
tific research expenditures by the States, exclusive of their grants to agricultural experiment stations and 
colleges and universities, which are included in the expenditures by the latter. 1940-44 Federal Govern- 
ment figures do not include grants to "educational institutions and foundations." 

' The National Resources Committee reported that $50,000,000 were spent on research by all colleges and 
universities in 1935-36. Based on the surveys by the Bowman Committee, it was estimated that $25,000,000 
of this were for expenditures on research in the natural sciences. The trend shown in research expenditures 
of a large sample of universities and colleges was used to extrapolate for years other than 1936. Figures in- 
clude grants from foundations and from the Government for agricultural experiment stations. 

'Includes the endowed research institutes which are not connected with any industry nor an integral 
part of any university, such as the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, the Wistar Institute, the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, etc. The estimates 
have been made upon published information and questionnaires. The trend shown in the institutions on 
which complete information was available was used to extrapolate the research expenditures in other re- 
search institutes. It was estimated that six institutes constituted 75 percent of the total expenditures. 



86 



research in 1938, while in 1943-44 
the Office of Scientific Research and 
Development, alone, contracted for 
$90,000,000 of research in univer- 
sities and colleges. 

Certain problems which should be 
considered in planning for a national 
postwar research program, and some 
guidance in meeting these problems, 
can be ascertained from a study of 
the basic prewar trends and relation- 
ships. Particularlv important is a 
studv of the relative expenditures for 
pure and applied research. Accord- 
ing to the best available estimates, 
industrv before the war devoted 
about 5 percent of its research 
budget, or $9,000,000,^ and Govern- 
ment about 15 percent, or $7,500,- 
000, to pure research. Colleges, uni- 
versities, and endowed research insti- 
tutes spent 70 percent of their re- 
search budgets, or a total sum of 
nearly $23,000,000 in this way. 

Total national expenditure for 
pure science thus amounted to ap- 
proximately $40,000,000 while that 
for applied reached a figure of $227,- 
000,000, a ratio of nearly 1 to 6. In 
England, where the development of 
industrial research is, admittedlv, 



In the year 1938. 



\'ery retarded, the corresponding ratio 
of pure to applied research is esti- 
mated at 1 to 1.2.- 

In the decade from 1930 to 1940 
applied research was expanding much 
more rapidly in the United States 
than was pure research. During this 
period industrial research expanded 
by 100 percent and governmental re- 
search by 200 percent. Research in 
colleges and universities increased 
bv 50 percent, and the endowed re- 
search institutes (which were pri- 
marilv devoted to pure research) de- 
clined bv nearly 15 percent. It may 
be concluded, therefore, that since 
governmental and industrial expendi- 
ture is growing so rapidly, relative 
to that of the universities, generous 
support to university research is es- 
sential if the proportion of pure to 
applied research is to be maintained 
at anything like the previous relation- 
ship. 

This support will have to include 
substantial expenditures for capital 
facilities. The great decline in capital 
outlays of privately supported insti- 
tutions is very striking. 

- Computed from research budgets listed by 
Bernal, J. D., The Social Functio}i of Science 
(London, Routledge, 1939). 



Annual Expenditures for Capital Outlay 

All Institutions of Higher Education 
Millions of Dollars 







Privately supported 


Publicly supported 




Fiscal year 


institutions 


institutions 


1929-30 




$73.1 


$36.6 


1931-32 




56.8 


35.0 


1933-34 




18.1 


11.4 


1935-36 




15.3 


32.1 


1937-38 




29.6 


40.9 


1939-40 




20.6 


63.6 


1941 42 




19.8 


31.8 



Source: Biennial Surveys of Education (Washington, U. S. Office of Education). 



87 



Some portion of the new plant and 
equipment constructed during the 
last few years for the purpose of war 
research can be converted to peace- 
time uses. Nevertheless, a consider- 
able amount of new investment will 
have to be undertaken after the war. 
There can be no doubt that such new 
construction could constitute one of 



the most productive kinds of public 
and private investment. 

Next to the achievement of an ade- 
quate total volume of research activi- 
ties and the establishment of a proper 
proportion between its pure and ap- 
plied phases, maintenance of a con- 
tinuous and steady expansion should 
be considered one of the most impor- 



Figure 



Expenditures for Scientific Research in the United States 

Dollars Per $1,000 of National Income 









> 


• 






iV 


/ 


1 




TQi 


FAL / \ 


/ 


f 

/ 






/ \ 


/ 


/ 






/ \_ 


y 


• 

^MENT • 


1 


GOVERh 






/ 




P f 






1 


J 


/ 






1 


/ 


• 






/ N INDUSTRY / 


/ 








/ 
^ / 


/■ 






/ 
/ 


^V 


/ 






/ 




/ 






/ 

/ 




• 






f 








i 


1 








/ 










/ 










• 






/ 




• 






1 


^ >. - 


, ^ 


/\ 


.^ 
^ 




^ ^ 
• 




/ \ 


/ COLLEGES AND 


/ RESEARC 


H INSTITUTES,^ 


J- -^rr. 


,.^ UNIVERSITIES 


.1.1 


... 1 


\ INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 

\ . 1 INSTITIITFSN^ ^ 







1920 



1925 



1930 



1935 



1940 



1945 



88 



tant objectives of a far-sighted na- 
tional research poHcy. Idle scientihc 
talent and a retarded rate of scien- 
tific and technological progress have 
been the usual result of economic 
depression. Steady maintenance of a 
generally high level of production 
and emplovment would naturally ob- 
viate the necessity of special stabili- 
zation policies in respect to research 
and technological development. In 
the period of postwar transition and 
possible temporary recession, how- 
ever, increased governmental expend- 
iture mav be necessary in order to 
offset the probable reduction of re- 



search activities in industry and in 
prixately financed universities. Even 
if such a temporary recession should 
be much milder than the great de- 
pression of the early 1930's, the abso- 
lute reduction in the national re- 
search budget would be substantial 
since the general level of research is 
now much higher than it was 15 
years ago. It is urged, therefore, that 
anv national scientific foundation 
that is established should, as far as 
is consistent with sound and equita- 
ble policy, increase its grants for re- 
search in periods of depression. 



89 



Part Three 



Scientific Research in American Universities and Colleges 



A. The University as a Research 
Environment 

Historical development has given 
the sanction of tradition to the promi- 
nent role plaved by the universities 
in the progress of pure science. The 
advent of the agricultural and engi- 
neering schools has also increased 
university interest and responsibilitv 
in the field of applied research and 
development. 

Several factors combine to empha- 
size the appropriateness of universi- 
ties for research. The university as 
a whole is charged with the responsi- 
bilitv not onh- of maintaining the 
knowledge of the past and imparting 
it to students but of contributing to 
new knowledge of all kinds. The 
scientific worker is thus pro\'ided 
with colleagues who, though they 
may represent widely differing fields, 
all have an understanding and appre- 
ciation of the value of new knowl- 
edge. 

The long struggle for academic 
freedom has provided our universities 
with the means of protecting the sci- 
entist from many of the immediate 
pressures of convention or prejudice. 
The university at its best proxides its 
workers with a strong sense of group 
solidarity and security, plus a sub- 
stantial degree of personal and intel- 
lectual freedom. Both are essential 
in the development of new knowl- 
edge, much of which can arouse 
opposition because of its tendency to 
challenge current beliefs and prac- 
tices. 



1. Present Status of Pure Re- 
search in American Universities 

The rapid expansion of university 
education in this country during the 
present century is encouraging, but 
it is wise to remember that a large 
part of this increase has been devoted 
to undergraduate departments and 
was especially designed to meet 
increased teaching responsibilities. 
More than any other country in the 
world, the United States has under- 
taken to provide higher education on 
a broad base. There has been an even 
more remarkable percentage rate of 
growth in the number of students 
taking postgraduate courses in Ameri- 
can uni\'ersities. Development of re- 
search has not, however, paralleled 
this rapid expansion in teaching. 



2. Backgrounds and Trends of 
Financial Support to Universities 

The support of our large private 
universities and colleges has come 
mainly from endowment gifts and 
foundation grants. The prodigious 
growth of our public institutions has 
been supported by appropriations 
from the various legislatures. Since 
1929 fundamental changes in the 
American tax and income structure 
and decline in interest rates have 
slowed down the rate of new private 
gifts and endowment earnings. Stu- 
dents' fees constitute an increasing 
proportion of the total support of 
private institutions, and capital out- 
lays in those universities are definitely 



90 



on the downgrade. At the same time 
research has become increasingh' ex- 
pensive and man\' State legislatures 
are finding it diBlcult to provide ade- 
quate support for such activities in 
their universities. 

The science departments of univer- 
sities have found it necessary, in view 
of the decrease in gifts by individ- 
uals, to relv more upon industrial 
corporations for assistance. This may 
imply the distortion of university re- 
search in the direction of short-range 
problems at the expense of more 
fundamental research. Also the free- 
dom of the university scientist may 
be decreased by the introduction of 
some degree of commercial control. 
Undoubtedly, if proper safeguards 
are maintained, cooperative research 
performed for industry in universities 
can be expected to increase in the 
future to the advantage of both 
parties concerned. But in this report 
which wishes steadily to emphasize 
the need for freedom in science, it is 
well to speak of the need to guard 
against control of science by industry 
as well as against control of science 
bv government. 

If university research is to keep 
pace with the growth of our economy, 
if able people are to be attracted to 
college research and teaching, it is 
clear that new sources of financial 
support must be found. Incomes of 
other professions — doctors, lawyers, 
dentists, engineers, etc. — have in- 
creased considerablv during the war. 
The cost of living has risen markedly. 
For the first time the personal in- 
come tax bears sharply on the middle- 
income groups. And in the face of 
these factors, professorial earnings 
have been frozen at a level which 
was not considered to be overgen- 
erous 15 vears ago. A continuation 
of this trend will certainly ha\'e an 



adverse effect upon the recruitment 
and retention of able university sci- 
entists. 

3. Immediate Effects of the War 

The above trends were in evidence 
even before the war. Yet in addition, 
the present conflict has added a num- 
ber of very special problems which 
will dominate the situation for a 
number of years to come. 

First, and most important, has been 
the virtual cessation of training of 
new scientific personnel. As a result, 
we must simply accept as axiomatic 
the fact that there will be an insuffi- 
ciency of fully trained young scien- 
tists after the war and that it will 
take a considerable period of time to 
repair the deficiency. 

The war has also created a serious 
problem of reconversion and reha- 
bilitation for the individual scientist. 
The mature scholar, as well as the 
advanced student whose curriculum 
had to be interrupted, needs re-edu- 
cation and readjustment. The prob- 
lem is not simply one of returning to 
the status quo ante helium. In many 
cases the war has increased the re- 
search time and opportunities of 
American college scientists. Neces- 
sarily the concentration in relatively 
few centers of the bulk of war re- 
search will, and should, be reversed 
in time of peace. But it would defi- 
nitely not be in the national interest 
if the dispersal of research staffs away 
from the largest institutions should 
mean a marked reduction in the re- 
search opportunities and effectiveness 
of university scientists. 

Teaching and research are comple- 
mentary activities, each aiding and 
reinforcing the other. But if too 
much of the teaching is of a routine, 
elementary character, and if the num- 
ber of teaching hours is so great as 



91 



to absorb too much of the time and 
creative eneroy of the scientists, then 
the two acti\ ities become competiti\ e. 
Before the war, in all but a few of 
the most prosperous unixersities, 
teaching loads were excessixe from 
the standpoint of optimal research 
output.' The need to make up for 
the wartime deferment of training 
may necessitate the "acceleration" of 
educational programs to a three-term 
basis for some years after the war. 
again with harmful effects to re- 
search. 

To' the well-trained uni\'ersit\' sci- 
entist now enoaoed in war work, the 
immediate academic outlook may 
haye lost some of its appeal, espe- 
cially if he is research minded. For 
during the war he has had. perhaps 
for the first time in his life, the fa 
cilities and assistance to carry on re 
search in a really efficient wav. At 
the same time, industrial laboratories 

will be bidding eagerly for his serv- 
er o 

ices. Uni\ersity salaries tend to be 
low compared with those in industry 
and tKere has been a steady flow of 
unix'ersity scientists into industrial 
laboratories. Since one of the most 
important fruits of pure research is 
the creation of outstanding applied 
research men, it is \ery much in the 
national interest that this mo\ement 
take place in some degree. But in the 
immediate postwar period there is 
danger that an undue number of 
trained individuals may go into in- 
dustry, stripping the uni\'ersities of 
those who are most competent to 
teach a new generation of research 
workers. It is of the utmost impor- 
tance, therefore, to maintain a fa- 
vorable competiti\e position for uni- 
x-ersities relati\'e to industr\'. 

Paradoxically, increasing the teach- 
ing load of uni\ersity scientists to 

^ See appendix B. 



meet postwar demands may intensify 
the teaching shortage through its 
tendencN to encourage transfers to 
industry. A number of partial solu- 
tions suggest themseh-es, each being 
possible onK' if financial support is 
a\'ailable to make research opportuni- 
ties mcne plentiful and teaching more 
attractixe. Numerous scientists on 
war work may be encouraged to re- 
turn to their unixersities; many of 
the newly trained war scientists may 
be encouraged to remain in the uni- 
versities; competent scientists who 
before the war were in institutions 
with \'er\' little science teaching may 
be transferred to the more active cen- 
ters; finally, unixersities may decide 
to alter teaching methods and size of 
classes for at least a few years after 
the war. These are important short- 
run makeshifts. In the long run the 
solution will be found in the training 
of more scientists. 

It is also \'itally important that 
sufficient laboratory assistance, mate- 
rials, apparatus, clerical and manual 
aid be provided for those university 
staff members who are undertaking 
research in the natural sciences. It 
is anomalous, to say the least, that 
unixersities and colleges should hire 
first-class scientists, equip them with 
offices and laboratories, and then fail 
to proA'ide them with the supple- 
mentary funds necessary for produc- 
ti\'e research. No industrial labora- 
tory would be so imprudent as to use 
the time of highly paid staff members 
for doing shop work. 

A survey was made by this com- 
mittee to make possible a quantitative 
comparison of the support of research 
in universities, nonprofit research in- 
stitutions and industrial laboratories 
during the prewar \'ears. The aim 
was to disco\'er just how nearly the 
unixersities were approximating the 



92 



practice, in the use of research per- 
sonnel, wiiich research institutes and 
especialh industrial lahoratcMies had 
found to be economical and cllicicnt.' 
The results showed that, just prior to 
the war, university science depart- 
ments were spending on the direct 
operating costs of research — appara- 
tus, materials, technical assistance — 
sums of the order of 10 to 40 cents 
for ever\' dollar of salary paid to 
members of the research staff. A fie- 
ure of 15 to 20 cents per salary dollar 
was typical of most departments. Fig- 
ures abo\'e 30 cents were uncommon 
and were considered to be distinctly 
liberal by standards of current univer- 
sity practice. By contrast, in a similar 
survey of a number of industrial re- 
search laboratories, a figure of 40 
cents for direct research expenditures, 
per dollar of salarv paid to the re- 
search staff, was the lowest encoun- 
tered.' In most of the firms report- 
ing, the research expenditures ranged 
from $1 to $3 for each dollar of sal- 
arv. Industries ha\'e found that gen- 
erous expenditures for assistance to 
research workers are economical in 
the long run. Clearly steps must be 
taken to help the universities bring 
their supplementary research expend- 
itures more into line with the best 
practice. 

If the prewar support of research 
in uni\'ersities was inadequate, the 
postwar situation promises to be 
worse, unless drastic remedies are 
applied. In view of the wartime in- 
crease of some 27 percent in the price 
level of all goods,- each of the already 
inadequate university research dollars 
will go much less far than before the 
war. It is as though every natural 
science department had alreadv re- 

^ See appendix B. 

- B. L. S. Cost of Lh'ing Index, all items, 
March 15, 1940, to January 15, 1945. 



cei\ed a cut in its postwar research 
budget ol from one cpiartcr to one- 
third. 

This prospect is serious lor all uni- 
\'ersitics but i~)crhaps most acute for 
the 25 universities just below the first 
half dozen in size and resources. The 
large wartime unix'crsity research lab- 
oratories ha\'e drawn upon the inter- 
mediate uni\ersities for staffs. Such 
tried and experienced men can make 
\'aluable contributions in their home 
institutions if adequate funds are 
made available. Here lies the imme- 
diate opportunity from the Nation's 
point of view, although much also re- 
mains to be done at the highest and 
lowest le\'els. 

B. Form of Aid to Universities 

Althou^ih the Go\'ernment mav 
render important indirect aid to imi- 
versities by keeping its own labora- 
tories, libraries and other research fa- 
cilities at a high level of efficiency, 
the principal need is for direct finan- 
cial support under conditions which 
will not endanger academic freedom 
and the personal independence of 
the investipator. 

This committee does not feel that 
it is desirable to supply these funds 
by a series of annual conoressional 
appropriations for specific projects; 
the difficulties these have raised 
within the Government service testify 
to the e\'ils that would be introduced 
into the university environment by 
this practice. The preservation of 
academic freedom requires that funds 
be allocated in a way that would 
minimize the possibility of external 
control and would encourage long- 
term projects. 

Experience in other countries and 
the example of the successful private 
foundations suggest that a largely 
autonomous board with a staff of 



93 



men trained in science is the most 
appropriate agency for carrying on 
this phase of the Government's re- 
sponsibiHtv for scientific progress. 
Recommendations for the formation 
of a National Research Foundation 
and additional responsibilities with 
which it mav be charged appear else- 
where in this report. The following 
paragraphs are devoted to an outline 
of the committee's views respecting its 
operation in relation to universities. 

To give funds intelligently in sup- 
port of fundamental research is a 
difficult task and there is no gener- 
ally accepted rule of procedure. The 
private foundations follow a number 
of different policies and' are con- 
stantly revising their procedures on 
the basis of accumulating experience. 
A Government board would have 
new and perplexing problems stem- 
ming from its status as an arm of the 
Government, and from the fact that 
the resources at its command would 
presumably be large in comparison 
with those of any single university 
or private foundation. The commit- 
tee recommends, therefore, that such 
a board be in large measure free to 
formulate its own rules of procedure 
for allocating funds to universities, 
as long as these do not transgress 
certain broad general principles. 

The most important of these gen- 
eral principles are as follows: 

(1) The funds supplied to the 
universities should be used for the 
support of significant research with 
special emphasis on the universi- 
ties' position as the chief contribu- 
tor to pure science. 

(2) In making grants the board 
should assure itself that the univer- 
sity has competent and adequately 
trained personnel to guide the 
studies. 

(3) Grants to uni\'ersities or to 



men working in universities must 
be made in such a way as to avoid 
control of the internal policy of 
the university, so that the univer- 
sity and not the board will have 
full responsibility for the admin- 
istration of the grant after it is 
once made. 

(4) A constant effort should be 
made to improve the general re- 
search level in institutions of 
higher education throughout the 
country. 

No matter on what conditions 
money is given to universities, the 
very existence of such support will, 
of course, modify university policy. 
In fact, the increased emphasis on 
research, which will be the object of 
the Foundation, itself constitutes a 
change in policy. And despite the 
fact that our committee is concerned 
only with the natural sciences, action 
along the lines proposed cannot fail 
to have influence on the humanities 
and the social sciences. It is our hope 
and belief that the provision of funds 
for the natural sciences would, in 
some measure, free university funds 
for use in the other fields. Aside 
from such general influences, how- 
ever, it would be necessary to devise 
ways and means of allocating funds 
in large measure without deterviining 
what particular jirohlevis are to he 
worked on and who is to carry theiii 
otit. The principle of variety and de- 
centralization of control is nowhere 
more important than in scientific 
work, where the fostering of novelty 
must be the first concern. One of the 
most useful ways of preserving these 
opportunities is to allow the greatest 
possible latitude to the accumulated 
wisdom of university administrative 
officers and faculties. 

The committee has given a great 
deal of thought to the technical form 



94 



in which Government grants should 
be made in order best to reflect these 
principles. It does not wish to recom- 
mend that the proposed board be re- 
stricted to the use of any particular 
plan, as experience will undoubtedly 
reveal in each defects and adx'antages 
which cannot be predicted before- 
hand. The committee, however, feels 
that any instrumentality set up to aid 
research in unix'ersities should be em- 
powered to allocate funds in any or 
all of the following ways: 

1. Matching Grants to Private 
and State Supported Institutions 

It is proposed that research funds 
be made available to accredited uni- 
versities, colleges, and engineering 
schools on a matching basis, and in a 
manner that will be virtually auto- 
matic. These grants would be con- 
tingent upon satisfying the admin- 
istrating board that certain clearly 
stated requirements, largely of a tech- 
nical bookkeeping nature have been 
met by the particular institution in 
question. The grant would be for 
fluid research purposes within the 
institution, rather than to any par- 
ticular department or person. Once 
a university were accepted as a par- 
ticipant in this plan, and as long as 
it continued to meet the required 
conditions, it would expect to receive 
the grant as a regular annual appro- 
priation, with no other control than 
some form of Government audit to 
insure that the money was, in fact, 
used in support of research. The 
Government would match dollar for 
dollar (or according to any other 
simple formula) the sums the uni- 
versity expended for research. 

Although certain practical difficul- 
ties must be recognized and dealt 
with, many considerations make such 
matching grants attracti^'e in princi- 



ple. First, and perhaps most impor- 
tant, it leaves to the recipient institu- 
tion complete freedom in the selec- 
tion of research programs and per- 
sonnel. Second, it encourages local 
support and utilizes the important 
forces of local interest and pride, both 
in screening out unworthy projects 
and in carrying through worth-while 
ones. Third, the size of the grant is 
geared more or less realistically to the 
ability of the institution to utilize it 
effectively. Fourth, since the grants 
are largely automatic in character, the 
board is freed from the burden of 
investigating intensively the large 
number of potential recipients and 
arriving at a decision in regard to 
the merits and defects of each. The 
experience of the private foundations 
demonstrates that judgments of this 
sort are extremely difficult and time- 
consuming, even when pursued on 
a small scale. The burden of work 
for a Go\'ernment board with much 
larger funds at its disposal is bound 
to be far greater. 

There is, of course, the practical 
problem of determining research costs 
as distinguished from other outlays. 
University accounting practice is by 
no means uniform and there are in- 
herent difficulties in deciding what 
part of the costs of laboratory space, 
staff salaries, administrative overhead 
and so forth is occasioned by research 
and what part by teaching. Certain 
funds now received by universities, 
notably as a result of contracts with 
industry, should almost certainly not 
be matched by the Government, espe- 
cially if the resulting discoveries were 
to become the exclusive property of 
the industrial donor. Difficulties of 
this nature, however, are not insu- 
perable and should not weigh heavily 
against the many advantages of the 
scheme. 



95 



2. Discretionary Grants 

Matching grants, however, may 
well be attacked as a method of main 
taining the status quo, in which a 
few universities tend to dominate 
scientific research. It is, in fact, essen- 
tial to the healthy growth of science 
that the Foundation should help to 
spread the research spirit as widelv 
as possible throughout the United 
States. If the recruitment of future 
scientific personnel is to proceed from 
a suflficientlv broad base, it is impor- 
tant that as large a number of stu- 
dents as possible be made aware of 
the research point of view. Many of 
our colleges and engineering schools 
are not now able to support a signifi- 
cant amount of research.-'' The level 
of research practice in these institu- 
tions can best be raised through dis- 
cretionary grants. 

The committee recommends, there- 
fore, that the board of trustees be 
empowered to expend a substantial 
part of its funds on a discretionary 
iDasis, either as grants-in-aid for prom- 
ising special projects or in the pro- 
vision of large and expensive capital 
facilities. 

a. Grants-in-aid 

Much of the funds now granted 
bv private foundations to universities 
is in the form of grants-in-aid for spe- 
cial purposes. These range in size 
from a few hundred dollars for 1 year 
to several hundred thousand dollars 
for a period of 5 to 10 years. 

A Government foundation with 
larger sums at its command would 
presumably be in a position to make 
appropriations of considerable size 
and for long periods of time. Indeed 
the very magnitude of its responsi- 
bilities would require that it abstain 
from frittering away its efforts on a 

^ See appendix B. 



large number of small and transitory 
projects. 

Once proper precautions are taken 
to avoid obvious pitfalls, several ad- 
vantages of relatively stable grants-in- 
aid argue strongly for their adoption 
in certain circumstances. Of first im- 
portance is the fact that they offer 
what is probably the best means of 
supporting promising projects in in- 
stitutions whose present status does 
not enable them to benefit sufficiently 
under matching grants. In this con- 
nection particular attention should be 
given to attaining a better balance 
of research activity throughout the 
country. 

h. Grants for Capital Facilities 

It has already been pointed out 
that any plans for expansion of re- 
search in educational institutions will 
require additional investment in 
buildings and equipment. Increases 
in the total number of students are 
expected to bring student enrollment 
considerably above prewar levels and 
will bring great pressure on existing 
facilities which are already over- 
crowded. Substantial sums will there- 
fore be required to provide adequate 
facilities for advanced research. 

In addition the trends in many 
fields of scientific research point to- 
ward the increasing importance of 
large and highly expensive pieces of 
equipment which, at present, can be 
purchased and maintained only by 
fa\'ored institutions. The astrono- 
mers were perhaps the first to face 
this problem, but now the physicist 
wishes to work with a cyclotron or 
betatron, and the biochemist with an 
ultracentrifuge or mass spectrograph; 
and workers in many fields have need 
for the services of computing centers 
or for the use of complicated calculat- 
ing equipment, such as the differen- 



96 



tial analyzer. Much of present-day 
engineering research requires large 
installations of a semi-industrial na- 
ture. 

It is, accordingly, suggested that 
the Goyernment could greatly aid the 
course of both pure and applied re- 
search by making ayailable these fa- 
cilities to uni\ersities, vyith proyisions 
that they should be used coopera- 
tiyely by other institutions in the 
region. A detailed proposal for the 
management of such facilities will 
probably need close study; and the 
needs of each center should be 
adapted to its peculiar local circum 
stances. 

This proposal appears to haye a 
number of inherent ad\'antages: (1) 
It proyides necessary facilities that 
would not otherwise be readily ayail- 
able, and an economical and demo- 
cratic way of using them, (2) it rec- 
ognizes the cooperatiye aspects of 
modern research and proyides facili- 
ties where workers could come to- 
gether for a common effort and inter- 
change of ideas, and (3) care in the 
placement of such equipment would 
immediately stimulate and strengthen 
research efforts in hitherto less fa- 
yored areas. 

3. Postdoctoral Research 
Fellowships 

Another committee under the 
chairmanship of Dr. Moe"* has made 
a careful analysis of the problem of 
recruiting and training future re- 
search workers up to the leyel of the 
doctorate. The Moe Committee is 
recommending a substantial program 

* The Moe Committee was appointed by Dr. 
Bush to assist in answering the President's 
question "Can an effective program be pro- 
posed for discovering and developing scientific 
talent in American youth so that the continu- 
ing future of scientific research in this country 
may be assured on a level comparable to what 
has been done during the war?" (See Presi- 
dent's letter.) 



of undergraduate and predoctoral sci- 
ence fellowships. We should like to 
rcinlorce these recommendations by 
stating our belief that the need for 
additional personnel is one of the 
most pressing which faces uniyersi- 
ties, industry, and Goyernment. The 
\'er)' heart of any successful program 
of research is the existence of a strong 
body of highly trained men. Ade- 
quate funds can be of immense yalue 
in giving a large number of qualified 
persons the opportunity for the nec- 
essary training and study. Not only 
will pro\'isions for undergraduate and 
predoctoral fellowships help supply 
future workers, but grants in the lat- 
ter category will immediately con- 
tribute to the productive research 
done in universities. Much of the 
actual experimental work carried on 
in these institutions is done by stu- 
dents pursuing the Ph.D. degree 
under the direction of mature inves- 
tigators. Every additional qualified 
student assistant thus increases the 
effectiveness of the senior staff mem- 
bers. 

The Bowman Committee also 
wishes to recommend a program of 
post-doctoral fellowships as a direct 
aid to research. The National Re- 
search Council, with funds received 
from the Rockefeller Foundation, has 
for many years granted a number of 
fellowships to research workers who 
have recently received advanced de- 
grees and wish a year or two more 
to establish themselves firmly in in- 
\'estigatiye work before taking up 
extensive teaching responsibilities. A 
notably high proportion of the recip- 
ients have gone on to distinguished 
careers in science or one of the allied 
arts, notably in medicine. One of the 
most important aspects of these fel- 
lowships is that their holders have in 
the majority of instances used them 



97 



for work at institutions other than 
those in which thev obtained their 
degrees. Thus, they not onlv broad- 
ened their own training but contrib- 
uted greatly to the interchange of 
ideas and methods between labora- 
tories. In the immediate postwar 
period, an increase in the number of 
these fellowships would be especially 
important in re-establishing in scien- 
tific work many men who had com- 
pleted their formal education before 
joining the armed forces and would 
thus be ineligible for aid under the 
G.I. Bill of Rights. The fellowships 
should also be helpful in certain 
fields of pure and applied science 
where a combination of skills is re- 
quired and where the cost of a 
thorough training is prohibitive un- 
der present conditions. 

4. Senior Research Felloivships 

Although scholarship and fellow- 
ships such as those described above 
have operated successfully on a fairly 
large scale in the past, fewer oppor- 
tunities exist for similar aid to the 
mature investigator. One of the foun- 
dations has for several years gi\'en 
special attention to this field, and 
shortly before the war the National 
Research Council instituted the 
Welch Fellowships in Medicine for 
men of relatively advanced though 
hardly mature academic status. In 
the opinion of the committee, how- 
ever, much more needs to be done to 
enable really experienced investiga- 
tors to develop and utilize their tal- 
ents most effectively. The problem, 
in fact, appears to be far beyond the 
means of private resources. Research 
workers who have reached the status 
of assistant professor or above tend to 
remain in their own uni\ersities and 



their time available for research tends 
to become increasingly broken up. In 
theory, the sabbatical year gives an 
opportunity for intensive research or 
travel, but in recent years universities 
have been less and less able to grant 
such freedom from academic routine. 
The resulting immobility of the sen- 
ior staff serves to isolate the intel- 
lectual life of a university from that 
of its fellows, and the indi\'iduals 
concerned, lacking outside stimula- 
tion, may incline more and more to 
perfunctory performance of routine 
duties. The tendency of American 
universities to select full professors 
and department heads from within 
their own staffs only aggra\'ates these 
undesirable conditions. 

Fellowships large enough to meet 
the salaries of advanced academic 
personnel for periods of intensive re- 
search work at their own institutions 
or at other universities would be an 
effective means of attacking these 
problems. Such grants offer an espe- 
cially powerful tool for building up 
research in institutions that are just 
beginning to develop the research 
spirit, either by enabling their facul- 
ties to receive advanced training else- 
where or by bringing distinguished 
workers to them from other institu- 
tions. An accompanying grant to 
cover the use of research facilities 
should be made to the institution 
selected by the recipient of the fel- 
lowship. 

Efforts should also be made to 
encourage mature scientists in indus- 
try and government to avail them- 
selves of the opportunity pro\ided in 
this program to do fundamental re- 
search in universities of their own 
choice. This should help in part to 
speed the transition between pure re- 
search and its practical applications. 



98 



Part Four 



Scientific Research in the Government Service 



An analysis of the activities of the 
various scientific bureaus gives con- 
vincing proof that the recognized re- 
sponsibihties of the Government in 
scientific research are wide indeed. 
The tvpes of research in u'hich it is 
directly engaged mav be roughlv 
classified under three headings: (1) 
research that is essential to the effec- 
tive operation of Government depart- 
ments; (2) research of broad scien- 
tific and economic importance that 
has long-range value to the Nation 
and for which the Federal Govern- 
ment has assumed a large share of 
the responsibilitv (particularlv impor- 
tant has been Government research 
for industries made up of manv small 
units); and (3) technological re- 
search of public concern, which is 
either too expensive or whose success 
is too problematical or too far distant 
to attract the research efforts of com- 
mercial enterprise. In this category 
would also be placed research pro- 
grams, requiring elaborate coordina- 
tion, which the Government is pecul- 
iarly well-fitted to direct. 

Much of Government research is 
of wide scope and long-range char- 
acter. It is predominantly a team 
affair, and often involves the corre- 
lation and integration of a Nation- 
wide effort, with the Government 
enlisting the cooperation of investiga- 
tors from industry and universities 
throughout the countrv. The devel- 
opment of the contract mechanism 
for sponsoring research has been a 
most important factor in this type of 



cooperation. The planning, organiza- 
tion and successful administration of 
such far-reaching research programs 
often raise problems much more com- 
plex than those encountered in the 
operation of laboratories devoted ex- 
clusively to specific sciences. 

The general problem of improving 
the conditions under which the Gov- 
ernment conducts research, and the 
special problem of coordinating the 
various scientific activities of the Gov- 
ernment, has been previously consid- 
ered by a number of other commit- 
tees who have reported to the Gon- 
gress or to the President. In 1884, a 
committee of the National Academv 
of Sciences reported to the Gongress 
on the condition of several of the 
most important scientific bureaus. 
This committee recommended the 
consolidation of the four agencies 
under consideration into a single De- 
partment of Science, or, if that were 
not deemed practical, the creation of 
an advisorv "permanent commission" 
charged with coordinating and im- 
proving the scientific services of the 
Government. Neither recommenda- 
tion was acted upon. In 1908, an- 
other committee of the National 
Academy recommended a permanent 
board to advise on the work of the 
scientific bureaus, the board to con- 
sist of the heads of the various bu- 
reaus, four delegates from Congress, 
and "five to seven eminent men of 
science not connected with the Gov- 
ernment service." No action was 
taken as a result of this report. A 



99 



temporarv Science Ad\'isor\' Board 
was appointed b\' President Roose\ elt 
in 1933 and asked to consider specific 
problems of the organization of \'a- 
rious scientific bureaus and to rec- 
ommend a program for more acti\e 
support of research by the Federal 
Government. In the 2 years of its 
activities, the board made man\ \alu- 
able recommendations and brought 
about useful improvements in the 
Government service. The board sub- 
mitted its first report in 1934 and 
its final report late in 1935. In this 
final report the board strongly rec- 
ommended the creation of a perma- 
nent science advisory board for the 
scientific services of the Federal Gov- 
ernment. Several years later the 
National Resources Committee pub- 
lished a study of Federal aids to re- 
search and of the place of scientific 
work in the Government.^ Findings 
of these two committees have been 
consulted freely in the preparation of 
the present chapter. Suggestions from 
research workers and research direc- 
tors long connected with Government 
bureaus afford a basis for recommen- 
dations supplemental to those pro- 
posed by the earlier committees. 

A. Suggested Reforms 

The special problems of the con- 
duct of research by the Government 
are made more difficult than is nec- 
essary by the application to research 
activities and to research personnel of 
regulations designed primarily to gov- 
ern custodial, regulatory, or other 
functions of Government. Many of 
these regulations and restrictions seri- 
ously hamper successful prosecution 
of research work by Government 
agencies. If research is to be con- 
ducted by Government, its distinc- 



^ Research— A National Resource. I. Relation 
of the Federal Government to Research. 



t'ne character should be recognized, 
and it should be freed from as many 
as possible of these hampering restric- 
tions. Fiscal and budgetar\' proce- 
dures should be modified to fit the 
particular needs of research work 
rather than attempting to adapt re- 
search procedures to inflexible regu- 
lations applicable to other items of 
Government expense. Ci\'il Ser\'ice 
regulations should be modified to 
permit the most advantageous pro- 
cedures for recruiting and classifying 
scientific personnel. Research bv 
Government bureaus should be co- 
ordinated with research in other pub- 
lic and private scientific institutions. 

1. Fiscal and Budgetary 
Procedures 

The scientific work of Government 
bureaus could be assisted greatly by 
simplifying procedures in order to 
permit more effective use of the 
funds appropriated for research. The 
principal modifications suggested 
here are aimed at granting wider 
latitude and greater flexibility for 
planning and executing sustained 
research programs. The necessary 
changes in procedure can probably 
best be determined by a special com- 
mittee composed of governmental 
and nongovernmental scientists and 
representatives of the budgetary or 
appropriating authorities. 

a. Appropriations for Long-Tenn 
Programs 

Current budgetary procedure of 
Go\'ernment provides funds on an 
annual basis, yet only a small per- 
centage of the research conducted by 
Government agencies can be planned 
adequately or appraised satisfactorily 
on a 1-year basis. Research programs 
should somehow be assured in terms 
of their long-run objectives. If ap- 



100 



pio\'Cc], funds should bo guaranteed 
over the period of years neeessar\ to 
permit e(Mitinuit\' of effort and attain 
ment of these uhimate ohjeeti\es. 
Appropriations should he in lump 
sums for broad programs rather than 
in speeifie sums lor detailed projeets. 
Requiring detailed justiheations ot 
an annual budget tends to stultify 
research by ignoring its intrinsic un- 
certainty. Appropriations within the 
assured sum might then be made 
available as at present in the annual 
budget. This plan has attained lim 
ited acceptance in certain depart- 
ments of the Government, but the 
procedure should be made uniform 
throughout scientific bureaus. It 
oives needed Hexibilitx' to research 
programs and permits modification 
to meet unexpected developments 
which almost inevitably arise. 

b. Cooperative Support of Research 
hy Public and Private Agencies 

The degree of cooperation by pub- 
lic and private agencies in the finan- 
cial support of research has never 
been uniform in all departments of 
the Go\'ernment. It should be made 
a relatively simple matter for any sci- 
entific bureau of the Government to 
accept funds from State or local gov- 
ernments, from nonprofit research in- 
stitutions, or from private industry, 
for cooperative scientific investiga- 
tions that are in the public interest. 

It is particularly important that 
Federal research agencies should be 
able to cooperate freely with State 
and municipal governments. Many 
problems of predominantly local con- 
cern can be studied most advanta- 
geously by State agencies, such as 
agricultural experiment stations, 
health departments, and mineral re- 
source bureaus. To the extent that 
the results of these studies are of 
more than local interest, they should 



rec(.'i\e fin.mcial support through the 
I c'deral bureaus that are particularly 
interested. The Federal Go\'ernment 
should, perhaps, make a special efiort 
to stimulate development of research 
organizations in backward States. 

c. Siniplificatioii of fiscal 
Reoiilations 

Government regulations resardina 
the purchase of supplies and equip- 
ment, while intended to assure econ- 
omy and fair dealing to all, often 
hamper research programs. The call- 
ing for bids and the insistence on 
purchase of the lowest-priced mate- 
rial is no doubt fully justified for the 
great bulk of Government supplies. 
Nevertheless, the required proce- 
dures do not always yield scientific 
etjuipment of the best quality, and 
the nominal saving is usually far out- 
weighed by intangible losses in delay 
and frustration of the research staff. 
Liberalization of the rules for pur- 
chase of scientific equipment is, there- 
fore, recommended. 

2. Operation of the Civil Service 

The most important single factor 
in scientific and technical work is the 
quality of personnel employed. Sci- 
entific and professional personnel in 
Government service are now subject 
to approximately the same system of 
recruitment, promotion, and super- 
vision as those in the clerical, fiscal, 
and custodial positions. Separate and 
distinct procedures for recruiting and 
classifying scientific personnel are 
warranted by the exacting technical 
requirements in these services. No 
one change from current practice 
would do more to improve the qual- 
ity of research conducted by the Gov- 
ernment than the establishment of a 
separate branch of the Civil Service 
for scientific and technical positions. 



101 



The Civil Service was instituted to 
replace the demoralizing "Spoils Sys- 
tem" bv an orderlv merit system of 
recruiting efficient personnel for Gov- 
ernment service. It has been largely 
successful in eliminating the "spoils- 
men"; and any modifications designed 
to improve present methods of recruit- 
ing and protecting personnel must 
not imperil the defense now afforded 
against political influence and favor- 
itism in making appointments. The 
keystone of the merit system is com- 
petition open to all qualified appli- 
cants for a position; but the Civil 
Service has been severely criticized 
because of the slow and cumbersome 
machinery necessary to insure this 
competition. The general suggestions 
offered here are designed to meet the 
more serious of these criticisms with- 
out undermining the essentials of the 
merit system. The precise form of 
changes needed in present Civil Serv- 
ice procedures deserves study by a 
special committee of governmental, 
university, and industrial scientists 
and representatives of the Civil Ser\ - 
ice Commission. 

a. Entrance Requirements for 
Scientific Service 

The standards for entrance into 
scientific and professional positions in 
the Government should be approxi- 
mately those maintained for compara- 
ble posts in universities and indus- 
tries. Civil Service positions are sub- 
jected to continuous political pressure 
to relax entrance requirements; and 
recently the educational requirements 
for a number of scientific classifica- 
tions have been removed. This opens 
the way to possible appointments by 
personal favoritism and political pref- 
erence. Action should be taken im- 
mediately to re-establish the require- 
ment of a university or college degree 
for entrance into all scientific and 



professional services. Exceptions in 
especially meritorious cases should be 
granted only upon recommendation 
of qualified scientists. 

In many types of Government em- 
ployment, standards are not lowered 
by granting military preference to 
candidates who have served in the 
armed forces, although, strictly speak- 
ing, such preference is a departure 
from the merit system. In scientific 
and technical services, however, in- 
dividuals unable to qualify without 
special preference are not really bene- 
fited by appointment to positions 
for which they are unqualified; and 
when such appointments are made, 
the work inevitably suffers. Any 
lowering of entrance requirements, 
whether for civilians or v^eterans, is 
distinctly harmful to the scientific 
services of Government. 

b. Recruitment of Scientific 
Personnel 

The methods of recruiting for gov- 
ernmental service presupposes a sup- 
ply of able applicants for every posi- 
tion to be filled. However, in the 
years immediately preceding the pres- 
ent war there was a shortage of able 
young scientists. This shortage is 
likely to be even more acute after the 
war, because of the interruption of 
training programs. 

Government scientific bureaus are 
under a severe handicap in compet- 
ing with industrial laboratories which 
employ college seniors bv the use of 
the personal interview followed by 
prompt appointment. This handicap 
should be offset as much as possible 
without jeopardizing the fundamen- 
tal objectives of Civil Service. It 
should be permissible for representa- 
tives of Government agencies to in- 
terview students and to persuade the 
more able ones to apply for employ- 
ment. The months of delay between 



102 



application, examination, and notifi- 
cation of appointment should, if pos- 
sible, be reduced to a few days. 
College seniors could be given ap- 
pointments effective on the day of 
their graduation. The necessary safe- 
guards could be maintained by a 
longer period of probationary employ- 
ment and by the requirement of suit- 
able examinations before promotion 
to higher grades. Government bu- 
reaus could further improve their 
chances of successful recruitment 
from the colleges by making wider 
use of temporary student appoint- 
ments during summer \'acations. 

c. Salary Scale 

The opportunitN' for full-time scien- 
tific work, freedom to publish results, 
and the satisfaction of serving the 
national interest attract many able 
scientists to the Government service. 
But salary scales must be broadly 
commensurate with those of private 
institutions if these scientists are ex- 
pected to remain in Government serv- 
ice. Entrance salaries in Go\'ernment 
scientific positions are usually slightly 
above this competitive level. How- 
ever, promotion is slow in Go\'ern- 
ment service, and the higher positions 
carry salaries much lower than those 
offered in industry. The present sys- 
tem of efficiency ratings and promo- 
tion procedures is designed to assure 
fair and uniform treatment for all 
governmental positions. But this sys- 
tem is so elaborate that it requires 
handling by many persons of non- 
technical training. Furthermore, in 
most branches of Go\'ernment serv- 
ice, the higher salaries are almost 
solely for super\'isory positions. As 
a result, the senior professional posi- 
tion, with a salary range of $4,600 to 
$5,400 a year, is the highest ordi- 
narih' attained by Government scien- 
tists in nonadministrative positions. 



Civil Service regulations should be 
modified to permit exceptionally 
qualified scientists to reach salaries 
of $9,000 or more a year even though 
thc\' ma\' not have important adminis- 
trati\'e responsibilities. 

It is sometimes said that one of the 
most serious limitations of scientific 
work b\' the Government is the in- 
ability to pay salaries large enough 
to get outstanding directors for re- 
search organizations. Although no 
legal restrictions, except the neces- 
sity for congressional appro\'al, pre- 
vent the employment of a director of 
a research bureau at whatever salary 
is deemed necessary, practical con- 
siderations — such as comparison with 
the salaries of Department Secretaries 
and members of Congress — ine\'itably 
impose limitations. In actual practice, 
few research directors ha\'e received 
more than $9,000 a year. 

Under the stress of war needs, 
when expert talent was urgently re- 
quired, the departments of Govern- 
ment, particularly the so-called "war 
agencies," succeeded to some extent 
in breaking down the tradition of low 
Government salaries. Many technical 
positions and salaries were, in effect, 
up-graded; and this contributed sig- 
nificantly to the flow of talent into 
Go\'ernment ser\'ice during the war 
emergency. A more general and per- 
manent up-grading of positions and 
salaries in the scientific services of 
CTOvernment, accompanied by a care- 
ful selection of new talent, would be 
a major contribution to improvement 
of the quality of research conducted 
by the Government. 

d. Security of Tenure 

The security of tenure in Civil 
Service is partial compensation for 
the lower salaries in many types of 
governmental employment, especially 
during periods of depression. But if 



103 



scientific and professional personnel 
are to be classified separately from 
other Government employees, and if 
they are to receive salaries approxi- 
mating those of their colleagues in 
universities and in industry, care 
must be taken that this security of 
tenure does not become a shelter for 
incompetence and mediocrity. 

Many of the more able and ener- 
getic scientists in Government service 
are offered higher salaries elsewhere. 
Inevitably, a number of these offers 
are accepted, with the result that the 
less qualified employees tend to con- 
stitute a larger proportion of those 
who remain. Unless a research bu- 
reau can replace such losses with 
new employees of equal ability, it is 
forced to operate with only the resi- 
due of its scientific staff after continu- 
ous raids. An additional handicap is 
the difficulty, under Civil Service 
regulations, of demoting or dismissing 
incompetent, mediocre, or poorly ad- 
justed individuals. 

f-ligher standards for entrance into 
scientific positions, longer and more 
closely supervised periods of proba- 
tion, examinations for promotions in 
the lowest grades, with the alterna- 
tive of separation from the service, 
and higher salaries for the abler scien- 
tists are some of the methods by 
which the quality of scientific work 
of the Government can be improved. 

3. Coordination of 
Governmental Research 

The extensive development of the 
sciences in recent vears, and the in- 
creasing complexity of governmental 
research, make it more difficult each 
year to coordinate the scientific work 
conducted by the Government and 
to integrate governmental research 
with that of universities, endowed in- 
stitutions, and industrial organiza- 



tions. Parallel investigations of cer- 
tain important research problems are 
to be encouraged rather than avoided, 
and duplication should not neces- 
sarily be the bugbear in science that 
it is in other types of governmental 
acti\ity. Ne\'ertheless, it becomes in- 
creasingly important that the research 
personnel of \'arious governmental 
bureaus keep in close touch with one 
another and with current technical 
developments and public needs. 

a. CoordinaUon of Research Within 
the Government 

A specific need is for an inter- 
bureau committee or council of rep- 
resentatives of the principal scien- 
tific bureaus. Such a committee might 
be set up under the Bureau of the 
Budget, or other appropriate auspices, 
to advise on interrelationships of re- 
search programs of the different agen- 
cies, and to compare the effectiveness 
of different procedures for adminis- 
tering governmental research. Recom- 
mendations from such a committee 
on policies of budget procedure or 
of classification of scientific personnel 
should carry more weight than the 
recommendation of a single bureau. 

The practice of utilizing scientific 
employees of one bureau as con- 
sultants for other bureaus is difficult 
under existing regulations. But if this 
practice were generally adopted, it 
would further coordination of re- 
search programs by disseminating 
more widely a knowledge of the re- 
lated problems under investigation by 
\'arious agencies and of the different 
methods by which these problems 
are being attacked. 

b. Coordination of Governmental Re- 
search with Outside Organizations 

There is a widespread impression 
that a research project, once started 



104 



bv a Go\crnmcnt hurcaii, uvax con 
tinue long after it has served its origi- 
nal purpose. Research jirojects need 
continuous reappraisal in the light of 
scientific ad\ance and technological 
developments. Orderh re\'ision of re 
search programs should be the normal 
and expected result of scientific [irog- 
ress. The danger that a research bu- 
reau ma\ fail to revise its programs 
or its methods when thev become 
obsolete is minimized most surelv bv 
encouraging members of the scien- 
tific staff to maintain close contact 
with their professional colleagues 
elsewhere. Government emplovees 
engaged in research should be en- 
couraged to participate in the activi- 
ties and publications of national 
scientific societies. This means, 
among other things, more liberal 
funds for tra\'el to scientific meetings, 
f^urthcrmore, it should be legallv pos- 
sible for anv Government bureau to 
keep in close touch with modern 
ideas within its field of science bv 
assigning emplovees on full pav for 
graduate work at universities or for 
research projects to be conducted at 
endowed or industrial institutions or 
at official research organizations in 
this or other countries. Scientists 
from uni\'ersities, research institu- 
tions, State agencies and industrial 
organizations should be invited to 
accept appointments for short-term 
projects in Government bureaus. 
Facilities should likewise be ex- 
tended to visiting scientists from for- 
eign countries. 

c. Clarification of Patent Policy for 
Government Employees 

The present policv of granting 
patents to the emplovees of some 
Government bureaus for inventions 
in the field of the bureau's official 
duties does not instill public confi- 



dence in Government employees nor 
encourage industr\' to share new in- 
lormation v\ith Go\'ernmcnt agencies. 
Attention should be given to the 
recommendations of the National 
Patent Planning C'ommission that all 
inventions made within the specifi- 
cally designated chities of Govern- 
ment employees be assigned to the 
Government and that doubtful cases 
be decided by a central board on 
Government patents.^ 



4. Advisory Committees to the 
Separate Bureaus and a Perma- 
nent Science Advisory Board 

Many of the changes here recom- 
mended to assure proper coordination 
of governmental research and raise 
the le\'el of its performance depend 
in considerable measure upon the ex- 
istence of ad\'isory committees to the 
several scientific bureaus. The excel- 
lent service rendered bv the several 
advisory committees already in exis- 
tence has demonstrated the \'alue of 
these bodies. Their use, however, is 
not universal, and at present only 
the more progressive bureaus actively 
seek outside advice. It is therefore 
urged that advisorv committees, com- 
posed of scientists from outside the 
Government service, be established 
for each of the bureaus or agencies 
in which extensive research is being 
conducted. 

There has been ample experience, 
also, to demonstrate the need for a 
permanent Science Advisorv Board, 
similar to the body which served so 
successfully on a temporary basis 
from 1933 to 1935. Such a central 
board could correlate the activities of 
the specialized advisory committees, 
and would probablv be the proper 

^ See Second Report of the National Patent 
Planning Commission (Washington, 1944), pp. 
10-12. 



105 



body to recommend the personnel of 
the various committees. It would be 
in a position to advise Congress and 
the Bureau of the Budget on the 
qualitv and importance of research 
being conducted bv the bureaus. Bv 
being able to relv upon the disinter- 
ested advice of such a bodv, Congress 
might be willing to appropriate sums 
for long-term programs of basic re- 
search whose importance it is difficult 
or impossible for nontechnical per- 
sons to evaluate properlv. Besides 
consulting with the bureau chiefs on 
their individual or collective prob- 



lems, the board would find it helpful 
to meet at stated intervals with the 
interbureau committee proposed ear- 
lier in this chapter. 

We add our recommendation to 
those of earlier committees and 
strongly urge the creation of a per- 
manent Science Advisory Board, em- 
powered to assume over-all re- 
sponsibility for advising the various 
branches of the Government in scien- 
tific matters. We suggest that this 
board cooperate closelv with the 
National Research Foundation. 



106 



Part Five 



Aids to Industrial Research and Technology 



Industrial research in America has 
enjoyed a rapid and extensive growth. 
There are also widespread indications 
that industry is planning to undertake 
applied research on a greatly ex- 
panded scale in the postwar period — 
an encouraging and wholesome pros- 
pect. At the same time it is evident 
that research in American industry 
is concentrated to a considerable ex- 
tent in a relatively small number of 
industrial units and in a few particu- 
larly progressive industries. Thirteen 
companies emploved nearly one-third 
of all industrial research personnel 
in the year 1938. In the rubber in- 
dustry, one-quarter of the companies 
emplo\'ed 90 percent of the research 
workers, while in petroleum and in- 
dustrial chemicals the respective per- 
centages were 85 and 88. This is not 
to suggest that there should be a 
considerable degree of uniformity 
among the units of an industry or 
between industries as to the percent 
age of research effort in each. But 
the implications of the increasing 
concentration of industrial research 
in this country deserve special study. 

One important fact is clear — the 
process of transition from pure re- 
search to its practical application does 
not work equallv effectively in all in- 
dustries. For example, the petroleum 
industry has for years supported far 
more research than has the coal in- 
dustry. New technical developments 
in the petroleum field have made it 
possible to carry on an increasing 
amount of research while the relative 



backwardness of the coal industry, 
where small units predominate, has 
resulted in fewer and fewer new de- 
velopments and a less and less 
healthy over-all situation. 

Time did not permit an intensive 
and well-rounded investigation of 
this subject. The Committee feels 
strongly, however, that the National 
Research Foundation should be 
charged with the responsibility of 
studying the process of technological 
development in industry and of ex- 
perimenting with methods of aid to 
industrial research. The following 
suggestions are tentative and submit- 
ted with the thought that they might 
be of assistance to the Board in meet- 
ing this important challenge. 

A. Assistance to Technical Clinics 
for Small Business Enterprise 

It is the belief of the Committee 
that the most effective research wells 
up from below. Our objective, there- 
fore, should be to develop as many 
indi\'idual centers of research initia- 
tive in industry as is possible. The 
seeds of industrial research that are 
planted now in small, vigorous indus- 
trial enterprises may yield tremendous 
returns in the future. There is con- 
siderable difficulty, however, in get- 
ting research started in enterprises 
which have not been research-minded 
in the past. 

To meet this need a number of 
special research clinics have been es- 
tablished in different regions, e. g., 



107 



the New England Industrial Re- 
search Foundation. These clinics 
make their services a\'ailablc to the 
small business concerns of the region 
in which they ser\'e. It is difficult to 
place this type of enterprise entirely 
on a self-supporting basis especially 
where its important promotional ac- 
tivities are concerned. The Com- 
mittee believes that this moxement 
should be encouraged. It therefore 
recommends that the National Re- 
search Foundation be empowered to 
make sustaining grants to cover part 
of the administrative costs involved 
in such organizations, provided they 
are run on a nonprofit basis. 

The acti\'ities of such ser\ices 
should include stimulation of busi- 
ness interest in research and technical 
developments, aid to small businesses 
in interpreting the trends in technical 
de\'eIopments, consultation with in- 
dividual concerns to aid them in a 
diagnosis of their technical problems, 
and maintenance of a directory serv- 
ice to put small businessmen in touch 
with competent individuals and 
proper sources of information neces- 
sary for further work. 

Unix'crsities, engineering schools 
and nonprofit industrial research in- 
stitutes should be eligible to receive 
grants from the National Research 
Foundation to perform such services. 
Insofar as possible, organizations with 
grass-roots foundations standing high 
in communit\' prestige and offering 
a substantial background in actixe 
research work, should be selected. 
The staff of such a clinic might in- 
clude a limited number of full- or 
part-time indixiduals for general pro- 
motional and ach'isory work; but there 
should also be available a panel of 
experts in as many fields as possible 
for counsel on specific problems. 

War experience has demonstrated 



that such organizations must be able 
to bring their information directly to 
the plant. It is believed that in the 
proper hands such services will prove 
very helpful and can be of significant 
value in the long run in developing 
\'igorous new research organizations 
and reducing the existing concentra- 
tion of research in a relatively small 
number of companies. 

B. Grants to Nonprofit Industrial In- 
stitutes for Fundamental Research 

In recent years an increasing num- 
ber of industries in which research 
has lagged in the past have attempted 
to meet the problem by establishing 
special research institutes to serve the 
industry. Such institutes are usually 
supported by annual grants from in- 
di\'idual business concerns. One of 
the difficulties that these institutes 
have faced is the pressure for short- 
range accomplishments. In conse- 
quence, research undertaken has not 
been sufficiently basic to achieve the 
most significant results. It is sug- 
gested, therefore, that where non- 
profit industrial institutes are deemed 
capable of undertaking important 
long-range research they should be 
eligible for grants for fundamental 
research from the National Research 
Foundation. 

C. Encouragement for New 
Scientific Enterprises 

In addition to these recommenda- 
tions, some members of the Com- 
mittee feel that special steps should 
be taken to encourage the launching 
of small scientific enterprises. Other 
members, while sympathetic to these 
objectives, do not believe that any 
practical method could be devised for 
handling such problems through a 
Government agency. 



108 



Those members of the Committee 
who fa\or taking some positi\ e action 
to help launch new scientific enter- 
prises bcheve that greater opportuni- 
ties should be pro\'icled to indi\iduals 
who are primarily interested in new 
applications of recent advances in 
pure science rather than in basic in- 
quiry itself. This thought has been 
elaborated by one of the members 
of the Committee in the following 
terms: 

The country needs new types of indus- 
trial activity. We should not be satisfied 
with the cvcle of displacement of one good 
technical product made of metal by the 
same product made of plastic, and so on, 
in a rather unimaginative utilization of 
fundamental developments. What is re- 
quired is the rapid invention and evolu- 
tion of the peacetime analogues of jet- 
propelled vehicles, bazookas, and the mul- 
tiplicity of secret, bold developments of the 
war. 

New types of industrial activity could 
be aided if students of engineering and 
science were strongly encouraged at the 
undergraduate stage to study unsolved 
technical problems and to invent solutions 
for them. On graduation those young men 
who wish to strike out for themselves 
should have the opportunity to complete 
their inventions, both theoretically and 
practically, in an actual enterprise. In 
large industrial organizations which pro- 
vide the principal outlet for such men 
there is a long path of duty which the 
young scientist must pursue before he can 
become very effective in original contribu- 
tion. Furthermore, most large industrial 
concerns are limited by policy to special 
directions of expansion within the well- 
established field of activity of the com- 
pany. On the other hand, most small 
companies do not have the resources or 
the facilities to support "scientific pros- 
pecting." Thus the young man leaving 
the university with a proposal for a new 
kind of industrial activity is frequently not 
able to find a matrix for the development 
of his ideas in any established industrial 
organization. 



Neither is it always satisfactory that 
such a potential scientific entrepreneur 
remain in the university for graduate work. 
The Ph.D. degree in the American univer- 
sity may not best fit a man for such a 
career; it makes him a good scholar but 
may dampen his early leanings in the di- 
rection of the commercial development of 
his ideas. 

The Committee was not able to 
agree on a solution to this problem. 
The matter was regarded as of suffi- 
cient importance, however, to justify 
careful investigation by the National 
Research Foundation in the hope that 
it might be able to devise special 
methods and techniques of encour- 
aging young scientists in the de- 
velopment of their inventions and 
in the launching of new scientific 
enterprises. 

D. Strengthening the Patent System 

Patents are the life of research. No 
study of the aids to research or the 
incentives to research would be com- 
plete without an inquiry into the 
manner in which the patent laws and 
the patent system of this country 
might be strengthened. The Com- 
mittee has given its attention to this 
important problem and has advised 
Dr. Bush informally of its views on 
this subject. 

No detailed recommendations on 
the patent aspects of research are 
herein contained since Dr. Bush is 
independently making a study of this 
problem looking to a separate report 
to the President. This Committee 
wishes to emphasize, however, the 
very vital importance of a strong 
patent system to the development of 
new and active small enterprises and 
the stimulation of healthy scientific 
research. 



109 



Part Six 



Taxation and Research 



Federal corporate income taxes 
have an important bearing on the 
amount of scientific research and 
new-product development undertaken 
by private enterprises. An examina- 
tion of the present treatment of re- 
search and development expenditures 
for tax purposes is therefore an im- 
portant aspect of a study designed to 
determine, as requested bv President 
Roose\'elt, what the Government can 
do to aid research acti\'ities conducted 
by private organizations. 

A. Present Tax Treatment of Re- 
search and Development 
Expenditures 

The deduction of research and 
development ex-penditiires as current 
charges against net income is gener- 
ally permitted bv the Bureau of In- 
ternal Revenue. In broad terms the 
policv of the Bureau appears to be 
as follows: Firms that spend approxi- 
matelv the same amount on research 
and development work vear after 
year and consistentlv claim these ex- 
penditures as deductions from cur- 
rent income seldom have substantial 
amounts of their claims disallowed. 
On the other hand, where the 
amounts spent on research and devel- 
opment fluctuate widelv from year 
to year and where the taxpaver does 
not follow a consistent accounting 
practice in handling research and de- 
\'elopment expenditures, the Bureau 
tends to question more closelv the 
taxpayer's treatment of such expendi- 
tures. This policy may sometimes re- 



sult in a less favorable treatment for 
new and small companies than for 
large, established companies. 

1. Uncertainty in Minds of 
Taxpayers 

Manv taxpavers believe that in re- 
cent years the Bureau of Internal 
Revenue has been adopting an in- 
creasingly critical attitude toward the 
deductibility of research and devel- 
opment costs. This impression, so far 
as the Committee can determine, is 
not the result of any deliberate 
change in the policv of the Bureau. 
Rather, it has probablv arisen from 
the justifiable tendency of the Bureau 
to review more closelv all items af- 
fecting taxable income in vears of 
high tax rates. 

The uncertainty on the part of tax- 
payers is heightened by the fact that 
the tax law and Treasury regulations 
do not clearlv specify the proper 
treatment of research and develop- 
ment costs. There are relativelv few 
court cases on the problem; moreover, 
existing cases seem to support the 
view that many research and develop- 
ment costs are capital expenditures. 
Consequently, if the Bureau should 
abandon its present liberal policv and 
attempt to enforce the capitalization 
of research and development costs 
wherever possible, its action might 
well be sustained in court. 

If research and development costs 
were required to be capitalized, thev 
could presumably be amortized over 
their useful life. The task of de- 



110 



termining the proper basis of amorti- 
zation would, however, be extremely 
difficult and frequently impossible of 
solution. If the tax law were very 
narrowly interpreted, it is conceiv- 
able, although not likely, that the 
difficulty of determining a proper 
basis for amortizing capitalized re- 
search costs might make it impossible 
for such costs ever to be deducted for 
tax purposes. The Treasury regula- 
tions now permit intangible assets to 
be amortized only when the useful 
life of the asset can be determined 
with reasonable accuracy. 

Since a delay of several years ordi- 
narily occurs before a tax return is 
finally audited and closed by the Bu- 
reau of Internal Revenue, the un- 
certain status of the deductibility of 
research and development expendi- 
tures can involve very large sums of 
money. Small firms making heavy 
research expenditures, in particular, 
are restricted by this uncertainty in 
their commitments for fixed invest- 
ments. 

2. Proper Accounting Treatment 
of Research and Development 
Costs 

No simple, universally applicable 
principles can be laid down as to the 
proper accounting treatment of re- 
search and development costs. Some 
research costs are clearly current ex- 
penses: they either turn out to be 
worthless or merely enable the tax- 
payer to keep abreast of his com- 
petitor. Other research expenditures 
may improve the long-run position of 
an enterprise, but the amount of the 
expenditures properly allocable to a 
given product, and the proper basis 
of amortization of these expenditures, 
may be almost impossible to deter- 
mine. In a few cases such as, per- 
haps, the development of a new 



model of an airplane, the capital 
nature of the expenditure may be 
fairly obvious, and it may be possible 
to determine a reasonably satisfactory 
basis for amortizing the expenditure. 
Even in such instances, however, it is 
frequently impossible to determine in 
the year that a given expenditure is 
made whether a valuable capital asset 
will be developed. 

3. The Public Interest 

This report assumes that the stimu- 
lation of research and development 
work, especially by small enterprises, 
is in the national interest. It there- 
fore follows that the present tax un- 
certainties of research expenditures 
should be removed. The case for 
taking this action is particularly 
strong since, for the most part, all 
that is needed is a specific legal sanc- 
tion of the present Treasury practice. 

B. Recommendations for Legislative 
Action 

Recommendation (1). — Deductibil- 
ity of expenditures on research and 
development (other than expendi- 
tures for the acquisition of tangible 
capital assets). The Internal Revenue 
Code should be amended to give the 
taxpayer in every taxable year an 
option : 

(a) To deduct currently all expen- 
ditures on scientific research and the 
development of new products and 
processes, other than expenditures for 
the acquisition of tangible capital 
assets; or 

(h) To capitalize such expendi- 
tures as deferred charges and amor- 
tize them according to a specified 
plan that in the judgment of the tax- 
payer is deemed reasonable; or 

(c) To deduct currently such part 
of these expenditures as in the judg- 



111 



ment of the taxpayer is deemed to be 
a current cost and to capitalize the 
remainder as deferred charges and 
amortize them according to a speci- 
fied plan that in the judgment of the 
taxpayer is deemed reasonable. 

This recommendation appears to 
be clearly desirable. Its primary effect 
would be to give clear legal sanction 
to present practice and hence to re- 
move the uncertainty of the present 
law. A secondary effect would be to 
give the taxpayer more flexibility in 
the deduction of research and devel- 
opment costs. Verv little change in 
current practice, however, would ordi- 
narily result from the increased de- 
gree of flexibilitv. Most taxpayers 
would continue their present policy 
of treating research and development 
costs as an annual expense. Since no 
simple rule, properly applicable to 
all cases can be devised, it seems wise 
to give the taxpaver considerable free- 
dom of action. 

Recovimendation (2). — Amortiza- 
tion of expenditures for the acquisi- 
tion of tangible capital assets used for 
scientific research and the develop- 
ment of new products and processes. 
The Internal Revenue Code should 
be amended to give the taxpayer an 
option : 

(a) To amortize the cost of tan- 
gible capital assets used for scientific 
research and the development of new 
products and processes in equal 
amounts over a period of five years; or 

(h) To depreciate such assets at the 
same rates as ordinarily allowed on 
such assets. 

Recommendation (2) provides for 
an optional accelerated amortization 
of tangible capital assets acquired and 
used for the development of new 
products and processes. As such, it is 
consistent in purpose with recom- 
mendations made by the Roosevelt 



Administration for the accelerated 
amortization of all depreciable assets. 
The present recommendation would 
not, however, raise many of the diffi- 
culties of the general proposal, since 
it would apply to only a very small 
percentage of fixed assets and hence 
would not significantly affect the 
revenue yield of the tax structure. 

In general, expenditures for the 
acquisition of tangible capital assets 
constitute a minor fraction of all out- 
lays on research and development. 
Moreover, in some instances at least, 
research equipment is alreadv depre- 
ciated at a rapid rate. Nevertheless, 
this recommendation has been sup- 
ported bv most of the businessmen 
whose opinion on the proposal has 
been obtained. 

C. Broad Tax Considerations 

The preceding sections of this re- 
port have been confined to issues 
related directly to the treatment of 
research and development expendi- 
tures. Two broader tax revisions, 
clearlv desirable on other grounds 
than for the sole purpose of promot- 
ing research and development work, 
would be verv helpful in stimu- 
latino increased research and devel- 
opment expenditures. Consequently, 
the Committee concurs in the recom- 
mendations that have already been 
made by other groups: 

(1) That immediate legislative ac- 
tion be taken to make the tax refunds 
from the carrv-back provisions and 
from the postwar refund of 10 per- 
cent of excess profits taxes more 
promptlv available to taxpayers dur- 
ing the transition period; and 

(2) That the net operating loss 
carry-over provided by the present 
tax law be increased from 2 years, to, 
at least, 5 or 6 years. 



112 



Part Seven 



International Scientific Cooperation 



Perhaps more than any other na- 
tional activity, scientific research and 
development depend upon close rela- 
tionships with other countries. Scien- 
tific knowledge is not limited by 
geographical or racial boundaries, and 
it is almost impossible to think of 
any branch of science which has 
progressed very far without amalgam- 
ating discoveries made in several 
different nations. In the past, most 
of this interchange has gone on in- 
formally and directly between the 
members of the scientific communi- 
ties concerned, without regard to 
political considerations. Certain obvi- 
ous barriers such as that of language 
have hampered free communication, 
but, on the whole, relations between 
scientists have probably been closer 
than between the representatives of 
anv other segment of society. 

The growth of science in the last 
few decades and its increasingly close 
relationship to other national inter- 
ests have demonstrated the need for 
more official methods of carrying on 
international scientific activity. 

A. Support and Sponsorship of 
International Cooperative 
Scientific Enterprises 

That this country has never pro- 
vided any method of participating 
ofhciallv in international scientific 

J 

enterprises has frequently been an 
embarrassment to various scientific 
groups. If the present tendency, in 
other countries, of closely integrating 



science with Government continues, 
the need will exist for some official 
body to carry on international scien- 
tific activities. (A good example of 
such an activity was the so-called 
"International Polar Year" in which 
several countries, interested in the 
compilation of scientific data of the 
Arctic regions, pooled information and 
techniques. This cooperation gave 
added value to the results of the study 
by providing uniform methods of ob- 
servation and presentation of the data 
collected.) The Government could 
not onlv provide some modest financ- 
ing for such international cooperative 
projects, but it could also facilitate 
them by arranging for means of 
travel, visas, and so forth. 

It is therefore recommended that 
the National Research Foundation be 
charged with the responsibility of 
participating in such international 
cooperative scientific enterprises as it 
deems desirable. 

1. International Scientific 
Congresses 

The Foundation should also par- 
ticipate in arrangements for interna- 
tional scientific conferences whereby 
scientific workers in different coun- 
tries may be brought together to ex- 
change ideas. These were held more 
or less regularly before the war and 
were found to be stimulating and 
useful forms of assistance to the ad- 
vancement of science. As far as the 
United States was concerned, how- 



113 



ever, its representatives were fre- 
quently hampered, especially when 
they were acting as hosts for confer- 
ences held in this country, by the 
lack of Go\ernment financial aid and 
by difficulties in arranging for official 
courtesies relating to the travel of 
outstanding men from abroad and for 
other marks of official recognition 
which are commonly available in 
Europe. An organization such as the 
National Research Foundation could 
be very helpful in making these 
arrangements. 

2. International Fellowships 

If the Foundation is set up as sug- 
gested, it would be empowered to 
grant scholarships and fellowships to 
qualified scientists. It is recom- 
mended that attention be given to 
awarding some of these fellowships to 
Americans who wish foreign travel 
and study, and to scientists from 
abroad to undertake advanced re- 
search in this country. Private foun- 
dations have found this to be an 
excellent way not only of aiding 
scientific progress but of promoting 
international understanding as well. 
Holders of such fellowships are likelv 
to be disinterested representatives of 
their countries and well equipped to 
observe the national life of the coun- 
try thev visit. Such a program should 



be undertaken with particular care 
to avoid specialized political or per- 
sonal interests, and it would be well 
to draw freely upon the experience 
of the National Research Council or 
the private foundations which have 
been successful in this field in the 
past. 

3. Scientific Attaches 

The Committee would like to sug- 
gest, as an experiment, that scientific 
attache's be appointed to serve in cer- 
tain selected United States embassies. 
They should be men of high profes- 
sional scientific attainments whose 
tenure of the post would be tempo- 
rary — perhaps 1 or 2 years — and 
whose principal duties would be con- 
cerned with facilitating the various 
aspects of scientific cooperation dis- 
cussed above. It is also expected that 
in less formal ways they would im- 
prove their knowledge of science as 
it is pursued abroad and would in 
turn contribute something from their 
experience in this country. Such a 
post \yould appear to be most impor- 
tant in countries such as Russia 
where a great deal, if not all, of the 
scientific activity is controlled or di- 
rected by the government and where 
other channels of scientific communi- 
cation ha\'e been greatly restricted for 
several vears. 



114 



A National Research Foundation 



Part Eight 



As a means to implement the rec- 
ommendations of this report, it is 
proposed that the Congress should 
create a National Research Founda- 
tion. The function of this new Fed- 
eral agency should be to assist and 
encourage research in the public in- 
terest by disbursement of funds allo- 
cated by the Congress for that pur- 
pose. Its board of trustees should be 
eminent men who are cognizant of 
the needs of science, and experienced 
in administration. The members of 
this board should be appointed bv the 
President of the United States from 
a panel nominated bv the National 
Academy of Sciences. 

It is proposed that the Foundation 
be given an original nonearning capi- 
talization of $500,000,000, to be 
called and expended, with the ap- 
proval of Congress, over not less than 
10 years. As has been discussed ear- 
lier in this report, scientists and edu- 
cators emphasize the cardinal impor- 
tance of creating a board which (1) 
can budget its expenditures over a 
considerable period of time; (2) will 
not be subject to review in detail by 
the legislature, and (3) will be able 
to withstand political pressures. The 
British University Grants Committee, 
which has been operating successfully 
for many years with funds supplied 
by Parliament and whose postwar 
role is undergoing great expansion, 
serves as one of many examples cor- 
roborating the desirabilit\' of the 
above features. It should be clearly 
understood, however, that the present 
committee does not recommend any 
instrumentality which would not be 



accountable to the President, the 
Congress, and the public for its 
operations. 

A. Organization 

The board of trustees should com- 
prise about 15 members, each serving 
on a part-time basis, with remunera- 
tion at the rate of $50 per diem when 
on official duty, plus necessary travel 
and subsistence expenses. The term 
of office should normally be for 5 
years and no retiring member should 
be eligible for reappointment until 
after a lapse of 2 additional years. 
In order to insure continuity, there 
should be a staggering of the terms 
of office of the various members. Ir 
is suggested, therefore, that at the 
outset the first appointments be for 
\'arying periods of time. Because the 
progress of science depends in great 
measure on the vigorous and progres- 
sive abilities of younger men, the 
Committee suggests that in making 
appointments to the board and in its 
policies on retirements an effort be 
made to keep the age distribution 
such as to assure dynamic leadership. 

The board should have the power 
to appoint an executive director of 
recognized ability who would be a 
full-time officer, receiving a salary 
commensurate with the dignity and 
importance of his position and respon- 
sibilities. The details of the internal 
administrative organization of the 
Foundation cannot profitably be dis- 
cussed here. The executive staff of 
the Foundation and its board of di- 
rectors would no doubt wish to 



115 



modif\- iind chiinue aclministrati\'e 
procedures in the light of experience 
acquired. Presumabh', the executi\'e 
director would have at his command 
a staff of experts, each responsible for 
a major division of science: the physi- 
cal sciences, the biological sciences, 
engineering, agriculture, etc. These 
experts would be full-time profes- 
sional employees of high salary and 
status, charged with the task of keep- 
ing in touch with research all over 
the country. By lightening the bur- 
den of administration for the board, 
they would permit it to concentrate 
on important policy decisions. Not 
the least of the problems which 
would have to be faced bv the new 
organization would be that of main- 
taining close contact with research in 
all parts of the country. 

B. Powers and Responsibilities 

The broad, general object of the 
Foundation is to promote the general 
welfare through support to science. 
However, more concrete powers, re- 
sponsibilities, and limitations must, in 
the judgment of this Committee, be 
placed upon the scientific Foundation 
when it is established. Under the 
guise of "promoting the general wel- 
fare," the agency should not be able 
to set itself up in business to produce 
in competition with existing industry. 
Its primary purpose is to provide en- 
couragement, and where necessary, 
financial aid, without at the same 
time introducing centralized control 
of research. The Foundation should 
be empowered to receive gifts or be- 
quests for the support of scientific re- 
search from outside sources as well 
as from the Government. 

In carrying out its objectives, the 
Foundation should take all necessary 
or proper steps: 



(a) To study and keep itself cur- 
rentlv informed on the present state 
of science in the United States and 
to seek ways of apph'ing its resources 
to the discovery of useful knowledge. 

ih) To initiate, encourage, sponsor 
and finance scientific research and 
development with emphasis on re- 
search aimed at (1) increasing the 
general fund of basic scientific knowl 
edge and thus creating new industries 
and increased employment, (2) pro- 
moting the conserx'ation and better 
utilization of natural resources, and 
(3) improving the health of the Na- 
tion. The Foundation should utilize 
to the greatest extent feasible the 
existing facilities in the Federal Gov- 
ernment, State governments, educa- 
tional institutions, public and private 
foundations, laboratories, and re- 
search institutes. No contract or 
grant-in-aid made in furtherance of 
this provision should introduce con- 
trol by the Foundation over the in- 
ternal policies or operations of the 
contractor or grantee. 

(c) To establish or provide new or 
additional scientific and technical re- 
search facilities in geographical areas 
or specialized fields of study or en- 
deavor where none exist or where 
existing facilities are deemed by the 
Foundation to be inadequate: Pro- 
vided, That the Foundation should 
not itself undertake directly to oper- 
ate such facilities. 

{d) To provide for and assure the 
most comprehensi\'e collection and 
dissemination of scientific and techni- 
cal knowledge and information by 
aids to libraries, bibliographic serv- 
ices, translating activities, etc. 

(e) To seek out latent scientific 
talent, and to foster and support 
scientific and technical education and 
training through grants to individ- 
uals, educational institutions, public 



116 



and prixatc foundations, laboratories 
and research institutes, and througli 
scholarships, fellowships and prizes. 

(/) To assist scientists, inxentors, 
and research workers bv affording 
them opportunities to engage in re- 
search and developmental activities. 

(g) To act in cooperation with the 
National Academy of Sciences in ad- 
vising the President, the Congress, 
and the xarious departments, inde- 
pendent establishments, and agencies 
of the Government on scientific 
matters. 

(h) To make its facilities, person- 
nel and resources fullv axailable to 
the United States of America in the 
event of war or the declaration of a 
national emergency by the President 
or the Congress. 

(i) To cooperate with the Army, 
Navy, and civilian militarv research 
organizations for the rapid inter- 
change of information on basic scien- 
tific problems of use in national 
defense. It should coordinate its ac- 
tivities wherever possible with these 
organizations to prevent unnecessary 
duplication. 

ij) To assist industry and business, 
particularly small enterprises, in es- 
tablishing research facilities and in 
obtaining scientific and technical in- 
formation and guidance, in order to 
expedite the transition from scientific 
discovery to technological application. 

(k) To help maintain a continu- 
ous and steady expansion of scien- 
tific research by increasing its grants 
for research in periods of depression, 
as far as is consistent with sound and 
equitable policy. 

(I) To represent the United States 
of America in effecting better inter- 
national cooperation in scientific ac- 
tivities, to assist in the freer inter- 
national exchange of scientific and 



technical knowledge and information 
and scientific and technical person- 
nel, to help sponsor and finance 
international scientific congresses or 
associations and cooperative scientific 
research programs. 

The board should also be empow- 
ered to make grants for such historical 
and economic studies as it believes 
necessary to fulfill its responsibili- 
ties in investigating scientific re- 
search and its practical applications 
in industry. 

Finally, it should be stressed that 
confidence must be reposed in the 
integrity, character, and qualifications 
of the individuals comprising the 
board of directors. No curbs, restric- 
tions, or limitations on their powers 
would provide adequate safeguards, 
or take the place of character and 
ability; and the introduction of a 
series of hampering limitations would 
lead to inflexibility and inefficient 
operation. 

C. Patent Policies of the 
Foundation 

The Foundation should set up its 
own general rules for the handling 
of patent policies. It is felt that in 
establishing these policies the Foun- 
dation should interfere as little as pos- 
sible with the practices of the difTerent 
universities and research institutions. 

It is expected that the obtaining of 
patents by universities on work fi- 
nanced by the National Research 
Foundation will remain a minor by- 
product of the fundamental research 
undertaken. The patent policy of the 
universities and research institutions 
should not be permitted to interfere 
with early publication of results. 
Moreover, the patent policy of the 
recipients of grants should be such 
as to foster widespread public use of 
worth-while developments. 



117 



Appendix A 



Library Aids 



Adequate technical libraries are an 
indispensable tool for research work- 
ers. Every new discovery depends 
upon a host of former ones, and every 
year brings additions to the store of 
knowledge which must be mastered 
by the scientist. The magnitude of 
the task of keeping all this knowledge 
available to the scholar requires that 
he be provided with every possible 
aid and convenience. These services 
may be considered under three head- 
ings: (A) interlibrarv cooperation, 
(B) abstracting and translating serv- 
ices, and (C) bibliographic and ref- 
erence services. 

At the present time none of these 
services can be said to be entirely 
adequate and the rapid expansion of 
published materials makes it very un- 
likely that private resources can con- 
tinue library services even on their 
present level. The problem is so large 
and requires so much special knowl- 
edge and training that the Committee 
does not feel in a position to make 
specific recommendations as to where 
Government aid can best be brought 
to bear. It does, however, feel strongly 
that a Government board such as the 
National Research Foundation pro- 
posed elsewhere in this report should 
give careful attention to the problems 
presented below, and should devote 
part of its funds to their solution. 



Several existing Government agen- 
cies, such as the Library of Congress 
and the Army Medical Library, 
could, if they were supplied with suf- 
ficient resources, do much to impro\'e 
existing services throughout the coun- 
try. The following paragraphs con- 
tain a short summary of the Com- 
mittee's views regarding the most 
important issues involved in the 
improvement of library services. 

A. Interlibrary Cooperation 

The three largest libraries in this 
country, the Library of Congress, the 
Harvard University Library, and the 
New York Public Library, have long 
ago given up any hope of collecting 
all materials necessary for research. 
Considerable evidence exists that over 
the past 150 vears, libraries in this 
country have been doubling in size 
every 16 years. This geometrical pro- 
gression raises great problems requir- 
ing that attention be given to the 
various technical proposals which 
have been made for reducing the 
bulk of this material and for simpli- 
fying the problem of storage and 
cataloguing. Pending the widespread 
adoption of really revolutionary tech- 
nical aids, it will be necessary to make 
comprehensive arrangements for in- 
terlibrary cooperation. 

There are two important problems 



118 



here. One, that of securing in this 
country at least one copy of all 
needed items. Various estimates have 
suggested that existing library hold- 
ings represent from one-third to one- 
half of all the books published. In 
other words, nowhere in this country 
are there copies of many millions of 
books, pamphlets, magazines, etc. 
The second part of the problem is 
securing enough copies of various 
titles so that they are strategically 
available to students and scholars. 
For some books, perhaps, one copy 
would be enough, for others, how- 
ever, there should be copies distrib- 
uted according to some cooperative 
plan. 

The participating institutions 
would then be free to reduce the rest 
of their collections to what may be 
called "working libraries." Adequate 
data are not yet at hand for defining 
the limits of such working libraries 
in the various scientific fields, and 
analyses of the sort recently under- 
taken by the Association of Research 
Libraries are urgently needed. Studies 
made by this group of the use of 
chemical periodicals suggest that a 
reasonable working library covering 
over 90 percent of the ordinary chem- 
ical laboratory's needs could be main- 
tained by purchasing less than half 
of the available periodical literature. 

Interlibrary cooperative plans could 
take the form of agreements among 
all libraries whereby each would at- 
tempt to be inclusive in limited fields. 
This would involve union catalogues 
on a regional and national basis and 
smoothly organized transportation ar- 
rangements. The Committee recog- 
nizes that proposals such as this have 
been frequently under study by 
librarians and that there are many 
difficulties to be surmounted. Federal 
aid for the library system of the coun- 



try might well have as its central 
object the strengthening of the Li- 
brary of Congress so that it could 
foster programs of cooperation. Both 
the Library of Congress and the 
Army Medical Library occupy lead- 
ing positions in their fields. Yet these 
two Government institutions still 
have to look to private sources for 
much of their support, especially for 
projects involving experimentation 
with new methods. Two foundations 
alone have contributed over half a 
million dollars to the Library of Con- 
gress in the past few years. 

Before leaving the subject of li- 
braries it may be well to draw atten- 
tion to an acute though temporary 
problem brought on by the war. Few, 
if any, European scientific publica- 
tions for the last 5 years have been 
reaching this country in adequate 
volume. Many important periodicals 
published are not represented at all 
and others are available in only a 
few libraries and in broken sets. The 
end of the war will not bring about 
a solution to the problem since much 
of this material was published in re- 
duced editions because of wartime 
restrictions on paper and printing. 
Furthermore, much existing material 
has been destroyed by enemy action. 
If American libraries are not to show 
serious gaps in their collections of 
important foreign periodical litera- 
ture, it will be necessary to provide 
funds for reproducing much of this 
material. The funds necessary for 
such a project are entirely beyond 
private resources, and it is proposed, 
therefore, that the Government un- 
dertake to fill this need. 

B. Abstracting and Translating 
Services 

One of the most useful tools 
whereby the scientist is enabled to 



119 



keep up with the flow of pubhcation 
is the collection of abstracts published 
in several different fields. Their pub- 
lication is extremely laborious and 
expensive, involving, as it does, the 
reading, summarizing, editing, and 
printing of all scientific articles pub- 
lished from month to month. At the 
present time much of this labor is 
donated bv scientists who would 
rather sacrifice some of their research 
time than be deprived of this useful 
service. The existence of these pub- 
lications is a precarious one and fi- 
nancial deficits are frequently en- 
countered. Since the start of the war, 
many continental publications have 
not been available for abstracting and 
a large number of American and 
British papers have been withheld for 
security reasons. 

If, as seems likely, it will not be 
possible to get this accumulated sup- 
ply of papers abstracted by persons 
working without compensation, sub- 
stantial costs may be expected. 

With the advent of Russia as an 
important contributor to science, the 
problem of translating services be- 
comes acute. Hitherto, most Ameri- 
can scientists have been able to read 
the languages in which most scien- 
tific work was published. Unfortu- 
nately, there is little likelihood that 
many of the present generation will 
learn Russian in the near future. 
Translation and republication of im- 
portant Russian works would, there- 
fore, appear to be necessary and is 
likely to be very expensive. A studv 
of the problem insofar as it concerns 
biology is now under way by the 
editors of Biological Abstracts, and 
within a period of several months it 
should be possible to give a reason- 
ably accurate statement of the cost 
involved. Since such work would 
benefit not only science generally in 



the United States but would very 
likelv promote the use of English in 
other countries, it seems proper to 
recommend that the United States 
Government consider methods by 
which the cost of such work could 
be met. 

C. Bibliographic and Reference 
Services 

The rapid accumulation of scien- 
tific publication continually increases 
the problem of keeping up with ad- 
vances even within a single field. 
Every year earlier work is obscured 
by the mass of contemporary publica- 
tion. Frequently discoveries have 
been published in the past which 
were neglected because their ultimate 
significance was not apparent in time. 
The task of bringing these past dis- 
coveries to bear on present problems 
is a difficult one. Searching the in- 
dices of a hundred different periodi- 
cals for the past several decades is an 
almost insuperable task. In some 
fields, notablv medicine, consolidated 
and cumulative indices are available; 
in others the abstracting sources are 
an aid. For various reasons, however, 
these mechanisms are not wholly sat- 
isfactory. For example, the index 
catalogue of the Surgeon General's 
Library, which is the only publica- 
tion attempting to gather together all 
medical publication in a single cumu- 
lative index, is up to date for only 
one letter of the alphabet in anv 1 
year. Few other fields, however, can 
boast of anv cumulative catalogue of 
periodical articles. 

Another attempt to meet the need 
is made bv the reference services 
maintained as a part of library serv- 
ice. In theory, these organizations 
supply lists of publications bearing 
on particular subjects. In several 
fields an adequate job may be done 



120 



insofar as books or monographs are 
concerned, but rarely is sufficient at- 
tention given to periodical articles, 
which are far more important to the 
scientist. Furthermore, these services 
are frequentlv restricted in practice 
to older workers of distinguished rep- 
utation. The young man who wishes 
to be informed about past work is 
frequentlv compelled to divert much 
energy which could be better spent 
in his laboratory. 

It seems probable that use of cat- 
aloguing and sorting devices now 
available in the form of business 
machines and the use of microfilm 
technique might go far to improve 
present methods of searching the 
literature and making bibliographies. 
Other technical advances mav be ex- 



pected lurther to simplify the prob- 
lem. Adequate utilization of techni- 
cal advance, however, would mean 
reclassifving all scientific literature 
for at least the past several decades. 
In the future this problem could be 
met by arranging for classification of 
every article prior to publication ac- 
cording to some prearranged system. 
Again the Committee wishes to 
emphasize that it is not equipped to 
make specific recommendations in re- 
gard to technical library practice. It 
merely wishes to call attention to the 
existence of problems which, because 
of their magnitude and the large 
measure of centralization necessary 
for solution, appear to be proper sub- 
jects of Federal concern. 



121 



Appendix B 



Analysis of University Researcli 
Expenditures 



Research Expenditures in a Large Sample of American Colleges 

and Universities 



To obtain factual information con- 
cerning research expenditures in 
1939—40 and an estimate of postwar 
needs, questionnaires were sent to 
the 315 colleges and universities ac- 
credited by the Association of Amer- 
ican Universities. Replies from 188 
institutions were received, giving an 
over-all coverage of 60 percent. The 
coverage among the larger institu- 



tions was higher (over 80 percent) 
than that among the smaller schools. 
Of the 188 colleges reporting, 125 
have organized research programs; 
the remaining 63 have not conducted 
research. 

Table I summarizes the returns 
from the 125 institutions supporting 
research. 



Table I 
Expenditures and Needs of University Research 

Natural Sciences and Engineering 




' This category includes all items of research expense exclusive of buildings and items of major capital 
research equipment. 

' These figures are estimates by the universities of their needs for capital facilities, including items of 
major capital research equipment and general laboratory facilities, without which the postwar research 
projects envisaged could not be carried on adequately. 

' Of the $26,000,000 over and above prewar expenditures that would be required to finance these projects, 
the universities estimate that they will be able to raise only $7,000,000 through "normal" channels. 

' It was estimated that, of the 315 colleges and universities accredited by the Association of American 
Universities, 150 have organized research programs in the natural sciences and engineering. Returns were 
received from 125 of these institutions. We have estimated the totals for 150 research universities by add- 
ing 20 percent to each category. 

122 



There are about 150 colleges and 
universities in the United States that 
have organized research programs in 
the natural sciences and engineering. 
We have estimated that research ex- 
penditures in these institutions 
amounted to $26,000,000 in 1939-40. 
Estimates of postwar projects call for 
annual expenditures of $57,000,000. 
Although this must be regarded as a 
verv rough approximation, internal 
evidence from the returns, and am- 
plifving statements accompanying 
manv of them, suggest that if ade- 
quate funds and personnel were 
available the universities would be 
able to carry out projects of this mag- 
nitude. Many of the universities, for 
example, have prepared careful lists 
of important projects that their staffs 
wish to undertake after the war. 

Postwar estimates for capital facili- 
ties were aggregated. They total 
$130,000,000, but most of them in- 
clude facilities used jointly for teach- 
ing and research. 

Some of the comments which ac- 
companied replies to the question- 
naires are given below: 

The great discrepancy between the fi- 
nancial figures for 1939 and for our ideal 
after the war is easily explainable — and 
not on the basis that we are hoping to get 
some money from the Government. There 
is just one way that scientific research can 
prosper and grow apace here, and that is 
for promising young men to have the time 
to do it. Therefore, we are certain that if 
funds became available either from outside 
or some gift to the college about which we 
know nothing at the present time, we 
should like to use them for a considerable 
enlargement of our staffs, which would 
mean that the men promising in research 
might carry only a half-time teaching load. 
This we should hope in its totality would 
amount to the full time of two or three 
extra men in each department. 
* » » 

The estimates which we have made for 
the future represent somewhat large in- 
creases over our pre-war expenditures, but 



they are quite in line with the funds 
which we have been expending for re- 
search in the war years. 
» » * 

Our estimate of postwar needs for re- 
search are based upon definite information 
concerning the research which our depart- 
ments in the sciences feel they are capable 
of undertaking and which they want very 
much to undertake as soon as funds are 

available. 

* * » 

Although the administration and faculty 
are giving greater recognition to the needs 
of such research, it is apparent that the 
state will hardly rise to the occasion with 
adequate appropriations. The university 
is, therefore, in need of considerable sup- 
port for its research program in the post- 
war period. 

Research in Small Colleges 

Quite interesting reports were re- 
ceived from small colleges on their 
attitudes toward scientific research 
and their desire to encourage it. One 
small but well-endowed college in 
the East stated that its primary ob- 
jective is a high quality of under- 
graduate teaching, and that it con- 
siders continued scholarly interest in 
research essential in order to obtain 
this objective. It has done so, in gen- 
eral, by four different means: (1) 
Grants-in-aid from a special fund. 
(2) Leaves of absence to permit fac- 
ulty members to work at other insti- 
tutions. (3) The maintenance of a 
well-equipped machine shop and car- 
penter shop with expert assistance for 
the sole use of the science depart- 
ments. (4) A liberal purchase policy 
for instruments that can be used for 
both instruction and research. This 
resulted in a well-equipped electron- 
ics laboratory at the beginning of the 
war, which was put to valuable use 
at once when war broke out. 

The type of policy outlined is 
much more liberal in its encourage- 
ment of research than was found in 



123 



most of the smaller colleges. It does, 
however, represent the aims of a con- 
siderable number of them, and the 
adoption of similar policies by others 
certainly deserves encouragement. 

Nonresearch Institutions 

The returns from the 63 colleges 
that do not have organized research 
programs were mostly in the form of 
letters; few attempted to fill out the 
questionnaires. The replies are of 
some interest, however, and they 
suggest that the small liberal arts 
colleges fall into two definite groups. 
Some of these schools view them- 
selves as purely teaching institutions 
and have no interest in developing 
research programs. Furthermore, a 
number of them are strongly opposed 
to Federal subsidy. The following 
comment is typical: 

In general it is my opinion that the 
Federal Government should not undertake 
to establish any far-reaching program for 
the support of research in either public or 
private colleges or universities. I do not 
believe such relations can be established 
and permanently maintained without in- 
volving political control, which has proved 
so disastrous in Germany and other totali- 
tarian states. 



On the other hand, many of the 
smaller colleges feel that they could 
make important contributions to re 
search, if funds were available to 
them for that purpose. Of the 63 
nonresearch institutions reporting, 25 
made statements, of which the fol- 
lowing are tvpical: • 

With adequate funds, we could rea- 
sonably expect a much greater devotion to 
research than obtains at present, for the 
members of our staff have both the inter- 
est and the training requisite for fruitful 

work. 

» * * 

Personally, I believe that if funds were 
available it would contribute toward the 
advancement of science to have one or two 
members of the staff of a liberal arts col- 
lege engaged in minor projects of research, 
such as could be carried on satisfactorily 
with the equipment that such a college 
has. 

In developing a program of post- 
war Federal aid to scientific research, 
attention should be given to the po- 
tentialities of these schools. To the ex- 
tent that our sample is representative, 
at least 40 percent of the small lib- 
eral arts colleges in this country are 
desirous of conducting research, and 
are prevented from doing so by lack 
of funds. 



124 



Research Expenditures in a Small Sample of Leading Universities, Industrial 
Research Laboratories and Nonprofit Science Institutes 



To obtain a detailed pieture of re- 
search expenditures in natural sci- 
ence departments, a special investi- 
gation was made in 13 leading uni- 
versities and institutes of technology 
throughout the country. In each uni- 
versity, the president was requested 
to appoint a consultant in the natural 
sciences to cooperate in securing the 
necessary information. Inquiries were 
made with respect to the departments 
of chemistry, physics and biology, 
and of electrical, mechanical and 
chemical engineering. In those uni- 
versities which had medical schools, 
similar inquiries were made in the 
departments of anatomy, physiology, 
biochemistry, and bacteriology. The 
relevant data were then compared 
with research expenditures in 10 of 
our leading industrial laboratories 
and in 7 nonprofit science institutes. 

It should be remembered, in assess- 
ing the results, that the data were 
prepared under pressure of time. The 
accounting systems in different insti- 
tutions differ widely; in some in- 
stances, detailed figures could be ob- 
tained with relative ease, while in 
others it was necessary to make some 
rather crude guesses. 

University Research 
Expenditures 

Time and funds for research varied 
substantially between departments in 
the same university and between uni- 
versities. Analysis of these variations 
suggests that much remains to be 



done if the majority of natural sci- 
entists with research interests are to 
be given the opportunities for re- 
search that are available in the most 
favored departments. Engineering 
departments, in general, appear to 
have very meager funds for research, 
although there are a few notable ex- 
ceptions. At least two of the engi- 
neering schools under consideration 
have undertaken far-reaching expan- 
sions in research activity since the 
year 1940 — expansions not due to the 
war, and, indeed, impeded by the 
war. If these are carried through ac- 
cording to present plans, the postwar 
research picture in these institutions 
will be very different from that for 
1939-40. 

Extraordinary variations are shown 
in the extent to which direct research 
expenditures are met from outside 
sources — especiallv grants from in- 
dustry or the foundations. Many de- 
partments draw more than half of 
their support from these outside 
sources and some of them get all their 
funds in this way. 

Comparisons were made of re- 
search expenditures in various uni- 
versity departments, industrial labo- 
ratories and science institutes. Ex- 
penses were divided into professional 
salaries and direct operating expenses 
of research.^ This latter category in- 
cluded expenditures for equipment, 
apparatus, technical and research as- 

1 See tables II-VI inclusive, columns 4 and 6; 
and table VII, columns 2 and 3. 



125 



sistance, publishing costs associated 
with research, etc. A calculation was 
then made of the amount of these 
direct expenses in relation to profes- 
sional salaries. The minimum figure 
in any of the industrial laboratories 
or science institutes studied was 
about forty cents per dollar of pro- 
fessional salary; typical figures are 
near one dollar, and in certain cases 
the figure was more than two, or even 
three, dollars. The highest figures 
for the university departments — with 
one or two striking exceptions, such 
as the chemistry department in insti- 
tution number 8 — are approximately 
the same as the lowest figures for the 
industrial laboratories and science in- 
stitutes. Typical figures for univer- 
sity departments are about twenty 
cents per dollar of salary, and often 
are considerably lower. 

Although it is very difficult to 
judge, there appeared to be a corre- 
lation between the research contri- 
butions of a university department 
and the amount of research assistance 
made available to its professional 
workers. In the institutions and de- 
partments less adequately provided 
with such support there are many 
men with research ability whose pro- 
ductivity could be significantly in- 
creased by the provision of more ade- 
quate research funds. Such funds 
might be used to diminish heavy 
teaching loads, which leave many 
men with little time for research, and 
to provide essential apparatus and 
technical assistance. 

Time Devoted to Teaching and 
Research 

The universities and engineering 
schools included in this survey rank 
among the leading institutions of the 
country. In all of them research is 
fostered and encouraged, and is con- 
sidered an important factor in aca- 



demic promotion. However, the va- 
rious institutions differ considerably 
in the relative emphasis given to 
teaching and research. In a general 
way the 13 institutions may be said 
to fall into two groups: 

In group A, comprising institutions 
1, 5, 8, 10, and 13, the teaching load 
is relatively light, but varies consid- 
erably among individuals. For some 
members of the staff it is moderately 
hiph, while for others it is only 2 or 
3 hours a week. These institutions 
are also likely to have some research 
professors who do no teaching at all. 
Most members of the staff are ex- 
pected to devote more than half of 
their time to research. Of the five 
institutions that fall in group A, four 
are privately endowed. Nos. 1 and 5 
are large universities in which a great 
deal of research is being actively car- 
ried on in all departments. No. 10 
is a similar medium-size institution. 
No. 8 is an institution devoted pri- 
marily to the natural sciences and 
engineering. One very large State 
university (No. 13) also appears to 
belong in this category, at least, as 
regards some of its science depart- 
ments. 

Group B (Nos. 2, 4, 9, 11, and 12) 
is made up of important State univer- 
sities. The teaching load is consid- 
erably heavier in this group, averag- 
ing around 12 class-room hours per 
week. Most members of the staff, 
however, are able to devote about 
one-quarter of their time to research, 
and sometimes more. Research pro- 
fessorships involving little or no 
teaching are extremely rare in these 
universities. 

Three private institutions (Nos. 3, 
6, and 7) appear to lie somewhere 
between groups A and B in regard 
to the relative allocation of time be- 
tween teaching and research. No. 3 



126 



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132 



Table VII 



Analysis of Returns on Questionnaires Sent to Industrial Laboratories 

and Nonprofit Science Institutes 

[1939 data] 
Industrial Laboratories 



1 

Reporting institutions 


2 

Salaries of 
professional 

personnel 
(thousands) 


3 

Direct operating 

expenses of 

research > 

(thousands) 


4 

Number of 

technical research 

personnel per 

professional 

individual 


5 

Ratio column 3 
to column 2 


1= 


$253 

1,225 

1,025 

393 

610 

91 

380 

46 

100 

80 


$124 

1,250 

3,709 

154 

285 

49 

286 

102 

69 

107 


0.24 
.40 

1.04 
.39 
.50 
.29 

1.89 
.70 

2.00 
.13 


0.48 


2 


1.02 


3 - 


3.62 


4 


.39 


5 


.47 


6 


.54 


7 . 


.76 


8 


2.23 


9 

10 - 


.69 
1.34 







Nonprofit Science Institutes 



13 

2 


$51 
518 
73 
29 
26 
98 
347 


$23 
557 
32 
36 
55 
80 
483 


0.76 
2.18 
.53 
.18 
1.50 
.53 
.76 


0.45 
1.07 


3 - - 


.44 


4 


1.24 


5 

6 

7 _ 


2.12 

.82 

1.39 







' Includes expenditures for equipment, apparatus, technical and research assistance, publishing costs 
Associated with research, field trips, expeditions, etc. 

2 1 and 7 are large electrical companies; 2 is a communications company; 3 and 4 are oil companies; 5 is a 
large and 9 a small chemical concern; 6 is a meat-packing company; 8 is a glass company; and 10 is a large 
pharmaceutical firm. 

= 1 and 2 are institutions for medical research ; 3, 4, and 5 for biological research ; 6 and 7 for research in the 
physical sciences. 



is a large privately endowed univer- 
sity, associated with a large State ag- 
ricultural school. No. 6 is an impor- 
tant engineering school. No. 7 is a 
medium-size liberal arts university. 

In engineering de-partments, the 
teaching schedule is generally con- 
siderably heavier than in physics, 
chemistry and biologv; often it runs 
to 18 class-room hours per week. In 
some institutions, however, the teach- 
ing schedule for engineers is no 
heavier than in other departments 
of the university. 

hi the medical sciences, teaching 



(prewar) was frequently concen- 
trated in one 4-month term, during 
which time the teaching load was 
fairly heavy; but the remaining 8 
months commonly involved little or 
no teaching. Some institutions devi- 
ate from this pattern, but, on the 
whole, facultv members in the medi- 
cal sciences tend to have a large frac- 
tion of their time available for re- 
search. 

In several institutions the amount 
of teaching done by men in the 
lower academic ranks was consider- 
ably higher than for the full and 



133 



associate professors. In other cases, 
the amount of teaching was practi- 
cally identical, regardless of rank. 
Often there were marked differences 
between one department and another 
in the same university. For instance, 
the chemistry department in one in- 
stitution reported the regular teach- 
ing load in hours per week as: full 
professors, 3; associate professors, 8; 



assistant professors, 10; instructors, 
12. This is an unusual amount of var- 
iation with rank. The biologv depart- 
ment in the same institution reported 
a uniform figure for all academic 
ranks. In this particular institution 
the chemistry department appears to 
have been much more extensively 
endowed than the other science de- 
partments. 



134 



Appendix 4 



Report of tlie Committee on Discovery 
and Development of Scientific Talent 



Table of Contents 



Page 

Letter of transmittal „„ 1 36 

Summary — 137 

Preface 142 

I. Long-term plans 147 

1. The desirability of and necessity for the proposed plans .— 147 

2. The desirability and necessary extent of the proposed long- term plans 150 

3. The recommended long-term plan and means for achieving it 152 

II. Plans for the near future — 158 

1. Deficits of scientific and technological personnel resulting from war 

and selective-service policies 158 

2. Plans for integrated scientific training for soldiers and sailors 160 

3. The importance of quality of instruction in "Army universities" 

abroad ___ _ 161 

4. The place of the GI Bill of Rights in ameliorating scientific and 

technological deficits 162 

5. Duties of schools, colleges, universities, and technical schools to 

returning veterans 163 

6. Importance of problem of scientific training of men in armed forces.... 165 

Appendix A. The educational pyramid: studies concerning able students lost 

to higher education 166 

Appendix B. Data concerning training of personned for science and technology -._. 177 

Appendix C Suggested administrative organization, bases of selection, schedule 

and procedures 1 80 



135 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

June 4, 1945. 
Dr. Vannevar Bush, 

Director, Office of Scientific Research and Development, 
1530 P Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Dear Dr. Bush: 

To assist you in making recommendations in response to President Roose- 
velt's letter of November 17, 1944, you assigned consideration of the fourth 
question in that letter to the following-named committee: 

Dr. Henry A. Barton, director, American Institute of Physics. 

Dr. C. Lalor Burdick, special assistant to the president, E. I. du Pont de 

Nemours & Co. 
Dr. James B. Conant, ptesident, Harvard University. 
Dr. Watson Davis, director, Science Service. 

Dr. Robert E. Doherty, president, Carnegie Institute of Technology. 
Dr. Paul E. Elicker, executive secretary. National Association of Sec- 
ondary School Principals. 
Mr. Farnham P. Griffiths, lawyer, San Francisco. 
Dr. W. S. Hunter, professor of psychologv. Brown University. 
Dr. T. R. McConnell, dean. College of Science, Literature, and the Arts, 

University of Minnesota. 
Mr. Henry Allen Moe, secretary general, John Simon Guggenheim 

Memorial Foundation. 
Mr. Walter S. Rogers, director. Institute of Current World Affairs. 
Dr. Harlow Shapley, director. Harvard College Observatory. 
Dr. Hugh S. Tavlor, dean of the graduate school, Princeton University. 
Dr. E. B. Wilson, professor of vital statistics. Harvard University School 
of Public Health. 
Mr. Henry Chauncey and Mr. Lawrence K. Frank are the committee's 
secretaries. 

The committee held onlv two meetings, but there has been constant inter- 
change of materials by mail and we have conferred frequentlv among our- 
selves and with others. The report herewith presented is a joint effort and 
it is agreed to, both as to content and form, by the whole committee. This 
result has been arrived at, not by compromise, but by study of the relevant 
facts in the light of the committee members' varied experience, and by dis- 
cussion and agreement upon the conclusions to be drawn from those facts 
in the light of our experience. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry Allen Moe, 
Chairman, Committee on Discovery and 

Development of Scientific Talent. 



136 



SUMMARY 

To the question asked of you by President Roosevelt, "Can an effective 
program be proposed for discovering and developing scientific talent in Amer- 
ican youth so that the continuing future of scientific research in this country 
may be assured on a level comparable to what has been done during the 
war?", wur committee reports affirmatively, stating their considered judg- 
ment that an effective program of support from the Federal Government to 
that end can be organized and, indeed, must be organized in order to assure 
the continuation of scientific and technological training and research on a 
scale adequate to the needs of the Nation, in peace or war. There is a long 
history of support granted by the Federal Government for training and re- 
search and it is our judgment that that type of support needs to be, and can 
be successfully, extended to provide for those highly talented youth with 
scientific interests and ability who must be assisted else they will not be able 
to obtain the scientific and engineering training which they merit and which 
the good of the Nation requires that they obtain. 

Our proposals to these ends have two phases: 

I. Long-term plans, aimed at ensuring through the long future an ade- 
quate supply of scientists and engineers by discovering and developing scien- 
tific talent in American youth; and 

II. Plans for the immediate future, aimed at making up, in part, the 
deficits in the ranks of scientists and engineers resulting from the war and 
the Nation's Selective Service policy. 

/. Long-Term Plans 

The Evidence for Our Conclusions 

The intelligence of the citizenry is a national resource which transcends 
in importance all other natural resources. To be effective, that intelligence 
must be trained. The evidence shows that many voung citizens of high 
intelligence fail to get the training of which thev are capable. The reasons 
for that failure are chiefly economic and geographical and can be remedied. 

Existing provisions, by scholarships and fellowships, are inadequate to 
meet the needs of this group, nor will State, local, and private plans for such 
assistance, which are now under discussion, be adequate. Our plans, simply, 
are plans — as respects science and engineering — to train for the national 

137 



welfare the highest abiHty of the youth of the Nation without regard to 
where it was born and raised and without regard to the size of the family 
income. Much of our evidence and many of our conclusions on that evidence 
are applicable to helds other than science and engineering; but our plans, 
naturally, do not go bevond our mandate to make effective plans for the 
discovery and dexelopment of scientific talent in American youth. 

The Necessary and Desirable Extent of the Proposed Plans 

Throughout our deliberations, we have had it in mind that, by scholar- 
ships and fellowships and monetarv and other rewards in disproportionate 
amounts, too large a percentage of the Nation's high ability might be drawn 
into science with a result highly detrimental to the Nation and to science. 
Plans for the discovery and development of scientific talent must be related 
to the other needs of society for high abilitv. Since there never is enough 
abilitv at high levels to satisfy all the needs of our complex civilization for 
such ability, we would not seek to draw into science any more of it than 
science's proportionate share. In that spirit of reasonableness our plans are: 

We recommend that each year 6,000 4-year scholarships be awarded to 
enable youth of scientific promise to work for bachelor's degrees in scientific 
and technological fields. We recommend further that 300 3-year fellowships 
be awarded each year to enable the recipients to obtain advanced training 
leading to doctoral degrees in science and technology. The maximum total 
of Scholars, if and when the plan is in full operation, would be 24,000 and 
the maximum total number of Fellows would be 900. Maximum annual costs 
if the plan is to be realized fully may reach, after the fourth year of 
operation, $29,000,000. 

Outline of the Plan and of the Means for Achieving It 

The Scholars should be chosen by State committees of selection and the 
Fellows by a national committee of selection. The Scholars shall be eligible 
for the fellowships but the fellowships shall also be open to other qualified 
students. 

We recommend that, for the Scholars, the scale of support should be that 
provided by the GI Bill of Rights for veterans, namely up to $500 annually 
for tuition and other fees, plus $50 monthly for personal support if single, 
and $75 monthlv if married. For the Fellows, there should be an allowance 
up to $500 for tuition and other fees and up to $100 monthly for personal 
support. 

The Scholars and Fellows should be chosen solely on the basis of merit, 
without regard to sex, color, race, creed, or need. 

All those who receive benefits under this plan, both Scholars and Fellows, 
should be enrolled in a National Science Reserve and be liable to call into 
the service of the Federal Government, in connection with scientific or tech- 
nical work in time of war or other national emergency declared by Congress 
or proclaimed bv the President. Thus, in addition to the general benefits to 
the Nation by reason of the addition to its trained ranks of such a corps of 
scientific workers, there would be a definite benefit to the Nation in having 
these scientific workers on call in national emergencies. Evidence presented 
to the committee shows that, if such a science reserve had been in existence 

138 



in 1940 and had included many of the best scientists, the mobiHzation of 
scientific men before Pearl Harbor would have been much more rapid and 
effective than it was possible to make it. 

We believe that the obligation vmdcrtaken by the recipients of National 
Science Reserve scholarships and fellowships would constitute a real q^iid 
fro quo and that the Federal Government would be well advised to invest 
the money involved even if the benefits to the Nation were thought of solely 
— which they are not — in terms of national preparedness. 

As merit should be the sole basis of selecting the Scholars and Fellows, 
likewise merit should be the sole basis of their continuing to hold their 
scholarships and fellowships — 4 years for the Scholars and a maximum of 3 
years for the Fellows. Unless the Scholars and Fellows maintain good 
behavior, good health, and scientific progress in the top quarter of their 
classes, the assistance they are receiving should be terminated. 

The quotas of scholarships to be awarded by the State (and Territorial) 
committees of selection should be determined by the number of their sec- 
ondary school graduates of the previous year as related to the national total 
of such graduates. That is, the national total of 6,000 scholarships would be 
prorated to the States in the same proportion as their high school graduates 
bear to the whole national total of such graduates. 

We recommend that the establishment of the organization to operate the 
plan and its super\'ision be entrusted to the National Academy of Sciences — 
the top scientific organization of the country and the one which, through the 
years since its establishment in 1863, has shown itself to have the knowledge, 
integrity, ability to withstand pressures, and concern for the national welfare, 
which will be required. 

//. Plans for the Immediate Future 

Because Selective Service policies have not taken account of the Nation's 
vital needs for scientists and engineers, the training of men in the fields of 
science and technology during the war has almost completely stopped. Be- 
cause of these stoppages, not until at least 6 years after the war will scientists 
trained for research emerge from the graduate schools in any significant 
quantities. Consequentlv, there is an accumulating deficit in the number of 
trained research scientists and that deficit will continue for a number of years. 

The deficits of bachelor's degrees in science and technology are already 
probably about 150,000. 

The deficits of scientific doctoral degrees — that is, of young scholars trained 
to the point where they are capable of original work — has been estimated, 
for the period 1941 projected to 1955, to be more than 16,000. 

All patriotic citizens who are informed about these matters agree that, for 
military security, good public health, full employment, and a higher stand- 
ard of living after the war, these deficits are very serious. Neither our allies, 
nor our enemies, permitted any such deficits to develop but on the contrary 
maintained or increased national programs for the training of scientists and 
engineers. 

The feasible remedies in the situation, as we find it now, appear to us to 
be these: 

139 



1. We recommend that the Research Board for National Security and the 
Army and Navv find men who, before their induction and during their 
service, have shown promise of scientific abiHty and that they be ordered, 
by name, to dutv in the United States as students for training in science and 
engineering of a grade and quafity available to civilians in peacetime. This 
should be adopted as the considered policy of the armed services and no 
desire of a commanding officer to retain a potential scientist for his useful- 
ness on the spot should be allowed to interfere with the operation of the 
policv. 

Merit should be the sole basis for the selection of these students and merit 
alone should determine the number selected. We think that probably the 
total would be no more than 100,000 and that number, following VE-day, 
could not be militarilv significant. For building up the Nation's scientific 
strength, however, that number would be very significant. If well selected 
on their merits as students of science, these men would constitute the pre- 
mium crop of future scientists and we know that the future of our country 
in peace and war depends on that premium crop. 

Under this proposed plan, be it noted, there would be no disruption of 
plans already made for the discharge of soldiers from the Army. While 
students, their discharges would occur in accordance with the already estab- 
lished rating scale. It would not do to propose that such a plan should be 
done on a volunteer basis — that is, that personnel of the Army and Navy 
should request orders to duty as students. It would not do because manv of 
the best of them probablv would not request such orders, from feelings that 
they would not wish to be put in the position of seeming to shirk their full 
patriotic duty. 

2. The Armv has made plans for setting up in foreign countries, when and 
where the military situation permits, courses of study for soldiers, including 
courses in science and technology. These plans are all to the good. The 
further important thing to ensure is that the courses shall be the best and 
most up-to-date that can be given. Unless it is to do a disservice to the 
soldiers taking its training, the Armed Forces Institute must be prepared 
with instruction that is wholly up to date in its higher levels; but the fact 
of the matter remains that since the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
the California Institute of Technology, the Ryerson Laboratory of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, and others, cannot be moved abroad, the plan for Army 
universities must be supplemented by what we have suggested in our first 
proposal above. 

3. Public Law 346, Seventy-eighth Congress, commonly known as the GI 
Bill of Rights, provides for the education of veterans of this war under certain 
conditions, at the expense of the Federal Government. Among the returning 
soldiers and sailors will be many with marked scientific talent which should 
be developed, through further education, for the national good. However, 
the 1 year of education which the law provides for essentially all veterans 
clearly will not be enough to train a scientist nor in most instances to com- 
plete training begun prior to entrv into the armed forces. The law makes 
the amount of education bevond 1 year at Government expense depend on 
length of service rather than on ability to profit from the education. 

140 



It appears to us that our mandate to set up an effective plan for discovering 
and developing scientific talent must take into account the scientific poten- 
tialities among the 10,000,000 voung Americans now in the armed forces. 
To this end, it is recommended that the Veterans' Administration set up an 
adequate counseling serxice for those veterans of marked scientific talent 
and that a complete scientific education at Government expense he provided 
for a group of them selected on the basis of merit and irrespective of the 
length of their military service. Here, again, we believe it best to recom- 
mend that standards of scientific abilitv be the limiting factors rather than 
to suggest that definite numbers be selected for training. Amendment of the 
GI Bill of Rights, to make that law an instrument for the amelioration of 
the deficits of scientists resulting from the war and Selective Service policy, 
seems to us essential for the safety and continued prosperity of the Nation. 

The adequate handling of the education of the scientific and technological 
talent now under arms will be a primary test of the effectiveness of the 
Government in meeting the whole problem to which we have been asked 
to direct our attention. The future scientific and technical leaders in the 
United States are now largely in military service. Unless exceptional steps 
are taken to recruit and train talent from the armed services at or before the 
close of the war, the future will find this country seriously handicapped for 
scientific and technological leadership. In peace or war, the handicap might 
prove fatal to our standards of living and to our way of life. 



141 



PREFACE 

You asked us to advise you upon the fourth question of President Roose- 
velt's letter to you concerning future scientific development in the United 
States. The question is: 

Can an effective program be proposed for discovering and developing scientific talent 
in American youth so that the continuing future of scientific research in this country 
may be assured on a level comparable to what has been done during the war? 

In our judgment the answer to the question is in all respects in the 
affirmative. We conclude also that the program envisaged by the question 
is both necessary and desirable. The difficult questions are upon the neces- 
sary and desirable extent of such a program and upon the best means for 
its accomplishment. 

Our report, accordingly, will be under three heads: the necessity, the 
extent and the means for making the envisaged program effective. 

There are, however, some general considerations which we deem it well 
to place before you prior to proceeding to the body of this report. 

President Roosevelt's letter to you looks toward a science that will be a 
decisive element in the national welfare in peace as it has been in war. He 
said, "New frontiers of the mind are before us, and if they are pioneered 
with the same vision, boldness, and drive with which we have waged this 
war we can create a fuller and more fruitful employment and a fuller and 
a more fruitful life. " It is clear that the letter refers to science as the word 
is commonlv understood, or, more technically described, to science now 
within the purview of the National Academy of Sciences, that is, to mathe- 
matics, the phvsical and biological sciences including psychology, geology, 
geography and anthropologv and their engineering, industrial, agricultural 
and medical applications. To science in this sense, therefore, the recom- 
mendations in this report will be limited. 

The statesmanship of science, however, requires that science be concerned 
with more than science. Science can only be an effective element in the 
national welfare as a member of a team, whether the condition be peace 
or war. 

As citfzens, as 'good citizens, we therefore think that we must have in 
mind while examining the question before us — the discovery and develop- 
ment of scientific talent — the needs of the whole national welfare. We 
could not suggest to you a program which would syphon into science and 

142 



technology a disproportionately large share of the Nation's highest abilities, 
without doing harm to the Nation, nor, indeed, without crippling science. 
The very fruits of science become available only through enterprise, indus- 
try and wisdom on the part of others as well as scientists. Science cannot 
live by and unto itself alone. 

This is not an idle fancy. Germany and Japan show us that it is not. 
They had fine science; but because they did not have governments "of the 
people, by the people and for the people" the world is now at war. This is 
not to say that science is responsible: it is to say, however, that, except as 
a member of a larger team, science is of limited value to the national welfare. 

The uses to which high ability in vouth can be put are various and, to a 
large extent, are determined by social pressures and rewards. When aided 
by selective devices for picking out scientifically talented youth, it is clear 
that large sums of money for scholarships and fellowships and monetary and 
other rewards in disproportionate amounts might draw into science too large 
a percentage of the Nation's high ability, with a result highly detrimental 
to the Nation and to science. Plans for the discovery and development of 
scientific talent must be related to the other needs of society for high ability: 
science, in the words of the man in the street, must not, and must not try 
to, hog it all. This is our deep conviction, and therefore the plans that we 
shall propose herein will endeavor to relate the need of the Nation for 
science to the needs of the Nation for high-grade trained minds in other 
fields. There is never enough ability at high levels to satisfy all the needs 
of the Nation; we would not seek to draw into science any more of it than 
science's proportionate share. 

Through all ages of civilization far-seeing men and women and govern- 
ments have been concerned with the necessity of providing for the leader- 
ship of the future, as one essential factor in the survival, or progress, of 
civilization. Provision for the leadership of the future is necessary because 
high ability, adventurous talent, is not born only into families that can pay 
for its development. It is a fact that a large proportion of the world's best 
brains and finest spirits have attained or accelerated their development 
through outside support, of the type that we should call scholarship or 
fellowship assistance. This is a profound social fact: a large part of the 
world's leaders in science and other fields of scholarship, in the creative arts, 
and even in public affairs, has required a financial leg up, while working 
toward leadership. 

Upon anv studv of the history of the development of leadership we may 
be reasonablv sure that a large part of the men and women who in future 
will lead us in all walks of life will need extraordinary boosts up the ladder 
at some stages of their careers — boosts provided by individuals, institutions, 
and governmental agencies, on the basis of a showing of very special ability 
— in the form of scholarships, fellowships, and grants-in-aid. 

No nation has ever done as well as we have in equalizing educational 
opportunity, nor, probably, in giving the most adequate opportunity to the 
best; but it can easily be shown, and we shall show it, that we could do 
better. And we also shall show how we as a nation can do better. 

Why we as a nation should be concerned to do better appears in the 

143 



following statement by Dr. Robert Gordon Sproul, President of the Univer- 
sity of California — a statement of such cogency and sound common sense 
that we are glad to adopt it as our own: 

One of the major responsibilities of the university of the future, is to see that the 
money it spends * '^ * goes toward the education of the most worthy candidates in each 
generation. The intelligence of the citizenry of a nation is a natural resource which 
transcends in importance all other natural resources * * * One may condone the waste 
of many natural resources on the ground that science will some day discover a substitute 
that is just as good. But intelligence is quite unique, and though science search dili- 
gently it will never find a substitute for it, nor will the war lords. 

Universities * * * are conservators of the above-average intelligence of the nation 
* * * Every conservation program must proceed along two lines: it must safeguard the 
known reserves of a given resource, and it must also, through exploration and every 
other means, make a determined effort to ascertain accurately the further supplies of 
that resource. 

We do not know how much intelligence the citizenry of this Nation is capable of 
producing. We pay little attention to intelligence unless it forces itself to the surface 
and trickles into a college or university by force of gravity. If it happens to come to the 
surface in the backwoods area or a rural district, where the process of trickling down to 
college is made difficult by distance and by lack of funds, the chances are that the trickle 
will sink into the earth again, "unwept, unhonored, and unsung" — unless, of course, it 
happens to be one of the fastest running, highest-jumping, or quickest trickles on the 
track, court, or gridiron. 

Across the continent from Dr. Sproul, Dr. James B. Conant, President of 
Harvard University and a member of this Committee, coming at the ques- 
tion from another direction, has made a statement to like effect which his 
colleagues of the committee would adopt as their own: 

* * * in every section of the entire area where the word science may properly be 
applied, the limiting factor is a human one. We shall have rapid or slow advance in 
this direction or in that depending on the number of really first-class men who are 
engaged in the work in question. If I have learned anything from my experience in 
Washington as chairman of the National Defense Research Committee, it is that ten 
second-rate men are no substitute for one first-class man. It is no use pouring second- 
class men on a problem, even if you are under the greatest pressure for a solution; 
second-class men often do more harm than good. So in the last analysis, the future of 
science in this country will be determined by our basic educational policy. 

And finally we would quote the Board of Regents of the State of New 

York who recently declared: 

The need is imperative for enrolling the ablest young people of the State in institu- 
tions of higher education. This proposal is defensible not in terms of the desire of the 
colleges to obtain students. Fundamentally, the case rests on the need of any State to 
bring its best minds up to a high level of understanding and accomplishments. 

This statement also we adopt as basic to our thinking. 

The data which prove the truth of the quoted statements are well known 
and some parts of them are set forth in a Appendix A attached to this report. 
Here we simply give samples and it is to be noted that these samples apply 
not only to scientific ability in American youth but to ability generally: 

An Indiana study published in 1922 showed: 

If we compare the records made on our tests by the group of seniors representing 
the richest and the poorest homes, we find that there are proportionally more children 
possessing the highest grades of mental ability among the poorest class than among the 
wealthiest class, and more individuals with high average grades of intelligence among 
the wealthier than among the poorer group. The wealthiest group ranks high on 
central tendency. The poorest salaried group ranks low on central tendency and also 

144 



has a larger percentage of individuals possessing the lower grades of mental ability. But 
there are individuals in this class who obtain the highest intelligence rating made by 
high school seniors. * * * 

It is still more significant that so many of this most superior group of high-school 
seniors will not attend college, while those with the most inferior grades of intelligence 
are planning to attend, in ever increasing numbers. Twenty-five percent of the brightest 
seniors found in the entire State said they were not planning to attend college at all, 
while 65 to 70 percent of the dullest seniors had definitely decided to go to college, 
most of them having already selected the college they expected to attend. 

In Minnesota, it was shown that the probability of college attendance 
for a high school graduate of high college ability who is the son or daughter 
of a father employed in a professional or managerial group is several times 
greater than that for the son or daughter of a farmer or unskilled laborer. 
This study also showed that for every high school graduate who ranked in 
the upper 10 percent of his high school class and enrolled in college, 
another high school graduate who also ranked in the upper 10 percent did 
not enter college. 

A Pennsylvania study showed that, in that State, dividing a sampling of 
the youth of approximately equal high ability into two socio-economic groups, 
93 percent of children of the upper socio-economic group were graduated 
from high school and 57 percent attended college. But in the lower socio- 
economic group, only 72 percent of the children were graduated from high 
school and only 13 percent attended college. 

As emphasized, this report is concerned with discovering and developing 
scientific talent, but in its proper setting and relationship to other needs for 
talent for the Nation's welfare. In the report we shall suggest, as befits our 
mandate, the appropriation of Federal funds to be applied only to the pur- 
pose of discovering and developing scientific talent; but, as we have pointed 
out, we recognize that there is need for the discovery and development of 
talent in all lines and we point out that most of the plans and procedures 
recommended herein for science are equally applicable to the discovery and 
development of talent in other fields. 

What shall be done with Federal funds for the discovery and develop- 
ment of talent, scientific and other, in American youth is for the wisdom of 
Congress to determine. As taxpayers and as men concerned with the states- 
manship of science, we have been deeply concerned with the question how 
plans for the use of Federal funds for scientific development may be set up 
so that Federal funds do not drive out of the picture funds from local gov- 
ernments, foundations, and private persons. We think that our proposals 
will minimize that effect, but, with proper candor, we do not think that our 
proposals will be completely effective to avoid what we do not want to 
happen. We think, however, that the Nation's need for more and better 
science is such that the risk must be accepted. 

In this report, consonant with our mandate to make effective plans for 
the discovery and development of scientific talent in American youth, we 
recommend plans to assist able young men and women to carry their studies 
from the end of high school through the doctorate. Beyond that we do not 
go in our recommendations, not only because we do not think the word 
"youth" ought to be stretched to include men and women of post-doctoral 

145 



age, but also because your committees reporting upon other questions in 
President Roosevelt's letter are making recommendations for assistance to 
post-doctoral investigators. For our part, we are of opinion that the basic 
problem, at least for the next decade, will be to find more young talent 
and to give it a chance to develop into more first-rate investigators than we 
now have. 

That is the problem at which this report aims. At present the opportuni- 
ties for education beyond high school are accidental to too large an extent — 
determined by the accidents of geography and economic income. We seek, 
in this constitutional Republic, 'as respects science and engineering, to train 
for the national welfare the highest ability without regard to where it was 
born and reared and without regard to the size of the family income. 



146 



Part One 



Long-term Plans 



1. The Desirability of and Neces- 
sity for the Proposed Plans 

We are convinced that there is no 
possibility that too much abihty of 
the highest order can be discovered 
and developed : the needs of our com- 
plex social organization for brains 
and character at the highest level can 
never be surfeited. Moreover, it is 
appropriate to point out, when con- 
sidering the need for scientific train- 
ing, that the first-rate scientist and 
engineer cannot do his work effec- 
tively unless he has a few good ones 
in a secondarv role at his disposal as 
assistants and sometimes a great many 
as hands and as instruments for the 
execution of his ideas. 

We have only to look about us, 
from the point of view of citizens, to 
know that the current need for crea- 
tive brains is not being met: there 
is too much wrong with the world 
and with our country to have doubt 
about that. As scholars and admin- 
istrators of scholarly affairs we also 
know out of our own experiences 
that there is a deficiency in the sup- 
ply of first-rate scientific workers. 
All of us know of problems in science 
whose solutions are urgently needed 
for indi\'idual and the collective wel- 
fare. The limiting factors, all along 
the line, are brains and character. 

In Appendix A attached to this re- 
port, some startling figures are given 
as to the number of young people 
who drop out before completing high 
school. The country may be proud 



of the fact that 95 percent of boys 
and girls of fifth grade age are en- 
rolled in our schools, but we cannot 
help being concerned with the fact 
that with each succeeding grade the 
percentage falls. For every 1,000 stu- 
dents in the fifth grade, 600 are lost 
to education before the end of high 
school has been reached, and all but 
72 have ceased formal education be- 
fore 4 years of college are completed. 
While this report is concerned pri- 
marily with methods of selecting and 
educating high school graduates at 
the college and higher levels, we can- 
not be unconcerned with the poten- 
tial loss of talent which is inherent 
in the present situation in our pri- 
marv and secondary schools. 

The Nation's students may be dia- 
grammed as a pyramid. At the base 
of the diagram are the students be- 
ginning the first grade. As we keep 
looking at this body of students, they 
drop out more and more rapidly and 
the sides of the diagram slope in 
sharply, making a pyramidal figure. 

Students drop out of grade and 
high schools for a variety of reasons. 
The reasons which concern us in this 
report are only those which relate to 
the highly talented. Many of these 
indi\'iduals of great promise who are 
lost in the process are academic cas- 
ualties undoubtedly to be charged 
against the inadequacy of the local 
secondary education available to 
them. Studies of the situation in 
different States show that the prob- 
lem is by no means the same through- 



147 



out the country. The figures that 
have been given above are the oxer- 
all figures for the Nation: in some 
States the loss is much less, in others 
much greater. Unless one were to 
believe — which we do not — that 
there is a corresponding difference in 
the distribution of native abilitv 
among the States, one cannot help 
reaching the conclusion that the dif- 
ferences reflect great variation in the 
quality of our secondary education. 
It is not .within our mandate to 
enter into the controversial subject 
of the way in which a larger amount 
of public funds should be expended 
on secondary education in those 
States where the amount now spent 
per pupil is very low, and it is surely 
no coincidence that it is in these very 
States that we find the losses, from 
the fifth grade on, to be the greatest. 
We would be remiss in our duty, 
however, if we did not point out that 
much remains to be done to make 
our educational system effective in 
developing the latent talent of the 
Nation by improving the quality of 
the secondary schools in many locali- 
ties so that no boy or girl of talent 
and promise may be deprived of the 
proper high school education. 

Among those who drop out before 
completing high school, both in the 
States which provide excellent public 
education and in those which are less 
advanced in this respect, there un- 
doubtedly are some at least who have 
potentialities for becoming first-rate 
scientists and engineers. The early 
discovery of such individuals who 
have dropped out of the educational 
system obviously presents peculiar 
difficulties. The Committee suggests 
to employers, and to educational, sci- 
entific, and labor leaders that serious 
consideration be given to the prob- 
lems involved in the discovery of such 



individuals and in getting them back 
into educational institutions where 
their talents can be dexeloped in spite 
of their lack of complete high school 



trammg. 



Students drop out of high school, 
college, and graduate school, or do 
not get that far, for a variety of rea- 
sons. The reasons that concern us 
are only those which relate to the 
talented and they are (1) that they 
cannot afford to go, (2) that schools 
and colleges proxiding work of inter- 
est and up to the level of their abili- 
ties are not available locally, and (3) 
that business and industry recruit 
from among the ablest before they 
ha\'e finished the training of which 
they are capable. 

These reasons apply generally, but 
they apply with particular force to 
science: 

1. The educational road to becom- 
ing a high-grade scientist is long and 
expensive, and the families of many 
able students cannot afford to pay 
their way. It is of a length at least 
6 years beyond high school and it is 
expensive because, as is evident, no 
large percentage of science students 
can get first-rate training in educa- 
tional institutions while living at 
home. 

2. Students of scientific capability 
are particularly vulnerable to bad or 
inadequate mathematical and scien- 
tific teaching in secondary school 
which fails to awaken their interest 
in science or to give them adequate 
instruction. Improvement in the 
teaching of science all along the line 
is imperative. To become a first-rate 
scientist it is necessary to get a good 
start early, and a good start early 
means good secondary school science 
teaching. No matter how gifted and 
capable a person may be, if he is 
not interested to finish secondary 



148 



school, or does not have the oppor- 
tunity to complete secondary school, 
he cannot — as things are — go on to 
collecje and to graduate school. 

3. Recruitment from among gifted 
students bv business and industry 
likewise applies with particular force 
to science. A young man may well 
find the place in which eventually 
he will achieve high distinction in 
industry, following graduation from 
college, if his place ought to be, for 
example, in management or applied 
science. But if his place, consider- 
ing his abilities, might be at the top 
in scientific research, he will be seri- 
ously handicapped if he stops his 
training without proceeding to the 
level represented by the doctorate. 
Industry and business cannot afford, 
as a long-term proposition, to recruit, 
prior to completion of training, those 
potential scientists who appear capa- 
ble of contributing to fundamental 
advances or who should be teachers. 

In the light of the studies made, 
having regard to the facts of the 
educational pyramid, it clearly is es- 
sential to provide for the early school- 
ing of more able students in order 
that a large enough group will sur- 
vive to become a larger quota of stu- 
dents of the highest ability at the 
apex of the pyramid. To increase this 
small group of exceptionally able men 
and women it is necessary to enlarge 
the number of students of high ability 
who go to college. This involves bet- 
ter high schools, provision for help- 
ing individual, talented students to 
finish high school (primarily, we con- 
ceive, responsibilities of every local 
community), and opportunities for 
more capable, promising high school 
students to go to college. Any other 
practice constitutes an indefensible 
and wasteful utilization of higher 



education and neglect of our human 
resources. 

If we were all-knowing and all-wise 
we might, but we think probably not, 
write vou a plan v\'hcrebv there might 
be selected for training, which they 
otherwise would not get, those who, 
20 years hence, would be scientific 
leaders and we might not bother 
about any lesser manifestations of sci- 
entific ability. But in the present 
state of knowledge a plan cannot be 
made which will select, and assist, 
only those young men and women 
who will give the top future leader- 
ship to science. To get top leader- 
ship there must be a relatively large 
base of high ability selected for de- 
velopment and then successive skim- 
mings of the cream of ability at suc- 
cessive times and at higher levels. 
No one can select from the bottom 
those who will be the leaders at the 
top because unmeasured and un- 
known factors enter into scientific, 
or any, leadership. There are brains 
and character, strength and health, 
happiness and spiritual vitality, in- 
terest and motivation, and no one 
knows what else, that must needs 
enter into this supra-mathematical 
calculus. 

We think we probably would not, 
even if we were all-wise and all- 
knowing, write you a plan whereby 
you would be assured of scientific 
leadership at one stroke. We think as 
we think because we are not inter- 
ested in setting up an elect. We think 
it much the best plan, in this consti- 
tutional Republic, that opportunity 
be held out to all kinds and condi- 
tions of men whereby they can better 
themselves. This is the American 
way; this is the way the United States 
has become what it is. We think it 
very important that circumstances be 
such that there be no ceilings, other 



149 



than ability itself, to intellectual am- 
bition. We think it very important 
that every bov and girl shall know 
that, if he shows that he "has what 
it takes," the sky is the limit. Even 
if it be shown subsequently that he 
has not what it takes to go to the 
top, he will go further than he would 
otherwise go if there had been a ceil- 
ing beyond which he always knew he 
could not aspire. 

By proceeding from point to point 
and taking stock on the way, by giv- 
ing further opportunity to those who 
show themselves worthy of further 
opportunity, by giving the most op 
portunity to those who shaw them- 
selves continually developing — this is 
the way we propose. This is the 
American way: a man works for what 
he gets. 

2. The Desirable and Necessary 
Extent of the Proposed Long- 
Term Plans 

As said in the general preamble to 
this report, we think that plans for 
the discovery and development of sci- 
entific talent should have a limit re- 
lated to the needs of the Nation as 
a whole for trained talent in all ac- 
tivities that are necessary for the 
national welfare. We think, also as 
stated, that while we have no fears 
that too much top ability can be 
found and developed there is some 
danger that too many scientists of less 
than top ability may be trained, there- 
by debasing the currency of scientific 
training to the point where scientific 
careers may not look attracti\'e either 
to the best or to the second best. 

How to calculate the Nation's fu- 
ture needs for scientists, or to docu- 
ment fullv a judgment upon the 
question, we confess we do not know. 
But we have some evidence to sup- 
port what we, at any rate, regard as 



informed conclusions. This evidence 
is set forth in Appendix B attached 
hereto. In summary it shows the fol- 
lowing facts germane to this report: 

In the year 1941 there were con- 
ferred 53,534 undergraduate degrees 
in natural science and in technology. 

In the last 6 years before the war, 
the average annual number of Ph.D. 
degrees conferred in natural science 
and technological fields was 1,649. 

For some years to come, as pointed 
out elsewhere in this report, these 
numbers must be increased in an at- 
tempt to make up for the accumu- 
lated deficits in trained scientific and 
technological personnel caused by 
wartime interruptions to basic educa- 
tion and specialized training. 

We have carefully studied data and 
indications concerning the Nation's 
future needs for scientists and tech- 
nologists as a basis for determining 
the necessary and desirable extent of 
plans for discovering and developing 
scientific talent. We have concluded 
that the best that can be done is to 
make a practical, executive judgment 
after consideration of the material; 
and such a judgment leads us to pro- 
pose that 6,000 science students an- 
nually be selected for assistance in 
obtaining the bachelor's degree. This 
number we judge to be not too large 
from any point of view or too small 
to be effective. 

Similarly, making an executive 
judgment upon numbers of students 
proposed to be assisted annually to 
obtain doctoral degrees in science, we 
arrive at the figure 250, plus 50 for 
medical research doctorates unless 
your Committee upon the second 
question in President Roosevelt's let- 
ter makes a separate recommendation 
on fellowships in that field, which 
we understand is not their present in- 
tention. It is not intended that the 



150 



50 proposed medical-research pre- 
doctoral fellowships shall be admin- 
istered nor allocated separately but 
simply that the recommended total 
number of predoctoral fellowships 
be increased to 300. 

The number 250 is arrived at by 
considering, inter alia, that it would 
be 10 percent of the prewar average 
of science doctorates conferred, 165, 
plus a number endeavoring to make 
up some of the science doctoral deficit 
incurred during the war years when 
science students, practically, have 
been and are nonexistent. Our think- 
ing concerning the added 50 medical 
research doctorates goes along the 
same lines. 

These figures, we wish to empha- 
size, are not provable but equally we 
wish to emphasize they appear rea- 
sonable to us. It has been in our 
thinking throughout this report that 
we do not want to inflate or debase 
the currency of scientific training by 
artificially stimulating its issuance 
bevond the Nation's needs for such 
training. 

Further, we desire to emphasize the 
point that, until we see the look of 
the postwar world, policies cannot be 
determined with finality. And, until 
policies can be determined, alterna- 
tive plans, and sliding scales within 
those plans, are the onlv plans that 
make sense. We cannot, as we have 
said, guarantee that our figure of 
6,000 assisted science students in 
each entering class and 250-300 as- 
sisted candidates for science doctor- 
ates a year are the correct figures for 
the needed result. We conclude, 
simply, that they are good figures 
with which to begin, alwavs pro- 
vided that they be not frozen and 
mav be changed in the light of ex- 
perience and as future demands for 
scientists and need for Federal assist- 



ance in training them may be shown. 
Elsewhere in this report it is rec- 
ommended that the administrative 
agency which may be charged with 
making our proposals operative be 
charged also with a continuing re- 
search function in which studies of 
opportunities for scientific and tech- 
nological employment should have a 
major place. 

When considering the question 
whether or not the group of under- 
graduates selected for training under 
the plan herein recommended be too 
large, it ought to be remembered that 
the majority will not go on to research 
careers but rather to various kinds of 
engineering practice, plant manage- 
ment activities and to many other 
kinds of practical work connected 
with industry and technological proc- 
esses. For industries based on highly 
advanced scientific techniques which 
must be adapted constantly to new 
scientific discoveries, training in sci- 
ence is essential throughout the man- 
agement, and while it cannot be said 
that a man, because he is a good 
scientist, is therefore a good manager 
for such a business, still without sci- 
entific training, he could hardly func- 
tion at all. Moreover, for such a busi- 
ness a scientific training is, qua the 
business, probably as good a training 
as any other. 

Furthermore, in reference to sci- 
entific training at the undergraduate 
level, we quote with approval a state- 
ment by a distinguished committee of 
English scholars, from social, human- 
istic and science fields, published by 
Nuffield College of the University of 
Oxford: 

* * * We live in a world in which sci- 
ence lies at the very roots of community, 
and a mastery of scientific thinking grows 
more and more indispensable for the suc- 
cessful practice of the arts of life. The 
culture of the modern age, if it is to have 



151 



meaning, must be deeply imbued with 
scientific ways of thought. It must absorb 
science, without forsaking what is of value 
in the older ways or conduces to the 
understanding of those deeper problems 
which science by itself is impotent to 
answer. It is a question, not of substitut- 
ing a scientific culture for that which has 
gone before, but of reaching a wider 
appreciation in which the sciences in their 
modern development fall into their due 
place * * * 

3. The Recommended Long- 
Term Plan and Means for 
Achieving It 

As stated in the preceding section, 
we propose that the number of un- 
dergraduate students of science and 
technology assisted under the plan 
shall be 6,000 annually and that the 
number of assisted doctoral students 
in the same fields shall be 250 or 300 
annually. This would make the 4-year 
maximum total of undergraduates 
24,000 and the 2- to 3-year maximum 
total of graduate students 900. Maxi- 
mum annual costs, if the plan is to 
be realized fully, may reach, after the 
fourth year of operation, $29,000,000. 

It is our idea that these highly 
selected students, if they proceed to 
doctorates, in many cases will be able 
to obtain that degree after 6 years 
of undergraduate and graduate work; 
but provision should be made for 
those who require 3, instead of 2, 
years of graduate work. 

In this connection, we wish to em- 
phasize the responsibility of educa- 
tional institutions in this plan. Under 
the central purpose of the plan — to 
provide scientific training for students 
of superior ability and equal oppor- 
tunity to all American youth to quali- 
fy in competition for such training — 
educational institutions will face the 
obligation of providing a training 
commensurate intellectually with the 
superior ability of this special group. 
The Committee believes that a pro- 



gram which is appropriate for the 
rank and file of college students will 
not be appropriate for these, or other, 
highly selected individuals. 

It appears to us that the scale of 
support for the undergraduate stu- 
dents selected under the proposed 
plan should be that provided by Con- 
gress under the so called GI Bill of 
Rights, namely, tuition and other fees 
up to $500 annually and, for personal 
support, $50 a month during the 
months of each year when the Schol- 
ars actually are engaged in full-time 
study. Benefits under the plan should 
not be restricted to young and recent 
secondary school graduates but should 
be available also to those who, hav- 
ing worked in business and industry, 
desire to obtain scientific training at 
the college level. Such Scholars, if 
married, should receive, as also pro- 
vided in the GI Bill of Rights, $75 
monthly for support when engaged in 
full-time study. 

Persons who receive benefits under 
the plan should be selected solely on 
the basis of merit, without regard to 
sex, race, color, or creed. 

The question whether or not finan- 
cial need should be considered as a 
factor in awarding benefits under the 
plan has been the subject of much 
study, consultation, and thoughtful 
consideration by the Committee. We 
conclude that need should not be a 
factor in the awards, for many rea- 
sons, among which are that, if need 
is to be considered, there would be 
required a means test of the parents, 
difficult if not impossible to admin- 
ister with equity; those who receive 
benefits under the plan would be 
labeled as poor; and in cases where 
parents were not sympathetic to 
higher education their children might 
be cut off from the benefits of the 
plan. 



152 



Moreover, we consider that, aj^art 
from and in addition to the general 
benefits to the Nation flowing from 
the addition to its trained ranks of 
such a corps of scientific workers, 
there should be a definite and stated 
quid fro quo from the beneficiaries 
to the Nation. Hence, we propose 
that the beneficiaries under the plan 
should constitute a National Science 
Reserve, with definite and stated obli- 
gations to the Nation for scientific 
work similar to the obligations of 
members of the Army and Navy Re- 
serves for service of the kind for 
which they have been prepared. 

We suggest that recipients of un- 
dergraduate scholarships under the 
proposed plan be known as National 
Science Reserve Scholars and that 
recipients of predoctoral fellowships 
be called National Science Reserve 
Fellows. 

The awards of Science Reserve 
Scholarships for college training for 
the bachelor's degree should be based 
upon tests of ability and aptitude to 
insure that the successful candidates 
will be oriented to scientific and tech- 
nological pursuits. Moreover, accept- 
ance of the Scholarships and Fellow- 
ships should be understood by the re- 
cipients as indicating intention to en- 
gage professionally in scientific and 
technological work but not as consti- 
tuting an absolute obligation to do so. 
We recommend that the recipient 
of a National Reserve Scholarship or 
Fellowship shall agree that, upon the 
completion of his undergraduate or 
graduate training, he shall be en- 
rolled in the National Science Re- 
serve and be liable to call into the 
service of the Federal Government, 
in connection with scientific or tech- 
nical work in time of war or of a 
national emergency declared by Con- 
gress or proclaimed by the President 



— the conditions of employment and 
the salary to be determined at that 
time by the President. 

This call would be at the option of 
the Federal Government. It is con- 
templated that, in cases where men 
had not for years been engaged in 
scientific or technical activities, the 
Government probably would not ex- 
ercise the right of call. 

In addition to the binding obliga- 
tion to serve the Government (if 
called) full-time in case of war or a 
national emergency, the members of 
the Reserve should pledge themselves 
to render assistance to the Govern- 
ment in time of peace, through serv- 
ice on advisory committees and on a 
consulting basis insofar as they are 
able to do so without gross interfer- 
ence with their professional work or 
the rendering of effective service to 
their employers. 

We believe that the proposed Na- 
tional Science Reserve would be of 
real service to the Nation. Evidence 
presented to the Committee shows 
that, if such a science reserve had 
been in existence in 1940 and had 
included the best scientists, the mobil- 
ization of scientific and technical men 
to assist the Army and the Navy 
(directly and through OSRD), be- 
fore Pearl Harbor, would have been 
more rapid and effective than it was 
possible to make it. We believe that 
the obligation undertaken by the re- 
cipients of National Science Reserve 
scholarships and fellowships would 
constitute a real quid pro quo and 
that the Federal Government would 
be well advised to invest the money 
involved even if the benefits to the 
Nation were thought of solely — 
which they are not — in terms of na- 
tional preparedness. 

The exact extent and duration of 
the obligation to serve, assumed by 



153 



members of the National Science Re- 
serve, of course, would be for the 
wisdom of Congress to determine in 
relation to the needs of the Nation 
and to the obligations of graduates 
of the Military and Naval Academies, 
of members of the Army and Naval 
Reserves and indeed of all citizens in 
time of war or other national emer- 
gency. 

It is agreed by the Committee in 
respect to the administration of the 
National Science Reserve Scholar- 
ships that while the plan must be 
national in character, the principle 
of local administration must be rec- 
ognized. The American scene which 
looks rather uniform from anv one 
place has infinite variety and intense 
individuality at close range. This 
must be recognized. 

Our plan for the selection of Na- 
tional Science Reserve Scholars is set 
forth tentatively in Appendix C at- 
tached hereto. In brief it is this: 

The 6,000 proposed scholarships 
should be assigned to the States ^ on 
the basis of the number of their sec- 
ondary school graduates of the previ- 
ous year as related to the national 
total of such graduates. 

On the basis of the 1939-40 fig- 
ures, State quotas of scholars would 
be as stated in the table on the fol- 
lowing page. 

It is recommended that, for the 
National Science Reserve Scholars, 
the administrative organization, the 
bases of selection and the procedures 
be as follows in brief: 

Proposals for a "National Scientific 



1 It is intended that the proposed scholarships 
shall he availahlc also to secondao' school 
graduates in the Territories and Insular Pos- 
sessions but we have not statistics relating to 
them comparable to those for the States and 
for the District of 0)lumbia given on this 
page. Allocation of scholarships to the Terri- 
tories and Insular Possessions, of course, would 
decrease the State quotas. 



Research Foundation" are under dis- 
cussion by your Committees and 
among the proposed powers of such 
a foundation is power to contract with 
other agencies for the performance of 
functions within the scope of the 
foundation. It would be our recom- 
mendation that the foundation, or 
any similar organization which may 
be established, should make arrange- 
ments for choosing Scholars and 
Fellows under the proposed plan 
through the National Academy of 
Sciences, if that organization be will- 
ing to accept the responsibility. The 
operation of the plan, we recom- 
mend, should be entrusted to the 
Academy's operating agency, the Na- 
tional Research Council. More pre- 
cise details of the National Acade- 
my's participation and the means by 
which it is suggested that operations 
be carried on are stated in Appen- 
dix C. 

To ensure the fairest, most effec- 
tive and most up-to-date methods of 
selection, advisory bodies expert in 
such matters must be set up. No 
existing national science organization 
has shown itself to be as well- 
equipped for such advisory functions 
— working both with nonmembers 
of the academy and with members — 
as the National Academy has shown 
itself to be through the years. A 
central administrative staff, chosen 
for ability and integrity, also must 
be set up. 

As outlined in Appendix C, com- 
mittees of selection would be set up 
in each State. These committees, it 
is suggested, should consist of five 
members, to wit: three scientists, one 
of whom should serve as chairman; 
one member of a college or university 
facultv, trained and experienced in 
the field of selection and guidance; 
and one representative of secondary 



154 



State 



Secondary school 
graduates ' 



State quotas: 
scholarships 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Totals 



1 



16 

3 

12 

72 
11 
17 

2 

5 
12 
18 

6 
75 
37 
30 
23 
17 
17 

8 
13 
46 
44 
30 
13 
33 

6 
17 

1 

4 
39 

3 
17 
30 

7 
73 
23 
13 
99 

5 
12 

8 
17 
56 

8 

3 
20 
21 
17 
33 

3 



,222 
,498 
,226 
,301 
,900 
,614 
,353 
,278 
,666 
,302 
,815 
,508 
,470 
,671 
,326 
,675 
,405 
,485 
,016 
,830 
,522 
,337 
,979 
,343 
,617 
,970 
,005 
,670 
,973 
,745 
,901 
,372 
,182 
,616 
,467 
,002 
,351 
,978 
,687 
,059 
,857 
,348 
,212 
,130 
,263 
,170 
,571 
,464 
,213 



1,218,545 



80 

17 

60 

356 

59 

87 

12 

26 

62 

90 

34 

372 

184 

151 

115 

87 

86 

42 

64 

231 

219 

149 

69 

164 

33 

88 

5 

23 

197 

18 

580 

150 

35 

362 

116 

64 

489 

29 

62 

40 

88 

277 

40 

15 

100 

104 

87 

165 

16 



5,999 



' Public high school graduates 1939-40 plus 1/6 of the private and parochial secondary school 
enrollment. Statistics of State School Systems, 1939-40, 1941-42, Biennial Survey of Education, 
U. S. Office of Education. 



education within the State, usually a 
secondary school principal or a high 
school supervisor in the State depart- 
ment of education. At least one of 



the scientists, it is suggested, should 
be from agriculture or from industry 
within the State. 

The administrative staff of the na- 



155 



tional over-all organization, in cooper- 
ation with the advisory bodies, would 
prepare tests in accordance with the 
best thought upon such matters. 
These tests would be given to all 
applicants throughout the country 
and the test reports would be sent to 
the national organization for evalua- 
tion. The national staff also would 
collect other relevant data and judg- 
ments concerning each applicant and 
upon the basis of the tests and other 
material would certify to the State 
committees a number of qualified 
candidates equal to twice the States 
quota- — ^it being proxided, howe\'er, 
that no applicants shall be certified 
who do not attain a certain minimum 
national standard. The dossiers of 
these candidates would be sent to the 
State committees and those commit- 
tees would have the responsibility of 
making the final selections of the 
Scholars up to the number of the 
State's quota. 

The machinery and procedures for 
administering these scholarships are 
outlined only in general terms at this 
time. It is clear that valid methods 
for selecting students of high ability 
are available in the experience of 
persons and organizations which have 
been working on this problem for 
many years. Doubtless better meth- 
ods will be available in future and 
the methods adopted for the National 
Science Reserve Scholarships should 
be the best available at the time they 
are being used. 

Concerning machinery for admin- 
istration of the National Science Re- 
serve Fellowships, we can be brief: 

They should be administered na- 
tionally as the National Research 
Council Fellowships are adminis- 
tered. Whether or not a "National 
Scientific Research Foundation" or 
similar body be established, we judge 



that the National Research Council 
of the National Academy of Sciences 
would be the best agency to admin- 
ister the proposed National Science 
Reserve Fellowships; for the National 
Research Council has shown that it 
has the know-how and integrity to 
administer well a Fellowship pro- 
pram on a national basis. It should 
be noted that we propose that the 
fellowships (as distinct from the 
scholarships) should be awarded on a 
national, not a State, basis. 

For the National Scientific Re- 
ser\'e Fellowships as for the Scholar- 
ships, the sole basis of selection 
should be merit, without regard to 
sex, race, color, creed, or need. 

It is recommended that fellowship 
(as distinct from scholarship) stip- 
ends should be fixed by the awarding 
agency on a scale up to $100 monthly, 
plus payments for tuition and other 
fees up to a maximum of $500 an- 
nually. 

Throughout the whole plan, for 
both scholarships and fellowships, 
there should run an insistence upon 
high-grade work by the holder, other- 
wise the fellowship or scholarship 
shall be terminated by the awarding 
agency. 

Scholarships shall be tenable for 
4 academic years or the equivalent. 
Fellowships shall be tenable for the 
duration of graduate studies leading 
to the doctoral degree, up to a maxi- 
mum of 3 academic years or the 
equivalent. Both shall be held upon 
the following conditions: 

(n) Continuance of good health. 

(1?) Continuance of good behavior. 

(c) Scientific progress at the level 
of the best 25 percent of former stu- 
dents in the scientific departments 
primarily concerned. 

If a Scholar or Fellow drops out 



156 



for failure or other reasons, his schol- 
arship or fellowship should lapse. 
Alternates should not be appointed. 

The scholarships and fellowships 
should be valid for any college or uni- 
versity, within the territory of the 
United States, of the holder's choice, 
subject to the advice and consent of 
the awarding agency concerning rele- 
vant facilities for scientihc work. 
With the consent of the awarding 
agency, a Scholar or Fellow may 
change the location of his work to 
another college, university or techni- 
cal school which is judged to be bet- 
ter suited to his scientific development. 

National Science Reser\'e Scholars 
should be eligible to appointment as 
National Science Reserve Fellows, 
but appointments to the fellowships 
should not be restricted to the Na- 
tional Science Reserve Scholars. The 
fellowships should be open to com- 
petition from all pre-doctoral science 
students. 

It is recommended that the award 
of the scholarships and of the fellow- 



ships be commenced simultaneously, 
or approximately so, to the full an- 
nual number in each category. 

The Committee recommends that 
the National Agency in charge ol 
the scholarships and fellowships 
should carry on continuing research 
into methods of selection and con- 
tinuing study of unfolding oppor- 
tunities (and the reverse) for em- 
ployment in science and technology. 

Among effective means for the dis- 
covery and development of scientific 
talent in American youth are means 
for developing public interest in 
science. It will not be sufficient, if 
science is to remain healthy in root 
and branch, merely to develop a large 
number of scientists and to provide 
them with the financial support 
necessary for their investigations. 
There is also the necessity of creating 
a better understanding of the role 
and place of science in our national 
life, so that public approval and sup- 
port for the future development of 
science will be forthcoming. 



157 



Part Two 



Plans for the Near Future 



The preceding sections of this re- 
port propose plans for the disco\'ery 
and development of scientific talent 
in American youth as a long-term 
proposition. There is, however, an 
immediate and pressing problem 
which is a result of the war. 

1 . Deficits of Scientific and Tech- 
nological Personnel Resulting 
from War and Selective Service 
Policies 

The training of men in the fields 
of science and technology during the 
war has almost completely stopped. 
With the exception of some 2,400 
men on the reserved list who have 
been taken from their studies for 
civilian war research, all physically 
fit graduate students have been taken 
into the armed forces. College stu- 
dents majoring in the sciences have 
also been taken into the armed forces. 
Those ready for college training in 



the sciences have not been permitted 
to enter. Because of these curtail- 
ments, it will require at least 6 years 
after the war ends before scientists 
trained for research will emerge from 
the graduate schools in any signifi- 
cant quantity. Consequently there is 
an accumulating deficit in the num- 
ber of trained research scientists. 
That deficit will continue for a num- 
ber of years. 

The deficits in science and tech- 
nology students who, but for the war, 
would have been granted bachelor's 
degrees in these fields are probably 
already about 150,000. 

The deficits, in science and tech- 
nology, of doctoral degrees — that is, 
of young scholars trained to the point 
where they are capable of carrying 
on original work — have been calcu- 
lated by the American Institute of 
Physics, as follows: 













Total prob- 




Deficit 








able deficit 




accumulated 






Probable 


due to war 




1941 through 


Estimated 


Total 1941 


deficits 1946 


1941 through 




1944 


deficit 1945 


through 1945 


through 1955 


1955 


Chemistry 


240 


550 


790 


4,460 


5,250 


Engineering 


148 


82 


230 


730 


960 


Geology 


63 


50 


113 


317 


430 


Mathematics 


161 


100 


261 


939 


1,200 


Physics 


251 


160 


411 


1,589 


2,000 


Psychology 


96 


84 


180 


550 


730 


Biological Sciences... 


665 


725 


1,390 


4,910 


6,300 


Totals 


1,624 


1,751 


3,375 


13,495 


16,870 



158 



All patriotic citizens, who are well- 
informed on these matters, agree that, 
for military security, good public 
health, full employment and a higher 
standard of living after the war, these 
deficits are very serious. 

In a recent radio address Dr. 
Arthur H. Compton, Professor of 
Physics in the University of Chicago 
and Nobel Prize winner, said: 

It takes at least 6 years for a capable 
18-year-old to train himself for effective 
scientific research. Even if we should start 
now to resume such training, it will thus 
be at least 6 years before a normal supply 
of young professionals will again be avail- 
able to our laboratories. Can we afford to 
wait any longer? 

Admiral J. A. Purer, Coordinator 
of Research and Development, 
United States Navy Department, has 
said: 

I want to mention the great personal 
interest that the Secretary of War, Mr. 
Stimson, and the Secretary of the Navy, 
Mr. Forrestal, are taking in postwar mili- 
tary research. There is a growing belief 
that important as it may be to maintain 
after the war ground forces, air forces, and 
sea forces of a size commensurate with our 
national responsibilities, it may be even 
more important to keep the weapons and 
the material in general which we supply 
to these forces in step with the advances 
of science. Stocking our arsenals with the 
weapons of this war is no guarantee that 
we can win the next war with them. In 
fact, that may be the quickest way of 
losing the next war. It would be wiser to 
maintain arsenals of only modest size 
whether we are speaking of ships or guns 
or aircraft and to use the money saved 
thereby to continually replace the old 
things with the new creations of the re- 
search laboratory and of American inven- 
tive genius. Our industry should be kept 
alert to begin quickly the production of 
the vast quantities of materials needed 
when war threatens; and this readiness 
should concern itself especially with the 
new things. We hope for your aid in 
supporting this position among those who 
are engaged in research. 



Dr. Charles L. Parsons, Secretary 

of the American Chemical Society, 

wrote President Roosevelt: 

American technology has given birth to 
the greatest power of all time. Today, we 
are drying up prosperity at its source. Pub- 
lic opinion of the future will view with 
amazement the waste of scientists in 
Wodd War JI * * * Our children and 
our grandchildren will not forgive the loss 
of an entire generation of scientists. 

Dr. Charles Allen Thomas, direc- 
tor of the Monsanto Chemical Com- 
pany's research laboratories, declared: 

Scientific suicide faces America unless 
immediate and adequate steps are taken to 
train replacements for technical men going 
into the armed services. 

Statements of this type are fairly 
representative of the thinking of in- 
formed men in the armed services 
and in civilian life. 

The situation, in brief, is that since 
the passage of the Selective Service 
Act in the autumn of 1940, there 
have been practically no students 
over 18, outside of students of medi- 
cine and engineering in Army and 
Navy programs, and a few 4-F's, who 
have followed an integrated scien- 
tific program in the United States. 
Neither our allies nor, so far as is 
known, our enemies have permitted 
any such condition to develop; but 
on the contrary have maintained or 
increased national programs for the 
training of scientists and technolo- 
gists. It takes at least 6 years for a 
capable 18-year-old person to train 
himself for effective scientific re- 
search. Having regard to this long 
period of training and on the basis 
of prewar figures showing both the 
number of students of physical 
science in graduate schools and of 
doctoral degrees then conferred, the 
accumulating deficit of scientists has 
been calculated, with the results al- 
ready presented. That these deficits 



159 



are a serious matter for the welfare of 
the Nation be the condition peace 
or war, is agreed. What are the feasi 
ble remedies? 

Proposals to change the policy of 
draft boards to the end that students 
of science and technology shall not 
be drafted are too late. The damage 
has been done: these students already 
are in the Armv and Navy, cut off 
from integrated scientific and techno- 
logical training. Proposals for their 
early discharge from the Army and 
Navy are not feasible. The Armv 
has made its plans for the discharge 
of personnel as soon as feasible in 
accordance with a rating scale con 
ceded to be fair and reasonable from 
the standpoint of the individual GI — 
however it may disregard the risk to 
the Nation's scientific strength. Plans 
for the discovery and development of 
scientific talent in American youth 
who are in the Army and Navy must, 
to be practicable and reasonable, take 
account of the existing situation and 
of plans for demobilization already 
adopted. 

Our proposals, in the situation as 
we find it, are these: 

2. Plans for Integrated Scientific 
Training for Soldiers and 
Sailors 

There should be prepared now lists 
of promising students of science and 
technology — students who before and 
after their entry into the armed serv- 
ices have shown high ability in these 
fields. Arrangements should be made 
now with the Army and the Navy 
whereby, now that it is militarily fea- 
sible, these talented students should 
be ordered to duty in the United 
States for fully independent, inte- 
grated scientific study of a grade 
available to civilians in peace times. 
This should be adopted as the con- 



sidered policy of the armed services 
and no desire of a commanding offi- 
cer to retain a potential scientist for 
his usefulness on the spot should be 
allowed to interfere with the opera- 
tion of the policy. 

It is recommended that this plan 
be carried out, not in terms of a 
stated number of young scientists, 
but rather that, now, centers of 
science and technology in the United 
States should be combed for infor- 
mation concerning those students 
who, prior to the war, had given 
evidence of high talent for science 
and technology; and that, as soon as 
militarily possible, these students by 
name, should be ordered to duty as 
students. Probably no more than 
100,000 of the 10,000,000 men in 
the Army and Navy would be in- 
volved and now, following VE-day, 
that number could not be militarily 
significant. Likewise, we recommend 
that the armed services comb their 
records for men who, during the war, 
have given evidence of high talent for 
science and technology, and that they 
also be included in this plan. 

It is recommended that the plan be 
not restricted to students at any par- 
ticular level of studies, but rather that 
science students who have shown 
their abilities at all levels of studies, 
from college freshman to postdoctoral 
students, be included. It is also spe- 
cifically recommended that former 
teachers of science in the armed 
forces be included in this plan. 

The machinery for the discovery 
of the students under this plan, we 
venture to suggest, could best be set 
up within the Research Board for 
National Security. 

Under this proposed plan, be it 
noted, there would be no disruption 
of plans already made for the dis- 
charge of soldiers from the Army; 



160 



while students, their discharges 
would occur in accordance with the 
already established rating scale. It 
would not do to propose that such 
a plan should be done on a volunteer 
basis — that is, that personnel ol" the 
Army and Navy should request 
orders to duty as students. It would 
not do because many of the best of 
them probably would elect to remain 
in the armed services, inspired by 
feelings that they would not wish to 
be put in the position of seeming to 
shirk their full patriotic duty. 

Our recommendation is empha- 
sized in the cases of men whose scien- 
tific training was well started before 
their induction, the more so the 
further that training had advanced. 
It is important to remember that the 
induction of many students in the 
critical science and technological 
fields was delayed and that under 
actual demobilizing plans they will 
consequently be among the last to 
return to civil life. A way must be 
found to insure the quick resumption 
of their training, composing, as they 
do, the recognized "premium crop" 
of science and technology. 

The future of our country in peace 
and war depends on that premium 
crop. 

3. The Importance of Quality of 
Instruction in ''''Army Universi- 
ties^- Abroad 

The Army has made plans for set- 
ting up in foreign countries, when 
and where the military situation per- 
mits, courses of study for soldiers, 
including courses in science and tech- 
nology. These plans are all to the 
good. The further important thing 
to ensure is that the courses shall be 
the best and most up-to-date that can 
be given, and shall include adequate 
laboratory work. You stated the issue 



in your letter of November 19, 1944, 

to General Frederick H. Osborn: 

There have been in this country, by 
reason of war research, advances which 
will gradually permeate our entire indus- 
trial, scientific, and technical structure. 
Are the metallurgists now in the Army to 
return and find that they have studied 
alloys that are out-of-date? Are mechani- 
cal engineers to find that advanced think- 
ing on gas turbines has outpaced those 
who have been at the front, and the new 
knowledge has not been extended to 
them? Are the large number of medical 
men in the field to have no direct contact 
until they return with those who have 
made more advance in medical research in 
the last few years than usually occurs in 
a decade? 

It must be ensured that these ques- 
tions can be answered in the nega- 
tive. The Armed Forces Institute 
must be prepared with instruction 
that is wholly up-to-date in its higher 
levels; but the fact of the matter re- 
mains that since the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, the Cali- 
fornia Institute of Technology, the 
Ryerson Laboratory of the University 
of Chicago, and others, cannot be 
moved abroad, the plan for Army 
universities must be supplemented by 
what we have suggested in our first 
proposal above. 

The Committee emphasizes that 
for men of scientific promise and 
abihty there is special need that the 
Armed Forces Institute have its in- 
struction modern, up-to-date, and of 
the best effectiveness. It is clear that 
there is a vast opportunity in this 
program for strengthening the tech- 
nical work of the country by inte- 
grating the training given to soldiers 
possessing technical proficiencies with 
problems of modern industry and 
technology, especially for men who 
do not plan to go on to advanced 
scientific training. So far as possible, 
the universities and technical schools 
of the country doubtless would stand 



161 



ready to cooperate with the Armed 
Forces histitute along these Hnes, if 
requested by the Army, by sending 
overseas instructors in technical and 
scientific subjects — instructors, who, 
fresh from war research, would be 
up-to-date. Technical branches of 
business and industry might well do 
the same. 

4. The Place of the GI Bill of 
Rights in Ameliorating Scientific 
and Technological Deficits 

Public Law 346, Sexenty-eighth 
Congress, commonly known as the 
Gl Bill of Rights, provides for the 
education of veterans of this war un- 
der certain conditions, at the expense 
of the Federal Government. Among 
the returning soldiers and sailors will 
be many with marked scientific talent 
which should be developed through 
further education, for the national 
good. However, the 1 year of edu- 
cation which the law provides for 
essentially all veterans clearly will not 
be enouph to train a scientist nor in 
most instances to complete training 
begun prior to entry into the armed 
forces. The law makes the amount 
of education beyond 1 year at Gov- 
ernment expense depend on length 
of service rather than on ability to 
profit from the education. It would 
seem to us that our mandate to set up 
an effecti\'e plan for discovering and 
developing scientific talent must take 
into account the scientific potentiali- 
ties among the 10,000,000 young 
Americans now in the armed forces. 
Accordingly, it is recommended that: 

(a) a special advisory committee of 
scientists be appointed to assist the 
administrators of the law to discover 
and direct the counseling of those 
veterans who have marked scientific 
talent; 

(h) an adequate advising and coun- 



seling service be established in each 
State or region; and 

(c) a complete scientific education 
at Government expense be provided 
for a group selected on the basis of 
the educational record of the first 
Near (assured to all veterans) and 
such other tests as may be neces- 
sary — the length of this education to 
be determined, on the merits of each 
case, b)' the special adxisory com- 
mittee. 

Under the suggested plans inter- 
ested veterans while studying science 
for the first year, during which as 
veterans they are entitled to support 
from the Federal Government, would 
submit their records and take certain 
tests. Outstanding men and women 
of scientific talent would be se- 
lected — and we recommend a selec- 
tive process as rigorous as that pro- 
vided under our main plan — and be 
provided with funds at the rate pre- 
vailing in the GI Bill of Rights for 
completion of college courses in 
science, and also for graduate train- 
ing to those possessing very high 
abilities. 

We are informed that to some ex- 
tent the proposals herein outlined 
could be put into effect under the 
present law by administrative action, 
and we venture to recommend such 
action to the extent allowable. We 
believe, however, that it would be 
advisable, in addition, to have new 
legislation authorizing the adminis- 
trators of the law to select, as an 
estimate, possibly 5,000 veterans of 
each age group (i. e., those born in 
a given calendar year) for scientific 
education at the expense of the Fed- 
eral Government (at the rates speci- 
fied in present laws) irrespective of 
the length of their military service 
and up to a total of 6 years. Here, 
we think it sounder to recommend 



162 



that standards of scientific and tech- 
nological ability be the limiting fac- 
tors, rather than to recommend that 
definite numbers of veterans be se- 
lected for training. In dealing with 
the veterans, for whom we think the 
best possible training should be of- 
fered, the only sound way for the 
administrators of the law to proceed 
is qualitatively, on the basis of assist- 
ing those who can maintain the high- 
est standards, rather than on the basis 
of any quantitative estimates or fixed 
quotas. 

It is not necessary to stress further 
that the proper handling of the reser- 
voir of scientific talent now in the 
armed forces is of the first importance 
from the point of view of continuity 
in future supply of scientists. Not all 
of the scientific talent in the age 
groups here considered (those born 
in the years 1921 to 1928, roughly) 
is to be found in the armed forces, 
because some of the trained scientists 
among them have been kept at 
civilian tasks of utmost urgency for 
the war effort. However, such as- 
signment to civilian status through 
Selective Service mechanism has been 
far from effective in the past year or 
two, and for those born later than 
1924 (now 21 years of age or less), 
practically no exemptions from mili- 
tary service (except by reason of 
physical disability) have been al- 
lowed. Each year that the 18-year 
olds are called up for service in the 
armed forces a large portion of the 
potential scientific talent of that age 
group is cut off from adequate train- 
ing. Among these younger men are 
those who will be the most promising 
candidates for further scientific edu- 
cation when demobilized; yet, be- 
cause, under the provisions of the 
present law, the length of education 
depends on length of service, it will 



be those young men who can have 
the least Government assistance. 
Amendment of the law to rectify this 
situation, at least insofar as future 
scientists are concerned, seems to us 
essential for the safety and continued 
prosperity of the Nation. 

The relation of the proposed ex- 
tensions of the provisions of the Gl 
Bill of Rights to the long-term plan 
envisaged earlier in this report for 
the National Science Reserve is ob- 
vious. Those educated in science 
under the veterans' law for a period 
prolonged beyond the period to which 
as veterans they would be entitled 
should likewise be members of the 
National Science Reserve. The rela- 
tion of the proposed extensions to our 
proposals for ordering members of the 
armed forces to duty as students like- 
wise is obvious. That group would 
remain in the armed services only as 
long as, under actual plans for de- 
mobilization, they are required to 
remain. Thereafter, they would take 
up the educational benefits to which 
they will be entitled under the GI 
Bill of Rights, and under, we trust, 
our proposed extensions of benefits 
to the specially talented among them. 

5. Duties of Schools^ Colleges, 
Universities and Technical 
Schools to Returning Veterans 

However, this is a problem not 
only for the Federal Government to 
solve, but also is one requiring that 
the States and the colleges, universi- 
ties, and technical schools take lead- 
ership. We say emphatically to the 
colleges, and universities and techni- 
cal schools that it is up to them to 
be extremely flexible and broad- 
minded in handling the returning 
veteran. Unless they are willing and 
able to devise ways and means of 
developing in science those able vet- 



163 



erans who do not meet the usual 
formal requirements, they will lose 
som? of the best talent in the country. 
In particular, they must devise means 
of building on the basis of the very 
partial but highly detailed technical 
training that many of these men have 
received in service. Some of this 
large group of men, perhaps millions, 
who have learned about machines 
and electrical equipment can be 
further developed, for the well-being 
of the country, through special insti- 
tutions or vocational schools. More 
over, from this group can be culled 
first-rate scientific talent, provided 
that the universities and technical 
schools do what they ought to do. 
The rigidity of academic institutions 
must not be permitted to drive av^ay 
from training talented veterans. 

We recognize a dilemma here: the 
scientific professions, including medi- 
cine and indeed all the learned pro- 
fessions as well, nowadays require, 
because of the complexities and vast 
extent of modern knowledge, both 
breadth and intensity in preparation. 
On the other hand, the generation 
with which we are concerned has al- 
ready lost up to 5 years of educational 
time, and if the most ambitious 
among them are not to be repelled, 
ways must be found to shorten the 
period required for them to complete 
their formal education. It is a con- 
dition, not a theory, that confronts 
us and our judgment is that the 
Nation will lose much if our educa- 
tional institutions do not recognize 
that many veterans will feel the need 
for making up lost time, and help 
them make it up. Otherwise, we are 
sure, a significant quantity of them 
will be lost to higher education. 

Further, there is the problem of 
veterans needing to complete their 
secondary school training. Many of 



them, interested in completing their 
interrupted high school programs, 
will be deterred from doing so be- 
cause, by reason of their greater age 
and maturity, they will be reluctant 
to go back to regular school classes 
with adolescents, to submit to the 
usual high school routines and re- 
quirements, and otherwise to live and 
associate with such youngsters. This 
situation must be met. A similar 
problem confronts many youths em- 
ployed in war industries. 

Provision for these "over-age" high 
school students is very necessary in 
postwar educational programs, espe- 
cially for those who are not primarily 
concerned with vocational training, 
which apparently will be amply pro- 
vided under present and proposed 
programs. Special provisions, such as 
those stated by the Regents of the 
State of New York, must be put into 
effect to make it attractive for able 
and promising youth to complete 
high school and thereby become eli- 
gible for college under one or more 
of the scholarship plans that will be 
available for talented high school 
graduates. Otherwise they will be 
lost to science and to higher educa- 
tion, generally. 

In considering plans and programs 
for discovering and developing scien- 
tific talent in American youth, the 
needs of these particular groups must 
not be overlooked since they will in- 
clude some of the potential leaders 
of the future, especially among the 
veterans who will have had war ex- 
perience that has helped them to 
mature and develop. They must not 
be penalized for their priceless ad- 
vantage, not now recognized in our 
regular educational arrangements. 

The "Regents' Plan for Postwar 
Education in the State of New York" 



164 



makes the following statement on this 
subject: 

The men and women demobilized from 
the armed forces, together with workers of 
hke age released from war industries, will 
include many thousands of persons whose 
educational career was interrupted below 
high school graduation. The military per- 
sonnel will probably be granted scholar- 
ships large enough to take care of personal 
expenses. If offered a flexible program at 
the secondary level, with appropriate al- 
lowances for military experience and for 
work in the Armed Forces Institute, many 
of these veterans would fit into classroom, 
laboratory, and shop instruction. Others 
will be older and perhaps averse to receiv- 
ing regular instruction in company with 
young pupils. , , , , 

School authorities should make an m- 
ventory of all building, staff, and curricu- 
lum facilities, for the purpose of develop- 
ing special opportunities for returning vet- 
erans and workers. In large cities it may 
be helpful to set aside a school building to 
house a special War Service School de- 
voted to high school work for young per- 
sons returning from the military service 
and the war industries. The courses could 
be accelerated and the calendar fully uti- 
lized in order to permit a saving of time. 
These schools, like others, would grant 
credit for work completed in the Armed 
Forces Institute. In smaller cities War 
Service Schools at the secondary level 
could be established on a regional basis. 

We commend the Regents' plan 
to educators throughout the Nation. 

We commend also the plan 
whereby men and women in the 
armed forces may complete academic 
requirements, while in the armed 
forces, for graduation from secondary 
schools. Such educational achieve- 
ment is possible through work in the 
service schools, the off-duty educa- 
tional program, and the educational 
opportunities of the United States 
Armed Forces Institute. For men 
and women who lack a substantial 
proportion of the requirements for 



high school graduation, the Army's 
General Educational Development 
Tests are helpful in determining the 
grade level at which service personnel 
should properly resume their civilian 
education. The machinery to this 
end is complete and the procedure is 
as follows: A complete educational 
record established while in the serv- 
ice, should be recorded on the official 
form USAFI No. 47 and returned by 
the man or woman in the armed 
forces to the secondary school for 
evaluation and the award of credit 
toward graduation. This will facili- 
tate a continuance of education in 
college of qualified persons. Veterans 
of World War II who do not file a 
USAFI credit application form be- 
fore leaving the service should use a 
certified copy of their separation rec- 
ord as evidence of in-service training. 

6. Importance of Problem of 
Scientific Training of Men in 
Armed Forces 

The adequate handling of the edu- 
cation of the scientific and techno- 
logical talent now under arms will 
be a primary test of the effectiveness 
of the Government in meeting the 
whole problem to which we have 
been asked to direct our attention. 

The future scientific and technical 
leaders in the United States are now 
largely in military service. Unless 
exceptional steps are taken to recruit 
and train talent from the armed serv- 
ice at or before the close of the war, 
the future will find this country seri- 
ously handicapped for scientific and 
technological leadership. In peace or 
war, the handicap might prove fatal 
to our standards of living and to our 
way of life. 



165 



Appendix A 



The Educational Pyramid: Studies Concerning Able Students 
Lost to Higher Education 



To be effective, a plan for discov- 
ering and developing scientific talent 
in American youth must be built 
upon the country's existing educa- 
tional structure and be consonant 
with its current operations. Such a 
plan must recognize the undoubted 
fact that there is not an unlimited 
number of individuals of high ability 
and must ensure that the relatively 
few with creative capacity in science 
will be found early and be helped 
and encouraged to go on through the 
years of study required to complete 



professional and research training. 

An over-all picture of the child 
and youth population and of the en- 
rollments in educational institutions 
is necessary for an understanding of 
the dimensions of the problem pre- 
sented by the proposed plan to dis- 
cover and train young persons of 
potential scientific ability. Such a 
picture follows: 

The census of 1940 reported the 
following figures of population under 
20 years of age: 





Total 


Percent 


Male 


Percent 


Female 


Percent 


Under 5 years 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years 

15 to 19 years 


10,540,524 
10,684,622 
11,745,935 
12,333,513 


8.0 
8.1 
8.9 
9.4 


5,353,808 
5,418,823 
5,952,329 
6,180,143 


8.1 

8.2 
9.0 
9.4 


5,186,716 
5,265,799 
5,793,606 
6,153,370 


7.9 
8.0 
8.8 
9.4 



It will be noted that there are 
fewer children in the early ages than 
in later childhood or in the adoles- 
cent years. These figures become 
even more significant in the light of 
the changes which occurred between 
1930 and 1940: 

(a) The number of children under 
5 years of age decreased, from 1930 
to 1940, by some 900,000. 

(h) The number of children of 
ages from 5 to 9 years decreased, 
from 1930 to 1940, by some 1,900- 
000. 



It is estimated that by 1950 there 
will be a decrease of some 2 million, 
and possibly more, in the age group 
10 to 19 years. Since the current 
larger number of babies born during 
the war will not reach adolescence 
for another 10 years at least, there 
will be fewer bovs and girls reaching 
high' school and college ages in the 
next 7 to 10 years. 

The following figures from the 
1940 census show the age and school 
attendance of the Nation's 46 million 
boys and girls and youth: 



166 



Age group 

5 years 

6 years 

7 to 9 years 

10 to 13 years 

14 years 

15 years 

16 to 17 years 

18 to 19 years 

20 years 

21 to 24 years 



Total number 



Number attending 
school 



Percent attending 



2,142,407 
2,054,385 
6,485,830 
9,340,205 
2,405,730 
2,422,519 
4,892,170 
5,018,834 
2,367,042 
9,220,793 



385,160 
1,420,051 
6,119,026 
8,915,669 
2,224,670 
2,122,995 
3,361,206 
1,449,485 
294,962 
465,875 



18.0 
69.1 
94.3 
95.5 
92.5 
87.6 
68.7 
28.9 
12.5 
5.1 



The percentage figures by age 
groups showing school attendance 
during 1940 are: 

Percent attending school in each age grou-p 
Age group: 

5 to 6 years 43 

7 to 13 years _ _— 95 

14 to 15 years _... 90 

16 to 17 years.. __ 68 

18 to 20 years _ 23.6 

21 to 24 years _ 5.1 

It will be observed that the per- 
centage of school attendance rises to 



age 13 when boys and girls approach 
the end of the elementary school and 
junior high school and likewise when 
employment in many States becomes 
legal; but that thereafter it declines. 
From age 17 on, the decline in at- 
tendance is rapid, to the 5.1 percent 
in the years 21 to 24 of college and 
university attendance. 

The following figures show the 
educational attainments of the popu- 
lation 25 years old and over in the 
year 1940: 



School years completed 



Total 



Number school years completed. 

Grade school: 

1 to 4 years 

5 and 6 years 

7 and 8 years 

High school: 

1 to 3 years 

4 years 

College: 

1 to 3 years 

4 years or more 



Median school years completed. 



Number of persons 



73,733,866 



2,799,923 



7 

8 

25 

11 
10 

4 
3 



,304,689 
,515,111 
,897,953 

,181,995 
,551,680 

,075,184 
,407,331 



Percent 



100.0 



3.8 

9.9 
11.6 
35.1 

15.2 
14.3 

5.5 
4.6 



8.4 



Not including persons for whom school years completed were not reported. 

It will be noted that about half of cent had had less than a fifth-grade 

the population 25 years of age and education. 

over had completed approximately The foregoing figures of school 

8^2 grades but that some 13.7 per- attendance collected in the 1940 



167 



census may be compared with the 
enrollments by grades in the public 
schools of the country as tabulated 
by the United States Office of Edu- 
cation. Again it will be noted that 



there is a marked decline after the 
seventh grade and a progressive dimi- 
nution through the years of high 
school : 
— "Statistics of State School Systems, 



1937-38 



1941-42 



Elementary school pupils 

Kindergarten 

First grade 

Second grade 

Third grade 

Fourth grade 

Fifth grade 

Sixth grade 

Seventh grade 

Eighth grade 

Secondary school pupils.. 

First year 

Second year 

Third year 

Fourth Year 

Post graduate 



19,748,174 



18,174,668 



607,034 
3,317,144 
2,486,550 
2,444,381 
2,402,617 
2,342,428 
2,252,722 
2,173,173 
1,722,125 



6,226,934 



625,783 
2,930,762 
2,215,100 
2,175,245 
2,196,732 
2,166,018 
2,124,494 
2,060,752 
1,679,782 



6,387,805 



1,979,379 
1,669,281 
1,379,398 
1,150,506 
48,370 



1,927,040 
1,705,546 
1,450,788 
1,273,141 
31,090 



1939-40 

Surveys 

1940-42. 



and 1941-42." Biennial 
of Education, 1938-40, 
(Table III, p. 9.) 



In the year 1941—42 there was a 
decrease in high school enrollments 
of about 189,000, distributed as 
follows: 

First year of high school 84,000 

Second year 61,000 

Third year __ 35,000 

Fourth year 9,000 

Recent reports indicate a larger 
decrease in high school attendance 
for the years 1942—43, with indica- 
tions that some 160,000 boys and 
some 50,000 girls had left high 
school. Efforts to reduce the number 
of students leaving high school and 
to persuade others to return, have 
apparently checked this decline in 



high school enrollments in 1944-45. 

There is, as these figures indicate, 
a progressive reduction in the num- 
ber of students at each successively 
higher level of education. Thus, the 
total student body may be compared 
to a pyramid with a broad base of 
elementary pupils sloping upwards to 
the apex of professional and graduate 
students. 

Various detailed studies of how 
and when students drop out along 
the educational sequence have been 
made which throw light upon the 
size of and occasion for withdrawals, 
and the reasons therefor. 

Starting with 1,000 pupils enrolled 
in the fifth grade (figures for earlier 
grades are confusing because of pupil 
retardations), the following figures 
show the extent to which they are 
reduced in each successive year: 



168 



Elementary school: 

Fifth grade, 1930-31 1,000 

Sixth grade - 943 

Seventh grade - 872 

Eighth grade -- 824 

High school: 

First year 770 

Second year — 652 

Third year __.... 529 

Fourth year - 463 

Graduates,' 1938 -- 417 

College : 

First year 146 

Graduate, 1942 72 

[Statistical Summary of Education, 1939-40 
(p. 39)] 

In prewar years, of these 72 college 
graduates, only a few went on to 
master's degrees and an even smaller 
number received doctorates. 

The foregoing data reveal the gross 
declines measured in terms of student 
enrollments. More detailed and indi- 
vidualized studies (cited later) of 
those who drop out of high school 
or who fail to go on to college show 
that there is a significantly large pro- 
portion of students of ability, of high 
level of intelligence, who do not go 
to college because of lack of funds. 
In addition it is believed that there 
are many able, talented, students, 
whose numbers are difficult to esti- 
mate accurately because only a few 
sample studies have been made, who 
do not continue their education be- 
cause schools are inadequate or 
inaccessible. 

Among those who do enter college 
there is a progressive decrease in each 
succeeding college year. A study 
conducted by the United States Of- 
fice of Education on "College Stu- 
dent Mortality" (Bulletin 1937, No. 
11) found that in 1936-37 the per- 
centage of students leaving each year 
was as follows: 

Percent 

In the freshman year 33.8 

In the sophomore year 16.7 

In the junior year .._ 7.7 

In the senior year 3.9 



In short, of every 100 students who 
entered the university in the first 
vear, some 62 withdrew or left before 
graduation. The figure 62 is, how- 
ever, a gross figure since it includes 
45 students who left to enter other 
institutions (e.g., students who left 
after 2 years to enter professional 
school) or who returned later to the 
same or went to other institutions of 
the same level. The reasons for with- 
drawing or leaving were as follows: 

Percentages 

18.4 were dismissed for failure in 

work. 
12.4 because of financial difficulties. 
12.2 miscellaneous reasons. 

6.1 lack of interest. 

3.4 sickness. 

1.1 disciplinary causes. 

0.8 needed at home. 

0.6 death. 
45.0 unknown. 

Those with the lowest academic 
marks had the highest percentage of 
withdrawals and those with the high- 
est academic marks had the lowest 
percentage of withdrawals. But it is 
to be noted that 12.4 percent, or 
about one in eight, withdrew because 
of financial difficulties, indicating 
that economic need, personally or of 
the family, was responsible for their 
leaving college before graduation. 

As the foregoing material indicates, 
students drop out of school in large 
numbers between the ages of 13 and 
14 and likewise during the high 
school years. Among those who thus 
drop out there is a significant propor- 
tion who have the capacity for fur- 
ther education but who do not con- 
tinue their schooling. It appears that 
this premature leaving from high 
school (and failure to go on to col- 
lege) arises from — 

Failure to provide educational 
programs suited to different 
students who therefore be- 
come bored and drop out. 



169 



Active recruitment by business 
and industry of promising 
youth who for their own good 
and the national interest 
should be encouraged to con- 
tinue their education. 

Lack of provision for assisting 
needy students in high school 
who must take jobs to help 
support themselves or their 
families. 

The responsibility for improving 
these conditions is primarily upon the 
local communitv and business inter- 
ests and the State governments, al- 
though it must be recognized that, in 
some sections of the country, re- 
sources are lacking to provide ade- 
quate high schools. 

A number of recent studies have 
shown that among high school grad- 
uates there are many who have the 
intelligence and ability for college 
but who do not go to college for a 
variety of reasons, chiefly economic 
and geographic. Excerpts from these 
studies are given at the end of this 
section as evidence of ihe present 
failure to provide adequately for the 
continued education of promising 
American youth. 

In the light of the studies made, 
having regard to the facts of the edu- 
cational pyramid, it clearly is essen- 
tial to provide for the early schooling 
of more able students in order that 
a large enough group will survive to 
become a larger quota of high-ability 
students at the apex of the pyramid. 
No matter how capable and gifted 
bovs and girls mav be, if thev do not 
have opportunities to complete ele- 
mentary and high school, they cannot 
go on to college and thence to gradu- 
ate school for research training. 

To increase this small group of 
exceptionally able men and women 



it is necessary to enlarge the number 
of able students who go to college. 
This involves more and better high 
schools, with provisions for helping 
capable students in the high schools 
(primarily a responsibility of every 
local community) and opportunities 
for more capable, promising high 
school students to go to college. Any 
other practice constitutes an inde- 
fensible and wasteful utilization of 
higher education and neglect of our 
human resources. 



Following are summaries of studies 
pertinent to our inquiry concerning 
able students lost to higher educa- 
tion: 

The Carnegie Foundation carried 
out a thorough investigation into the 
relationships and mutual responsibili- 
ties of the high schools and colleges 
of Pennsvlvania. One of the pur- 
poses of the study was to answer the 
question: Who shall go to college? 

The procedure of the study in- 
volved extensive testing of high 
school seniors and college students, 
study of records, and study of prog- 
ress made in college. Comparisons 
were then made between college and 
non-college groups and between va- 
rious college groups. 

The results of this study showed 
that the group of high school gradu- 
ates who went to work included 
many fully as able to obtain high test 
scores as any pupils who went di- 
rectly to college. Pennsylvania col- 
leges of arts alone took nearly 4,000 
of the high school group tested in 
1928. The colleges accepted nearly 
1,000 with test scores below the aver- 
age of the group who did not go to 
college and they failed to enroll 3,000 
with better average scores than the 
4,000 they did admit. Although the 
college group exhibited a test score 



170 



average superior to that of the non- 
college group, it did not include the 
many able and often brilliant high 
school graduates who could not pay 
the college bills. 

— The Student and His Knowl- 
edge, by W. S. Learned and Ben D. 
Wood. Carnegie Foundation for the 
Advancement of Teaching; Bulletin 
29, 1938. 



In Minnesota a study was made of 
students who graduated from high 
school in 1938 to see what they were 
doing a year later. About 22,000 
young people were included in this 
study which showed the following: 

"What were youth doing a year 
following graduation? Minnesota 
high school graduates of June 1938, 
fall into three broad groups of ap- 
proximately equal numbers. One- 
third found full-time employment 
within a year following graduation. 
Another third continued their train- 
ing in either collegiate or preparatory 
schools. The third group was made 
up of graduates who secured part- 
time employment only, of the unem- 
ployed, and of those graduates for 
whom principals were unable to sup- 
ply information. 

"Of the 22,306 young people who 
finished high school in June 1938, 
35 percent were employed full time 
and 7 percent had secured part-time 
employment in April 1939; 12 per- 
cent were unemployed; 23 percent 
were enrolled in colleges or univer- 
sities, and an additional 12 percent 
were receiving training in other 
kinds of schools — trade schools, com- 
mercial colleges, schools of nursing, 
high schools as postgraduates. High 
school principals were unable to re- 
port the whereabouts of 1 1 percent. 

"Was there a relationshif between 



scholastic achievement in high school 
and em'ployment or further training 
for Minnesota high school graduates? 
When the relationship of scholastic 
success in high school to the post- 
high school status of the graduates of 
June 1938 was studied, these three 
trends were found : As one goes down 
the ability scale (1) the percentage 
of graduates employed increased, (2) 
the percentage of unemployed gradu- 
ates also increased, and (3) the per- 
centage of graduates who continued 
their training beyond high school de- 
creased. When, however, only those 
graduates who presumably were in 
the labor market (not continuing 
their education) were considered, 
high school success bore little rela- 
tion to employment and unemploy- 
ment. 

"Many able graduates, however, 
were not attending college. Consid- 
erably less than half of the high 
school graduates who ranked in the 
upper 30 percent of their high school 
classes were enrolled in college. More 
than 15 percent of these able gradu- 
ates who did not continue their train- 
ing were unemployed. High marks 
in school are doubtless desirable, but 
they were not the open sesame to 
college halls or employment for those 
graduates" (p. 35). 

For every (high school) graduate 
who ranked in the upper 10 percent 
of his high school class and entered 
college, another graduate who also 
ranked in the upper 10 percent did 
not enter college. 

For every graduate who ranked in 
the upper 30 percent of his class and 
entered college, two graduates who 
ranked in the upper 30 percent did 
not enter college. 

"Was there a relationship between 
socio-economic status as indicated by 
the fathers' occu-pations and the sta- 



171 



tus of Minnesota young feofle a 
year following their graduation? 
From the professional end of the 
occupational scale to the unskilled 
labor end, (1) employment increased, 

(2) unemplo)Tnent increased, and 

(3) the proportions of graduates 
continuing their training decreased. 
From this study of the Minnesota 
high school graduate of June 1938. 
it would seem that the probability of 
college attendance for a graduate who 
is the son or daughter of a father 
employed in a professional or mana- 
gerial group is several times greater 
than that for the son or daughter of 
a farmer or of an unskilled laborer. 
Among the June 1938 graduates, 
children of the unemployed were 
themselves unemployed in greater 
proportion than children of fathers 
at work" (p. 36). 

Many able high school graduates 
were not enrolled for further educa- 
tion. "It is no longer safe to assume — 
if it ever was — that the most intelli- 
gent high school graduates go to col- 
lege. It is of fundamental importance 
for all the people of the State to 
know how generally young people 
who would make the best teachers, 
lawyers, accountants, doctors, engi- 
neers, and statesmen are able to at- 
tend colleges and universities. It has 
been assumed traditionally that the 
most capable high schol graduates 
go to college. It is suggested by this 
study, however, that geography and 
the economic resources of the family 
are perhaps as closely related to col- 
lege attendance as is intellectual fit- 
ness" (p. 39). 

— "What Happens to High School 
Graduates?" by G. Lester Anderson 
and T. J. Berning. Studies in Higher 
Education. Biennial Report of the 
Committee on Educational Research 



1938-40. University of Minnesota, 
1941. 



"It is possible to investigate the 
availability of educational opportu- 
nity '^ '^ "^ in various parts of the 
countr\'. For example a study of 
youth in Pennsylvania was conducted 
about a decade ago by the State De- 
partment of Public Instruction and 
the American Youth Commission. 
The socio-economic status and edu- 
cational history were ascertained for 
a group of 910 pupils with intelli- 
gence quotients of 110 or above. It 
is generally assumed that pupils with 
intelligence quotients above 1 10 are 
good college material. This group 
of superior pupils was divided into 
two subgroups on the basis of socio- 
economic status. Of the upper socio- 
economic group, 93 percent gradu- 
ated from high school and 57 percent 
attended college. Of the lower socio- 
economic group, 72 percent gradu- 
ated from high school and 13 percent 
attended college. Further study of 
the data in Table II will show even 
more clearly that the group with 
below-average socio-economic status 
had relatively less educational op- 
portunity than the group with above- 
average socio-economic status, al- 
though both groups were about equal 
in intellectual abihty" (p. 51). 

"A similar conclusion must be 
drawn from a study made by Helen 
B. Goetsch on 1,023 able students 
who graduated from Milwaukee high 
schools in 1937 and 1938. These stu- 
dents all had I. Q.'s of 117 or above. 
The income of their parents is di- 
rectly related to college attendance, as 
is shown in Table III. The higher 
the parents' income, the greater is 
the proportion who went to college" 
(p. 52). 



172 



"Table il: Relation of Intelligence to Educational Opportunity 

[Record of students with intelligence quotients of 110 or above] 





Socio-economic 


Socio-economic 






Educational advance 


status above 
average 


status below 
average 


Total 


group 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percer\t 


Dropped school at eighth grade or below. 


4 


0.07 


27 


7.9 


31 


3.4 


Completed ninth, tenth, or eleventh 














grade but did not graduate from high 














school 


36 


6.2 


69 


20.2 


105 


11.6 


Graduated from high school but did not 














attend college 


206 
322 


36.3 
56.8 


202 
44 


59.0 
12.9 


408 
366 


44.8 


Attended college _ ... 


40.2 






Total 


568 


100.0 


342 


100.0 


910 


100.0 







"Table III: Relation of Parental Income to Full-Tlme College Attendance 
of Superior Milwaukee High School Graduates 

Fercent 
in college 
Parental income: full time 

$8,000+ - 100.0 

$5, 000-$7, 999 ..- -- 92. 

$3, 000-$4, 999 72. 9 

$2, 000-$2, 999 44. 4 

$1, 500-$l, 999.... 28. 9 

$ 1 , 000-$ 1 , 499.... 25 . 5 

$500- $999 26. 8 

Under $500 20. 4 

"We see what actually happens if school graduates except those who 

we consider the 191 students who attended private schools. Table IV 

were graduates of the Old City High shows what happened to these people 

School over a 5-year period. This after graduation and what the social 

number includes all the white high make-up of the group was" (p. 59). 



"Table IV: College Attendance of High School Graduates in Old City 



Class 


Number 


Percent of 

total by 

class 


Number 

attending 

college 


Percent of 
each social 

class 

attending 

college 


Percent by 

social class 

of all who 

attend 

college 


Upper . .... ... 


14 
54 
31 
43 
19 
30 


7 
28 
16 
23 
10 
16 


10 
37 

18 
7 




72 
69 
58 
16 




14 


Upper middle . 


51 


Middle 


25 


Lower middle 

Lower 


10 



Unknown 









Total 


191 


100 


72 




100 







173 



"The Hometown school has a fine 
building and an undifferentiated cur- 
riculum so that the same high school 
education is available to all the chil- 
dren, whether they have college am- 
bitions or not. In Hometown, 80 
percent of the boys and girls of high 
school age attend high school. Why 
do they go? What do they and their 
parents expect from a high school 
education? 

"First of all, no upper-upper class 
family has children in high school. 
The lower-uppers and upper-middles 
account for about the same propor- 
tions of pupils as one would expect 
from their proportions in the total 
population. The lower-middles con- 
tribute less than one would expect 
and the upper-lower and lower-lower 
contribute more, probably because 



the lower-class people have larger 
families and therefore, more prospec- 
tive pupils. 

"Of all high school students classi- 
fied as lower-upper or upper-middle, 
88 percent will go on to college while 
only 12 percent of those in the three 
bottom classes expect to go to col- 
lege. Of the total high school pupils, 
20 percent are preparing to go to 
college and 80 percent were definitely 
not going to college" (p. 66). 

"The generalization that different 
curricula and types of institutions are 
adapted to different statuses is illus- 
trated by Goetsch's study. She found 
that the hierarchv of family income 
was reflected in a hierarchy of courses 
pursued by students in higher in- 
stitutions, as shown in Table VI" 
(p. 72). 



"Table VI: Parental Income and College Courses 

Median 
Curriculum: parental income 

Law .._.. $2, 1 1 8 

Medicine and Dentistry 2,1 12 

Liberal Arts 2,068 

Journalism 1,907 

Engineering 1,884 

Teaching 1 , 5 70 

Commercial 1,543 

Nursing 1,368 

Industrial Trades 1 , 1 04 



— Who Shall Be Educated: The 
Challenge of Unequal Opportunities, 
by W. Lloyd Warner, Robert J. 
Havighurst, Martin B. Loeb. Harper 
& Bros., New York City, 1944. 



"The findings of this study, in har- 
mony with the findings of other 
studies, show that approximately as 
many of the ablest high school gradu- 
ates are out of college as are in 
college. 

"On the basis of the sample (of 
1,754 cases), the upper quarter of 



the State's 16,000 high school gradu- 
ates would contain a minimum of 
4,000 of the ablest individuals, the 
type of students who really do well 
in college. Forty-nine percent of 
4,000 is 1,960 individuals with high 
potential college ability, who for 
some reason or reasons, did not enroll 
in college. From the point of view 
of the colleges, as well as of the in- 
dividuals and of society, the loss in 
human resources indicated in these 
data is highly significant. 

"Table 8 shows that for every four 



174 



able boys in the upper quarter there 
were six able girls. Table 1 1 shows 
that the ratio of able boys to able 
girls in the upper quarter enrolled in 
college was 6 to 4.5. Thus, it is clear 
that the greatest social and personal 
loss of human resources comes in the 
ranks of able girls in the upper quar- 
ter" (pp. 37-38). 

— "The Utilization of Potential 
College Ability Found in June 
1940, Graduates of Kentucky High 
Schools," by Horace Leonard Davis. 
Bulletin of the Bureau of School 
Service, College of Education, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky. Vol. XV. No. 1. 
Sept. 1942. 



"Location of brightest seniors. 
When we determine which economic 
group furnished the largest percent- 
age of seniors possessing the higher 
grades of intelligence we secure dif- 
ferent results. All economic groups 
except the highest salaried group are 
represented in the highest one per- 
centile class. Table XLII shows the 
percentage of students belonging to 
each economic group whose mental 
test score gave them a rating of A-f 



or A, the highest grades made on the 
tests, also the percentage making a 
mental rating of E — or F, the low- 
est grades of intelligence possessed 
by our total or standard group. 
Groups 2, 3, and 4, where the in- 
come varied from $1,000 to $4,500, 
have the largest percentage of seniors 
rated A-|- and groups 1 and 5 the 
smallest. Groups 3 and 4, are supe- 
rior to group 2 in the percentage of 
students rated A-|- or A. 

"From a study of our distribution 
tables it appears that neither group 
1 nor group 5 contain students who 
score above 180 points in the tests. 
But seniors possessing this grade of 
ability were found in each of the 
other economic groups. The bright- 
est students belong to group 4, the 
annual income of whose parents 
ranged from $1,000 to $2,000. Eight 
students belonging to the group, 6 
boys and 2 girls, made scores over 
185. And 5 students in our lowest 
economic group (annual income $500 
to $1,000) made scores ranging from 
175 to ISO, while there was but a 
single student in our highest salaried 
group who made a score above 175 
points" (p. 213). 



'Percent of Students In Each Economic Group Possessing Highest 

or Lowest Grades of Ability 



Economic groups compared 



Percent rated: 

A+ 

A+ or A 

F 

E- or F 

Total cases. _ 



1 


2 


3 


4 


Salary 

$4,500- 

$12,000 


Salary 
$3,000- 
$4,500 


Salary 
$2,000- 
$3,000 


Salary 
$1,000- 
$2,000 


1.89 


3.01 


2.48 


2.49 


7.56 


7.53 


10.07 


8.24 


1.08 


1.50 


.55 


.81 


5.13 


6.52 


4.69 


5.03 


370 


199 


724 


1,964 



Salary 
$500- 
$1,000 



0.82 

5.68 
1.92 
8.99 
1,089 



"If we count all students whose test groups arrange themselves . . . : 
scores gave them a mental rating of Group 3 (income $2,000 to $3,000) 
A-j-, A or B, these \arious economic comes first; group 2 (annual income 



175 



of $3,000 to -$4,500) comes second; 
group 4 (annual income of $1,000 to 
$2,000) ranks third; while the high- 
est and lowest salaried groups come 
last" (p. 214). 

"If we compare the records made 
on our tests by the group of seniors 
representing the richest and the poor- 
est homes, we find that there are 
proportionally more children possess- 
ing the highest grades of mental 
ability among the poorest class than 
among the wealthiest class, and more 
individuals with high average grades 
of intelligence among the wealthier 
than among the poorer group. The 
wealthiest group ranks high on cen- 
tral tendency. The poorest salaried 
group ranks low on central tendency 
and also has a larger percentage of in- 
dividuals possessing the lower grades 
of mental abilitv. But there are in- 



dividuals in this class who obtain the 
highest intelligence rating made by 
high school seniors" (p. 216). 

"Brightest seniors not going to col- 
lege. It is still more significant that 
so many of this most superior group 
of high school seniors will not attend 
college, while those with the most 
inferior grades of intelligence are 
planning to attend, in ever increasing 
numbers. Twenty-five percent of the 
brightest seniors found in the entire 
State said they were not planning to 
attend college at all, while 65 to 70 
percent of the dullest seniors had 
definitely decided to go to college, 
most of them having already selected 
the college they expected to attend" 
(p. 298). 

— The Intelligence of High School 
Seniors, by William F. Book. The 
Macmillan Company, New York, 
1928. 



176 



Appendix B 



Data Concerning Training of Personnel for Science and Technology 



The relatively small number of 
able students who graduate from col- 
lege must be shared by the various 
professional schools and by the gradu- 
ate schools which train for research 
in the natural sciences, the social 
sciences, and the arts and humanities. 

From compilations made by the 
American Association of Collegiate 
Registrars, the following figures show 
the distribution of undergraduate de- 
grees in 1941 among broad academic 
and professional fields: 

Social sciences 17,947 

Social science and allied fields of 
law, business administration, 
education, divinity, library 

training, journalism, etc 70,829 

Mathematics and physical sciences 6,440 



Mathematics, physical science and 
allied fields of engineering, min- 
ing, chemistry, etc 25,044 

Biological sciences 5,812 

Biological sciences and allied fields 
of medicine, nursing, dentistry, 
pharmacy, agriculture, forestry, 
home economics, etc.._ 28,490 

In the fields of research these fall 
into broad groups, as follows: 

Social science 17,947 

Natural science 16,050 

Natural science and technology 53,534 

A compilation of Ph.D. degrees 
in the 6 years before the war shows 
the following distribution among 
the physical, earth, biological and 
medical sciences, psychology, public 
health, and anthropolog)^: 



Subject 



Astronomy... 

Chemistry 

Engineering.. 
Mathematics- 
Metallurgy. - 
Physics 



Geology 

Meteorology. 
Mineralogy. . 
Seismology.. 



Paleontology - 
Biochemistry. 
Agriculture. . 
Anatomy 



1935 

11 
470 
63 
77 
11 
150 



62 
1 
1 
2 



12 

'77" 
25 



1936 
5 

482 
48 
84 
16 

147 



64 

5 



10 

'53" 
15 



1937 

9 

497 
70 
76 

7 
158 



42 
1 
3 



8 

"48" 
14 



1938 
12 

426 
59 
62 

7 
165 



58 
4 
5 



9 

101 
37 
20 



1939 
5 

482 

44 

91 

9 

148 



49 
2 
1 



13 

127 

40 

17 



1940 

6 

527 
77 

103 
11 

191 



55 

4 
2 



11 
130 

58 
21 



Average 

8 

479 

60 

82 

10 

160 

799 

55 
1 
3 

1 

60* 

11 

(120) 

52 

19 



177 



Subject 


1935 


1936 


1937 


1938 


1939 


1940 


Average 


Bacteriology and Microbiology- - 

Botany 

Entomology 

Genetics 


38 
110 
34 
10 
24 
76 
113 

14 

10 

101 

4 

13 


41 

108 
30 
21 
14 
83 

132 

12 
18 
118 
13 
20 


46 
88 
51 
13 
21 
103 
98 

1 

14 

112 

9 

15 


40 

106 
33 
31 
16 
66 

102 

7 

19 

108 

15 

18 


56 

108 
47 
32 
11 
59 

102 

9 

23 

123 

8 
11 


59 
112 
48 
26 
20 
70 
112 

10 
23 
120 
15 
26 


47 

105 

41 

22 


Horticulture 

Physiology 


18 
76 


Zoology 


110 




621 


Medicine and Surgery 

Pharmacology 


9 

18 


Psychology 


114 


Public Health 

Anthropology 


11 

17 




169 


Total 


1,649 



















It will be noted that the physical 
sciences provided about 800 or al- 
most half of the total number of 
doctor's degrees in science, of which, 
in turn, about one-half were in chem- 
istry. The earth sciences provided an 
additional 60 degrees. 

After the physical sciences the 
largest number of degrees were in the 
life sciences, with about 800 degrees 
distributed among the several divi- 
sions as follows: 

Medical sciences 300 

Biology _____ 307 

Agriculture 52 

Psychology ___ 114 

Anthropology 1 1 



784 



The National Roster made an in- 
ventory of graduate students in non- 
professional and non-vocational 
schools and departments, as of De- 
cember 1942, which showed the num- 
ber then enrolled in the graduate 
schools, divided into disciplines as 
follows: 

Physical sciences 5,698 



Chemistry 3,045 

Geology 182 

Mathematics 545 



Meteorology 918 

Physics (electronic) 227 

Physics (non-electronic) __ 680 
Other physical sciences. ___ 101 

Biology _____ 1,120 

Social sciences _ 3,857 



Economics 1,034 

Geography 79 

History ____ 812 

Psychology 543 

Other social studies 1,389 

Languages, literature, fine 

arts, and music 2,157 

Other major fields 486 



13,318 



It will be noted that there were 
about 5,700 graduate students in 
physical science and some 1,100 in 
biology at the time of this report. 

In terms of the educational pyra- 
mid, the total number of graduate 
students shown above in all branches 
of non-professional and non-voca- 
tional graduate study form but a 
small proportion of the total college 
enrollments of approximately 1,400,- 
000 in 1939-40. Moreover, the 1,649 
who received Ph.D. degrees in the 
sciences listed above were about one- 
half of the total number of all Ph.D. 
degrees (about 3,300 in 1939-40). 



178 



Special studies have been made by lative deficit in the number of stu- 

the Institute of Physics on the effect dents receiving Ph.D. degrees, in the 

of war upon the training of research several physical sciences and engi- 

personnel in the graduate schools. neering, which will continue and 

These indicate that there is a cumu- grow until several years after the war: 



Chemistry 

Engineering 

Geology 

Mathematics 

Physics 

Psychology 

Biological sciences 

Totals 



Accumulated 
deficit, 1941 
through 1944 



240 

148 
63 

161 

251 
96 

665 



1,624 



Estimated 

deficit, 

1945 



550 
82 
50 

100 

160 
84 

725 



1,751 



Total 1941 

through 

1945 



790 
230 
113 
261 
411 
180 
1,390 



3,375 



Probable 
deficits, 

1946 
through 

1955 



4,460 
730 
317 
939 

1,589 
550 

4,910 



13,495 



Total prob- 
able deficit 
due to war, 
1941 through 
1955 



5,250 

960 
430 

1,200 

2,000 

730 

6,300 



16,870 



Proposals for enlarging the number 
of students entering the graduate 
schools to be trained for research 
must be considered in relation to the 
probable demand for trained research 
workers as expressed in available jobs. 
Thus, necessary as it is to enlarge the 
number of graduate students in order 
to produce the relatively few research 
students of exceptional ability, the 
danger of an oversupply of trained 
research personnel must be kept con- 
stantly in mind. The unhappy plight 
of scholars in Europe after the last 
war when there was a surplus should 
not be forgotten. 

Likewise proposals for recruiting 



more college students into the physi- 
cal and biological sciences and enlist- 
ing more graduate students for train- 
ing in research in the physical and 
biological sciences should be viewed 
in the light of the over-all needs of 
the country and of the requirements 
in other fields of research and in the 
several professions. If too many of 
the limited number of high quality 
students are absorbed by fields of sci- 
entific research, research in the social 
sciences and in the arts and humani- 
ties may be jeopardized with probably 
unfavorable reactions upon scientific 
research. 



179 



Appendix C 



Suggested Administrative Organization, Bases of Selection, 
Schedule and Procedures 



/. Administrative Organization 

Proposals for a National Scientific 
Research Foundation are under dis- 
cussion, such a foundation to be 
charged with responsibility for the 
administration of the several national 
scientific programs being recom- 
mended by the committees advising 
Dr. Bush. Among the suggested 
powers of such a foundation is power 
to make contracts with other agencies 
for the performance of functions 
within the scope of the foundation. 
It would be our recommendation that 
the foundation, or any similar agency 
which may be established, should 
make arrangements for choosing 
Scholars and Fellows under the pro- 
posed plans through the National 
Academy of Sciences, if that organi- 
zation be willing to accept the re- 
sponsibility. The National Academy, 
as a representative body of the scien- 
tists of the country, would be the 
logical organization to sponsor this 
program; and association with the 
National Academy would give the 
program respect and prestige. 
It is further recommended that: 
(a) The President of the National 
Academv of Sciences, with the ad- 
vice and consent of the Administra- 
tive Committee of the National Re- 
search Council, periodically should 
appoint a National Science Reserve 
Advisory Committee which would 
advise him regarding methods of se- 
lection and the arrangements for the 
entire program within the provisions 
of the legislation. 



(I7) The President of the National 
Academy of Sciences with the advice 
of the advisory committee should ap- 
point a Director of the National 
Science Reserve Program, who would 
devote his full time to the work. Sub- 
ject to the general supervision of the 
administrative committee of the Na- 
tional Research Council, the Director 
would establish a national office, 
select the administrative and research 
staff, develop detailed plans and ad- 
minister the program. The Director 
would appoint a technical advisory 
committee, or committees for the 
development of tests of scientific 
promise, of the inventory of activities 
and interests and of the recommen- 
dation blank and rating scale. 

(c) The President of the National 
Academy of Sciences with the advice 
of the advisory committee would ap- 
point State committees of selection, 
to consist of five members, to wit: 
three scientists, one of whom should 
serve as chairman; one member of a 
college or university faculty, trained 
and experienced in the field of selec- 
tion and guidance; and one repre- 
sentative of secondary education, usu- 
ally a school principal or one of the 
high school supervisors in the State 
department of education. At least 
one of the scientists, it is suggested, 
should be from agriculture, or from 
industry, within the State. The State 
committees of selection, under our 
plan, would have the responsibility 
of making the final appointments to 
the limit of the State quotas. These 



180 



committees would make their selec- 
tions on the basis of the dossiers of 
the candidates which would be sup- 
plied to them by the national office, 
plus such other material as the State 
committees may decide to gather and 
use. The national office, on the basis 
of the tests of scientific promise and 
the applicants' school records, would 
select twice the State's quota and re- 
port the names and records of such 
candidates to the State committees. 
The State committees would make 
the final selections from among these 
candidates. No candidates who do 
not attain a certain minimum na- 
tional standard should be certified to 
the State committees. 

In the selection of the general ad- 
visory committee, and also in choos- 
ing the membership of the technical 
committee or committees, the persons 
and oreanizations that have had the 
greatest experience in constructing, 
administering and interpreting the 
particular kind of measuring instru- 
ments to be used in this program 
should be consulted. Such organiza- 
tions include the committee on 
Measurement and Guidance of the 
American Council on Education, the 
Cooperative Test Service, the Col- 
lege Entrance Examination Board, 
the Graduate Record Examination 
Office of the Carnegie Foundation, 
the Measurement and Guidance Proj- 
ect in Engineering Education, the 
Examination Staff of the Armed 
Forces Institute, and the University 
of Iowa Examination project. Direc- 
tors, and in some instances, other 
staff members of these agencies are 
among those who have had the great- 
est amount of experience in prepar- 
ing measurement instruments of the 
type necessary. To make certain that 
the selection instruments are as ade- 
quate as they can be made, it will be 



essential to draw upon the combined 
experience and technical knowledge 
and judgment of these persons and 
agencies. The whole job must be 
done at the highest possible level of 
professional competence. 

//. Bases of Selection} 

It is proposed that there be four 
principal sources of information and 
judgment upon which final selection 
of the Scholars should be based; but 
that only the first two of these be 
used in the preliminary screening: 

(1) Score on test of scientific 
promise. 

(2) School record, especially rank- 
in-class. 

(3) Candidate's application in- 
cluding an inventory of ac- 
tivities and interests. 

(4) Recommendation of principals 
and teachers regarding candi- 
date's ability and personal 
qualities. 

It is strongly recommmended that 
these tests and examinations be un- 
dertaken on an experimental basis 
and be continually revised and im- 
proved in the light of actual experi- 
ence and of the performance of stu- 
dents selected. The first few years of 
the program especially should be con- 
sidered experimental so that new and 
promising methods can be tried out, 
particularly for the discovery of the 
candidates' interests and personality 
characteristics, including evidence of 
some concern for social understand- 
ing and responsibility. 

For the present, and subject to 
change in the light of experience and 

1 This section applies especially to the discov- 
ery of talented youth who are attending high 
school. The committee, as indicated in the body 
of its report, recognizes that there is also the 
problem of finding, and giving opportunity tcx 
talented youth who are outside high schools and 
that, for them, variations from standard proce- 
dures will be required. 



181 



research upon the vaHdity of indices 
of prediction, it is recommended that: 

The test score and rank-in-class in 
school should be combined into one 
index of academic promise which 
should be used as the basis of screen- 
ing. For each State a critical score on 
the index should be set at a point 
which would yield twice the State 
quota, provided that the State critical 
score were above the national mini- 
mum score. 

For the candidates above the State 
critical score, additional information 
should be collected so that in the 
final selection it will be possible to 
take into account certain important 
qualities such as originality, creative 
ability, motivation, emotional sta- 
bility, and qualities of leadership. 

For the convenience of the State 
committees of selection, a summary 
sheet would be prepared giving the 
essential data from the four sources 
of information indicated above and 
this summary sheet would be at- 
tached to the front of each candidate's 
dossier when it is sent to the State 
committee. 

The State committees should be 
provided with directions to assist 
them in interpreting the various items 
of information about each candidate. 
The State committees, however, 
should be entirely free to use and 
evaluate the information in accord- 
ance with their best judgments and 
should be encouraged to collect addi- 
tional information, •such as interview 
reports, concerning the applicants, to 
provide the broadest possible bases 
for the process of selection. 

]. Test of Scientific Promise 

(a) Length. — The test should be 
of sufficient length for efficient selec- 
tion, perhaps of 5 or 6 hours dura- 
tion. It should not be a speed test. 



(h) Type of questions. — The test 
should be of the objective or con- 
trolled-answer type. The unreliability 
of free answer questions as well as 
the limitation in sampling imposed 
by such questions restricts their use- 
fulness for the present purpose. 

(c) Content. — There should be 
several sections in the test. The ma- 
terials throughout should be such as 
to involve a complex of aptitude and 
achievement as the most satisfactorv 
measure. The subject matter should 
be related particularly to scientific 
ability instead of to general academic 
promise. 

(d) Level of difficulty. — It is im- 
portant that the test be of maximum 
selectivity at and above the critical 
score. Studies of the results of the 
best mathematics and science tests 
now in use indicate that students 
who make very high scores on such 
tests can be expected to succeed in 
scientific courses during the first year 
of college with a high degree of 
certainty. 

(e) Preparation of the tests. — (I) 
The test should be prepared after 
consideration of the specifications rec- 
ommended by the advisory committee 
which would include both scientists 
and testing specialists. (2) The test 
material should be pretested on a 
suitable population and the final test 
made up of the most successful items. 

2. School Record 

The school record is important be- 
cause it is a measure not only of 
ability but of the application of that 
ability in academic work over a 
period of several years. It has been 
found to be as useful in predicting 
college success as an aptitude test 
and when combined with the test 
score, the combination provides an 
index that is superior to either item 



182 



used alone. The school record not 
only adds the element of industrious- 
ness but rank-in-class and test score 
are what might be described as auto- 
matically compensatory indices. Apti- 
tude test scores are not entirely inde- 
pendent of the home and school 
background. Although aptitude more 
than achievement is measured, no 
aptitude tests are "pure " and uninflu- 
enced by previous training. Conse- 
quently individuals attending "good" 
schools are likely to be somewhat 
overrated by their test scores. For 
such students, their rank-in-class 
score is likely to be an underesti- 
mate of their achievement. Boys and 
girls from inferior schools on the 
other hand are likely to be under- 
rated by their test scores and over- 
rated by their rank-in-class. The two 
indices combined, therefore, provide 
a fairer basis for screening than 
either alone. 

The most reliable single measure 
of school success is rank-in-class. 
Marking systems and standards diff^er 
from school to school but the signifi- 
cance of relative standing in class 
remains fairly constant. Pragmati- 
cally it has been found to be the 
best index of school achievement. 

For all candidates who are above 
the State critical score on the screen- 
ing index, complete transcripts of high 
school records should be obtained 
along with other information to be 
used by the State committees in 
making the final selections. 

3. Candidate's A'pflication, Including 
an Inventory of Activities and 
Interests 

The application blank which can- 
didates who pass the screening test 
will be required to fill out will con- 
tain (a) the questions concerning 
age, family, schools attended, etc., 



such as are usually asked on a col- 
lege admission blank; (1?) an ex- 
tensive inventory of activities and 
interests specifically prepared for this 
purpose; (c) a statement of the extra- 
curricular scientific activities of the 
student during the preceding 2 
years. 

Inventories of activities and inter- 
ests, while not yet in as high a stage 
of development as intelligence tests, 
are valuable in indicating personal 
and intellectual qualities not meas- 
ured by tests. Indications of such 
qualities as the individual's ability to 
get along with others, his scientific 
interests and motivation, his emo- 
tional stability may be obtained from 
the inventory. These indications 
should be checked against the rat- 
ings of the principal and teachers on 
those same qualities. 

An advisory committee composed 
of men who have specialized in this 
field of measurement should be ap- 
pointed to draw up the specifications 
for the inventory of activities and in- 
terests to be developed by the staff 
of the national office. 

4. Recommendation of Principal and 
Teachers Regarding Candi- 
date's Ability and Personal 
Qualities 

Although the principal and teach- 
ers are not entirely impartial persons 
from whom to receive recommenda- 
tions, they have a better comparative 
basis for making judgments and are 
more 'likely to make fair and frank 
estimates than others whose opinion 
of the candidates might be requested. 

The recommendation blank should 
be in two parts. The first part would 
contain a large number of multiple 
choice questions and rating scales, 
the answer to some of which would 
relate to specific observations on 



183 



points of fact, while others would 
involve judgment of less tangible 
qualities. Each teacher who has had 
the candidate in class or in extra- 
curricular activities would indicate 
his or her answer by initialling the 
blank. The principal would finally, 
with an X, indicate the consensus. 
The second part of the blank would 
call for statements regarding a few 
particularly important qualities, such 
as concrete evidence of originality or 
creative abilitv in the field of science. 



Part one would yield indications 
on the same qualities as would be in- 
dicated by the candidate's inventory 
of activities and interests, so that the 
two sets of scores could be considered 
together and serve as a check on each 
other. 

The advisory committee charged 
with the responsibility of preparing 
the specifications for the inventorv of 
activities and interests should also 
prepare the specifications for the rec- 
ommendation blank. 



///. Schedule and Procedures (Tentative) 

June 1-Oct. 1 Preliminary publicity through newspapers, magazines, and 

radio. 

Oct. 1 Announcement by letter to State departments of education, 

superintendents of schools, and principals, giving the de- 
tailed plans of the competitions. School principals would 
be sent a return postal card on which to indicate the num- 
ber of students in the school who would take the screening 
test and the names of the teachers who would administer it. 

Oct. 20 Return postal cards due at national office. 

Oct. 20— Nov. 15 Screening tests and directions for administration shipped to 

schools. 

Dec. 1 Screening tests administered. A detachable portion of the an- 
swer sheet containing the same serial number as the answer 
sheet would be turned over to the principal after the candi- 
date has filled in his name and the name of the school so 
that the principal can enter the candidate's rank-in-class. 
(Complete directions for the principal will be printed on 
the form.) 

Dec. 5-Jan. 10 Scoring of tests and calculation of composite index for screen- 
ing. 

Jan. 10 Notice to candidates of success on screening test. Letter to 

principals of schools having successful candidates with ap- 
plication and recommendation blanks enclosed. Full direc- 
tions will be given the principal for the administration of 
the inventory of activities and interests and for the filling 
out of the recommendation blank. 

Feb. 10 Application and recommendation blanks due at the national 

office. 

Feb. 10-Mar. 10 Candidates' dossiers put in order and shipped to State commit- 
tees of selection. 

Mar. 20-Apr. 10 State committees go over applications, gather additional infor- 
mation (if they wish), and make selections. 

Apr. 10 List of men and women selected for scholarships sent to 

national office. 

Apr. 15 State committees notify candidates of selection for scholar- 
ships. 

Apr. 16— Public announcement of selection of scholars. 

May 1 Successful candidates must notify State committee of accept- 
ance, of the university or college they wish to attend and of 
the science course they wish to pursue. 

184 



May 15 - State committee notifies appointees of approval of college and 

course of study and corresponds with those where approval 

is withheld. 
May 30 — . Final revised list of appointees with name of college they will 

attend and course of study they will pursue sent by the 

State committee to national office. 
(From this point on, appointees deal directly with national 

office.) 

IV. Minimum Annual Cost of Selection (Estimated) 

Screening: 200,000 candidates at $1 - $200,000 

Final selection: 12,000 candidates: 

National office at $5 60,000 

State committees at $2 24,000 

Research and experimentation Caverage).... 50,000 

334,000 

It is of the utmost importance that stage of development. A strong re- 
adequate funds be allocated for re- search program would certainly lead 
search on the methods of selection. ^^ improvement in the selection of 

Although present knowledge makes ^ . . , . . p , 

.?, ^ J rr • • 1- • future scientists and in view or trie 

It possible to do an ertective 30b in 

selecting youth of scientific promise, suggested size of the program would 
work in this field is still in the early be a long-run economy. 



185 



Appendix 5 



Report of the Committee on 
Publication of Scientific Information 



Table of Contents 

Page 

Letter of transmittal — -- - 187 

Members of the Committee 188 

Report : 

1. Need for lifting restrictions 189 

2. Release from military classification 190 

3. Agreement with our Allies on release of information 191 

4. Stimulation of publication -— — 191 

5 . Recommendations 192 



186 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Dr. Vannevar Bush, Director, 

Office of Scientific Research and Development, 

1530 P Street, NW., Washington, D. C. 



January 9, 1945. 



IMy Dear Dr. Bush: 

It is my pleasure to submit herewith the report of the Committee appointed 
to assist vou in answering the first question in President Roosevelt's letter to 
vou of November 17, 1944, which was expressed as follows: 

"First: What can be done, consistent with military security, and with 
the prior approval of the military authorities, to make known to the 
world as soon as possible the contributions which have been made dur- 
ing our war effort to scientific knowledge? 

"The diffusion of such knowledge should help us to stimulate new 
enterprises, provide jobs for our returning servicemen and other 
workers, and make possible great strides for the improvement of the 
national well-being." 

In preparing the report the members of the Committee had the benefit of 
discussions with a number of persons concerned with the publication of 
scientific information. There has been general agreement that one of the 
primary problems in the field of pubUcation is the establishment of an agency 
which, as a general principle, will permit the release of scientific information 
as soon as it can no longer be used against us in the present war and on terms 
which will be fair to all concerned. In particular, speed of release should be 
accompanied by a mechanism which will lift the restrictions on publication 
in a particular field uniformly for all workers in that field, regardless of the 
particular agency of the Government for which the work might originally 
have been done. The Committee feels strongly that this mechanism should 
be established without any unnecessary delay. 

Sincerely yours, 

Irvin Stewart, 
Chairman, Committee on Publication 

of Scientific Information 



187 



MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE 



Dr. Irvin Stewart, chairman; director, committee on scientific aids to 
learning, National Research Council; executive secretary, Office of Scientific 
Research and Development. 

Dr. J. P. Baxter III, president, Williams College. 

Dr. Karl T. Compton, president, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Dr. James B. Conant, president, Har\'ard Unixersity. 

Dr. A. N. Richards, vice president in charge of medical affairs, University 
of Pennsylvania. 

Dr. M. A. Tuve, phvsicist, department of terrestrial magnetism, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington. 

Mr. Carroll L. Wilson, executive assistant to the director, Office of Scien- 
tific Research and Development. 

Mr. Cleveland Norcross. secretarv, executive assistant to the executive 
secretary, Office of Scientific Research and Development. 



188 



REPORT 



The following report is submitted in answer to your request for advice 
with respect to the first point in President Roosevelt's letter to you of Novem- 
ber 17, 1944. 

1. ISeed for Lifting Restrictions 

The frontiers of science must be thrown open so that all who have the 
ability to explore may advance from the farthest position which anyone has 
attained. During the war we have been living to a considerable extent on 
our scientific capital, as scientists who would normally be extending the 
frontiers of knowledge have instead devoted their efforts to the application 
of our scientific knowledge to the development of new and better equipment, 
processes, and materials for war purposes. A large part of such new scientific 
discoveries as have been made, together with the great amount of information 
on the techniques of application, are now classified as confidential or secret. 
The restrictions incident to war have prevented the wide spread of the kind 
of information upon which American science, education, and industry nor- 
mally build. Scientists engaged on war projects have acquired new knowl- 
edge in specific fields, but they have not been given access to similar ac- 
quisitions by their colleagues in other fields. Thus, while there is a fund 
of new knowledge scattered among a large number of individual scientists, 
no one of them has access to all of it; and the broad base of scientific knowl- 
edge available to all scientists has not been correspondingly extended. This 
situation should be speedily corrected. 

During the first year of the existence of the Office of Scientific Research 
and Development a decision was made by the Secretaries of War and Navy 
that in the fields of medical research, publication of new knowledge should 
be withheld onlv if that knowledge gave promise of conferring military ad- 
vantage. Hence it has been possible to publish most of the newlv developed 
knowledge in the medical field. Several hundred articles have alreadv been 
published in the professional journals and others are in the process of publica- 
tion. The amount of classified medical material has been held to a minimum. 
It has been confined largely to limited subjects of immediate battle front im- 
portance and to information which might be related to strategy. Even these 
limited restrictions should be lifted as soon as military conditions permit. 

Not all of our troops can be returned immediately upon the cessation of 

189 



hostilities. Many men must remain overseas, some in armies of occupation, 
others awaiting the provision of faciHties for their return. Educational facilities 
must be provided for them during this period. Very recent techniques de- 
veloped in our laboratories in connection with the prosecution of war devel- 
opments can and should be made available in the Army universities overseas 
to qualified men in order that they may thereby be enabled to return to this 
country with as modern and advanced approach to some of the subjects of 
moment as they would have had if they had remained here during the war, 
or if they had been selected for early return and re-entry into universities in 
this country. To accomplish this not only must the information be available 
in printed form, but men familiar with latest developments should be chosen 
as instructors in the Army universities. 

The returning soldier who wants to pick up his interrupted plans for a 
career as a scientist or engineer deserves access to the very latest develop- 
ments and techniques. It will be a tragedv for him and for the country if he 
is trained in the light of the knowledge of 1940 rather than 1945. Because of 
the war we have lost several classes of scientists and engineers, both under- 
graduate and graduate. The gap can never be entirely filled, and it can be 
successfully narrowed only if the classes graduating in the immediate postwar 
years can be trained in advanced developments and techniques. We must 
overcome, not aggravate, the effects upon science and upon the country as a 
whole of the wartime loss of several classes of scientists. 

These considerations merit emphasis in addition to those mentioned in the 
President's letter of November 17. 

2. Release from Military Classification 

The first, and most important, step is to obtain the release of scientific 
material from its military classification as soon as conditions permit. Basically 
there is no reason to believe that scientists of other countries will not in time 
re-discover everything we now know. A sounder foundation for our national 
security rests in a broad dissemination of scientific knowledge upon which 
further advances can be more readily made than in a policy of restriction 
which would impede our further advances in the hope that our potential 
enemies will not catch up with us. The Committee believes that, with few 
exceptions, our national interests require the release of most of our war- 
acquired scientific information as soon as it is evident that our enemies will 
not be able to turn that information against us in the present war. It further 
believes that most of this information can be released without disclosing its 
embodiments in actual military material and devices. 

Research has gone forward under many auspices, the Army, the Navy, the 
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Office of Scientific Re- 
search and Development, various other Government departments and many 
industrial establishments and academic institutions. In many cases there 
have doubtless been independent discoveries of the same truth in different 
places. To permit the release of information from one place and restrict it 
from another would not only be unfair but would impair the morale and 
efficiency of scientists who have readily subscribed to the policy of restriction 
dictated by war needs. 

190 



The agency charged with the duty of recommending release of information 
from military classification should be a continuing one well grounded in 
science and technology, which can couple advice to the military with an 
ability to obtain prompt decisions. With that in mind you have recently 
proposed the establishment within the National Academy of Sciences of a 
board to control the release and promote publication of certain scientific in- 
formation. Its standing at the apex of the scientific world together with its 
contributions to the present war qualify the Academy in a unique manner to 
perform this service. The proposed board with its joint Army, Navy, and 
civilian membership should be able to act promptly and intelligently, with 
full appreciation of both military and civilian implications of its decisions. 
It should provide the speed which is essential if delay is not to nullify a large 
part of the benefit sought by the release of newly discovered scientific infor- 
mation. Obviously the board should be adequately manned to act promptly. 

3. Agreement with Our Allies on Release of Information 

Some of the information which should be released is possessed jointly by 
our allies and ourselves. Release in this country should be coordinated with 
release in other countries where the restriction has been jointly imposed in 
both. A central agency such as the proposed board should be able to handle 
this normally time-consuming but important matter with a minimum loss 
of time and danger of international friction. 

4. Stimulation of Publication 

It is obvious that the contributions to scientific knowledge "made during 
the war effort" fall into many categories. Much of this information is now 
being made public through various media as, for example, most of the results 
of medical research. This report is directed to those contributions to scientific 
knowledge which are prevented from being "made known to the world" 
because of Government restrictions. Most of this information resulted from 
work in which some Government agency was interested and is now under 
security classification. The two chief obstacles to prompt publication are: 
(I) security regulations; (2) the policy of cognizant agencies in releasing 
investigators to publish freely. A courageous policy on the part of adminis- 
trative officers of Government agencies in assisting and stimulating prompt 
publication by Government scientists as well as private contractors and their 
employees as soon as security regulations are relaxed will cover point two. 
The first point, we believe, can be covered by the creation of the board to 
control the release and promote the publication of certain scientific informa- 
tion. 

The object is to get the scientific results of war research written by out- 
standing experts, completelv available, especially to young scientists, at as low 
a cost to them as is consistent with doing the job well. 

In connection with scientific war research being performed under contracts 
of governmental agencies, which has necessitated bringing together large 
groups of scientists, the most advantageous time for preparation of manu- 
scripts may well be during the final months of the contract, while the scien- 

191 



tific staffs are still assembled and in possession of all records, but after the 
pressure for production of war results has begun to relax. 

Obviously not all reports will merit publication and distribution. Where 
Government-financed research is involved, the contracting agency must make 
the decision. In every case, however, this decision should be made upon the 
basis of the public interest in the dissemination of the information, not upon 
the presence or absence of funds to defray the cost of publication and dis- 
tribution of the report. 

The publication plans of the Office of Scientific Research and Development 
are being made in accordance with the principles of the preceding para- 
graphs. The effectiveness of these plans, as well as the publication of other 
scientific information developed in connection with war research, will depend 
largely upon the speed with which the proposed Academy board is estab- 
lished and the effectiveness with which it functions after its establishment. 
The impetus which has produced remarkable results in the laboratory and in 
the field will be lost if publication is unduly delayed. 

5. Recommendations 

In specific answer to the first point in the President's letter, therefore, your 
Committee recommends the following: 

1. The prompt establishment and adequate staffing within the National 
Academy of Sciences of the proposed board to control the release and promote 
publication of certain scientific information. This is essential. 

2. The adoption by that board of a liberal policy generally permitting the 
release of scientific information as soon as it is apparent that such information 
cannot be turned against us in the present war. 

3. The encouragement of scientists to publish the results of their investiga- 
tion in "open " fields covered by releases by the board. 

4. The stimulation and assistance of investigators to prompt publication by 
administrative officers of cognizant Government agencies. 

5. The provision of adequate financing for the publication and distribution 
of the reports mentioned in the preceding paragraph. 



192 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Abstracting services. See Libraries; Refer- 
ence aids. 

Adams, John Quincy, support of ideas for 
Government-sponsored academy, 84. 



Air conditioning, 10. 

Air Force, development of basic research 
programs by, xiii. See also Armed 
services; Military services. 



Advisory Board. 
Board. 



See Science Advisory Airborne infections, 53. 



Advisory committees, recommended for 
each Government bureau engaged in 
scientific work, 105-106. 

Aerodynamics, future progress in, to be 
striking, 78. 

Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Senate 
Committee on, viii. 

Aeronautics. See National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics; National 
Aeronautics and Space Council; Sci- 
ence and Astronautics, House Com- 
mittee on. 

AFL-CIO, conference on "Labor and Sci- 
ence in a Changing World," xi. 

Agassiz, Louis, 83. 

Agricultural experiment stations, 86, notes 
4 and 5. 

Agricultural schools, growth of, as factor 
in applied research, 90. 

Agriculture: Federal aid to research in, 
through land-grant colleges, 9, 22, 79; 
advances based on scientific research, 
10, 11, 12; subject of study by the 
Bowman Committee, 73; distribution 
of undergraduate degrees among al- 
lied fields and, 177; Ph.D. degrees 
in, 177, 178. 

Agriculture, Department of: Federal funds 
obligations for basic research by, xxv; 
interest in scientific research, 31-32, 
83; establishment of, 84. 



Allies: continued scientific training by, 
during World War II, 159; need for 
agreement with, on release of war- 
time-developed scientific data, 191. 

Altitudes, development of devices to com- 
bat effects of, on airmen, 53. 

Alumni associations, as inadequate source 
of medical research funds, 58. 

American Association of Collegiate Regis- 
trars, distribution made by, of under- 
graduate degrees among academic and 
professional fields, and of Ph.D. de- 
grees by science fields, 177-178. 

American Council on Education, proposed 
utilization of the Committee on Meas- 
urement and Guidance of, in the 
scholarship and fellowship program, 
181. 

American Institute of Physics, calculations 
by, on deficits of scientific and tech- 
nological personnel, 158. 

American Universities, Association of: sur- 
vey of universities and colleges ac- 
credited by, on expenditures for scien- 
tific research, 122 ff. 

American Youth Commission, socio-eco- 
nomic study of students related to 
school attendance, 172, 173. 

Anatomy: development of, basic to medical 
progress, xi, 14, 56; analysis of re- 
search in selected university depart- 
ments of, 130; Ph.D. degrees in, 177; 
See also Research, medical. 



195 



Anderson, G. Lester, and Berning. T. J., 
What Happens to High School Grad- 
uates, data from, 171-172. 

Anemia, 13, 54. 

Antarctic Treat>% landmark in interna- 
tional scientific relations, xv. 

Anthropology, in NSF support programs, 
xx; included within the scope of sci- 
ence considered by the Moe Commit- 
tee, 142; distribution of Ph.D. degrees 
among other fields and, 177-178; 
Ph.D. degrees in, 178. 

Applied Physics Laboratory', xiii. 

Applied research. See Research, applied. 

Archaeology', functional, in NSF support 
programs, xx. 

Armed forces. See Armed services. 

Armed Forces Institutes, need for scientific 
knowledge based on World War II to 
be made available in, 8; need for 
quality' training in, 140, 161-162; 
work in, recommended as an allow- 
ance toward continued education; 
165; proposed utilization of the ex- 
amination staff of, in the scholarship 
and fellowship program, 181. 

Armed services: 

Dr. Bush on — 

Need to salvage scientific talent in, 
during World War II, xvi, 7-8, 25- 
26; need for research to develop new 
weapons for, 9; need for professional 
partnership between civilian scien- 
tists and, 17-18; role of, in scientific 
research, 33-34; recommended repre- 
sentation of, in proposed National 
Research Foundation, 36. 

Pahner Committee on — 
Factors contributing to successes of 
medical departments of, World War 
II, 52; scientific interests of, as spe- 
cialized, 62. 

Aloe Committee on — 
Need to salvage scientific talent in, 
during World War II, 139-141, 158- 
162. See also Military services. 

Stewart Committee on — 

Need to salvage scientific talent in, 

during World War II, 189-190. 



Armv: 



Dr. Biish on — 

Role of, in medical research, 15; in- 
creased emphasis on science in officer 
training, 17; need for continued re- 
search by, 17-18; scientific students 
in, 24; as participant in wartime 
scientific research, 29; as board mem- 
ber to declassify scientific informa- 
tion, 29. 



Palmer Committee on — 
Death rate in, from disease. World 
Wars I and II, 49, 52; adoption of 
use of penicillin by, 53; role of, in 
medical research, 55,. 56. 

BownhDi Connnittce on — 
Cooperation with, as function of pro- 
posed National Research Foundation, 
117. 

Moe Committee on — 
Recommended participation of, in 
program to locate and develop scien- 
tific talent in the armed forces, 140- 
141; students of medicine and engi- 
neering in educational programs of, 
159; plans for integrated scientific 
training in, to reduce wartime deficit 
in trained personnel, 160-162, 165. 

Stewart Committee on — 
Wartime scientific research under 
auspices of, 190; need for participa- 
tion of, in decisions on release of 
wartime-developed scientific data, 191. 

See also Armed services; Army, De- 
partment of the; Military services; 
Talent. 

Army, Department of the: development of 
basic research programs by, xiii. See 
also Armed services; Army; Military 
services. 

Army Epidemiology Board, medical prog- 
ress during World War II stimulated 
by, 52. 

Army Medical Library, 118, 119. 

"Armv Universities" abroad, need for, 
161-162. 

Army's General Educational Development 
Tests, 165. 

Arteriosclerosis, 14, 55. 

Arthritis, 14, 55. 

Associated Universities Incorporated, xxi. 

Association of Universities for Research in 
Astronomy, xxi. 

Asthma, 14,55. 

Astronomy, Ph.D. degrees in, 177. See 
also Kitt Peak National Observatory; 
National Radio Astronomy Observa- 
tory; Associated Llniversities Incor- 
porated; Association of Universities 
for Research in Astronomy. 

Atabrine, 49, 53. 

Atomic Energy, International Conference 
on the Peaceful Uses of, xv. 

Atomic Energ>' Commission, program for 
medical research, xii; declassification 
of wartime scientific data by, xviii; 
Federal funds obligations for basic 
research for national defense bv, xxv. 



196 



Attaches. See Scientific attaches. 

Aviation, development of devices to com- 
bat effects of high ahitudes, 53. 

Aviation medicine, committee on, 53. 



Bacteriology, development of, basic to 
medical progress, xi, 14, 56; analysis 
of research in selected uni\ersity de- 
partments, 129, note 5 data, 130; 
Ph.D. degrees in microbiology and, 
178. See also Research, medical. 

Barton, Henn.- A., member. Committee on 
Disco\'ers' and De\elopment of Scien- 
tific Talent, 44, 136. 

Basic Research. See Research, Basic. 

Battelle Memorial Institute, Research in 
Action, 86, note 3. 

Baxter, J. P., Ill, member, Committee on 
Publication of Scientific Infonnation, 
45, 188. 

Bell, Alexander Graham, 85. 

Bernal, J. D., The Social Function of 
Science, 87, note 2. 

Berning, T. J. See Anderson, G. Lester. 

Bibliographic services. See Libraries. 

Bids on research projects, recommendation 
to waive requirements on, 38-39. 

Biochemistry: development of, basic to 
medical progress, xi, 14, 56; analysis 
of research in selected university de- 
partments of biology, including, 129; 
Ph.D. degrees in, 177. 

Biological sciences, included within the 
scope of science considered by the 
Moe Committeee, 142; deficit in per- 
sonnel trained in, 158; undergraduate 
degrees in allied fields and, 177; dis- 
tribution of Ph.D. degrees among 
other fields and, 177-178; deficits in 
training research personnel in, 179. 

Biology: development of improved course 
content for teaching, supported by 
NSF, xvii; term "medical research" 
to include related aspects of, 64, 
note 1; analysis of research in, 122- 
134, passim; Ph.D. degrees in, 178; 
graduate school enrollments in, 178. 

Biolog^' and Medicine, Division of, in 

NSF, XX. 

Biophysics, analysis of research in selected 
university' departments of biology, in- 
cluding, 129. 

Blood, increased availability of plasma and, 
for transfusions, 49; fractionation 
studies, 49; plasma and substitutes, 
53. 



Book, William F., The Intelligence of 
//ig/( School Seniors, data from, 175- 
176. 

Botanv, Ph.D. degrees in, 178. See 
Biology. 

Bowman, Isaiah, chairman. Committee on 
Science and the Public Welfare, 44, 
71, 72, 73; transmittal of report, 71. 

Bronk-Nesmeyanov Agreement, scientific 
cooperation under, xiv. 

Brookhaven National Laboratory, xxi. 

Bubonic plague, 53. 

Buckley, Oliver E., member. Committee 
on Science and the Public Welfare, 
44, 72. 

Budget, Federal: amounts proposed for 
medical research, xi-xii; amounts pro- 
posed for military research, xii; for 
International Geophysical Year, xv; 
for NSF, xxiv-xxvi; proposals con- 
cerning, for proiwsed National Re- 
search Foundation; 39-40; estimated, 
for Federal aid to medical research, 
60; suggested reforms in procedures, 
for scientific work of the Govern- 
ment, 100-101. See also United 
States Congress. 

Budget, national research: public and pri- 
vate funds for research, 85-89. 

Burdick, C. Lalor, member, Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Scien- 
tific Talent, 44, 136. 

Bureau of Standards, work of, as example 
of Government's responsibility in 
background scientific research, 82. 

Burns, studied, 53. 

Bush, Vannevar, frontispiece; as Director 
of OSRD, vii; transmittal of Science, 
the Endless Frontier, vii, 1-2; letter 
from President Roosevelt, to, vii, 3-4; 
comparison of recommendations with 
developments since 1950, vii-xx\'i. 

Business administration, 177. See Social 
sciences. 



California Institute of Technology, 140, 
141; Jet Propulsion Laboratory of, 
xiii. 

Cancer, ix, 13, 14, 54, 55-56. 

Cardiovascular diseases, xi, 14, 55-56. 

Carnegie Corporation, 84. 

Carnegie Foundation: study by, in Penn- 
sylvania, of able students in relation 
to college attendance, 170-171; pro- 
posed utilization of the Graduate Rec- 
ord Examination Office of, in the 



197 



scholarship and fellowship program, 
181. 

Carnegie Institution, 84, 86 note 6. 

Castle, William B., member, Medical Ad- 
visory Committee, 43, 48. 

Census, 1940, population under 20 years 
of age, 166; age and school attend- 
ance, 166-167. 

Cerebral hemorrhage, 14, 55. 

Chauncey, Henry, asst. sec. Committee 
on Discovery and Development of 
Scientific Talent, 44, 136. 

Chemical companies, included in survey 
of research in industrial laboratories, 
133, note 2. 

Chemistry: development of, basic to medi- 
cal progress, xi, 14, 56; development 
of improved course content for teach- 
ing, supported by NSF, xvii; future 
progress to be striking in, 78; analysis 
of research in, in universities, col- 
leges, industrial research laboratories, 
and nonprofit science institutes, 122- 
134 passim; deficit in personnel 
trained in, 158, 179; distribution of 
undergraduate degrees in allied fields 
and, 177; Ph.D. degrees in, 177; 
graduate school enrollments in, 178. 

Chemotherapy, committee on, 53. 

Childhood, reduction in death rates in, 
various diseases, 54-55. 

Cholera, 52, 53. 

Civil Service, establishment of excepted 
category for scientific personnel, ix; 
reforms needed in, for scientific per- 
sonnel, 7, 101-104; regulations of, 
to apply in proposed establishment of 
National Research Foundation, 35; 
separate branch of, recommended for 
scientific and technical positions, 76; 
up-grading of scientific positions rec- 
ommended, 76. 

Civilian controls in military scientific re- 
search, 33-34. 

Civilian participation in declassification 
and publication of wartime scientific 
research data, 29-30, 191. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey, establishment 
of, 84. 

Coffey, Walter C, member. Committee on 
Science and the Public Welfare, 
44-72. 

Cold, common, 14, 55. 

College attendance and graduation, sta- 
tistics and analyses concerning, 166- 
176, passim. See also Tables. 

College enrollment, statistics from studies 
in Indiana, Minnesota, and Pennsyl- 



vania on mental ability, high school 
attendance and graduation, and on 
college enrollment, related to socio- 
economic groups, 144-145. 

College Entrance Examination Board, pro- 
posed utilization of, in the scholarship 
and fellowship program, 181. 

Colleges. See Universities and colleges. 

Colleges, small, scientific research in, 123- 
124. 

Commerce, Department of: Federal funds 
obligations for basic research by, xx\'; 
interest in scientific research, 31-32. 

Commerce, Secretary of: study by, con- 
cerning patent laws as they affect in- 
dustrial research, 21. 

Committee, Medical Advisory', member- 
ship, 43, 48; report by, 46-69. 

Committee on Discovery and Development 
of Scientific Talent, membership, 44- 
45, 136; report by, 135-185. 

Committee on Publication of Scientific 
Infonnation, membership, 45, 188; 
report by, 186-192. 

Committee on Science and the Public 
Welfare, membership, 43-44, 72; re- 
port by, 70-134. 

Committees consulted by Dr. Bush, 43-45. 

Communications company, included in 
survey of research in industrial lab- 
oratories, 133, note 2. 

Compton, Arthur H., quoted, on deficit of 
trained scientific personnel, 159. 

Compton, Karl T., member. Committee on 
Publication of Scientific Information, 
45, 188. 

Conant, James B., statement by, on de- 
velopment of scientific talent, 23; 
member. Committee on Discovery' and 
Development of Scientific Talent, 45, 
1 36; member, Committee on Publica- 
tion of Scientific Information, 45, 
188; as chairman of the National De- 
fense Research Committee, 144; 
quoted, on future of science being 
dependent upon national educational 
policy, 144. 

Congress. See United States Congress. 

Contracts, research, need to waive certain 
statutory and regulatory fiscal require- 
ments, 38-39. See General Account- 
ing Office. 

Convalescence, committee on, 53. 

Cooperative Test Service, proposed utiliza- 
tion of, in the scholarship and fel- 
lowship program, 181. 

Cox, Oscar S., member, Committee on 



198 



Science and the Public Welfare, Diphtheria, reduction in death rate from 

44, 72. 54. 

Disease, the "war" against, xi, 1, 3, 5, 7, 
9, 10-11, 14-16, 49. See also Death 
rates; Diseases; Medical Advisory 
Committee; Research, medical. 



Davis, Horace Leonard, The Utilization 
of Potential College Ahility Found in 
]une 1940, Graduates of Kentucky 
High Schools, data from, 174-175. 

Davis, Watson, member. Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Scien- 
tific Talent, 45, 136. 

DDT, 13, 49, 52, 53. 

Death rates, from disease, World Wars I 
and II, 5, 13, 49, 52; in childhood, 
13, 14, 54-55; from disease, compared 
to war casualties, 1, 13-14, 54; reduc- 
tion in, from various diseases, 54-55. 
See also Life expectancy. 

Deaths, principal diseases causing, 14, 55. 

Defense, Department of: peacetime vigor 
of, in research, xiii; declassification of 
wartime scientific data by, xviii; Fed- 
eral funds obligations for basic re- 
search for national defense by, xxv. 

Defense Mobilization, Office of, x. 

Defense Science Board, xxii. 

Deficiency diseases, 13. 

Deficits in trained research personnel. See 
Talent. 

Degenerative processes, 14. 

Degrees, Ph.D.: deficits, 139; annually, in 
science and technology (6-year pe- 
riod), 150; proposed 300 fellowships 
for students working toward, 150- 
151; distribution of, by science fields, 
177-178. See also Fellowships and 
scholarships. 

Degrees, undergraduate: deficits, 139; in 
science and technology (1941), 150; 
proposed assistance to 6,000 students 
annually, to obtain, 150, 151; dis- 
tribution of, by academic and profes- 
sional fields, 177. See also Fellow- 
ships and scholarships. 

Demography, in NSF support programs, 

XX. 

Dentistry, term "medical research" to in- 
clude related aspects of, 64, note 1; 
distribution of undergraduate degrees 
in allied fields and, 177. See also 
Biological sciences; Research, medical. 

Dewey, Bradley, member. Committee on 
Science and the Public Welfare, 
44, 72. 

Diabetes, 13, 54. 

Diet, 13, 54. 



Diseases, basic research as contributory to 
solutions to, viii-ix; emphasis shifted 
to those of middle- and old-age 
groups, 14, 55; principal death caus- 
ing, 55; studies on, by Division of 
Medical Sciences, National Research 
Council, and Committee on Medical 
Research, OSRD, 53. 

Diseases, childhood, reduction in death 
rate from, 54-55. 

Diseases, deficiency, near eradication of, 
54. 

Diseases, infectious, committee on, 54. 

Diseases, tropical, committee on, 53. 

Divinity, distribution of undergraduate de- 
grees in allied fields and, 177. 

Doherty, R. E. member. Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Scien- 
tific Talent, 45, 136. 

Doisy, Edward A., member, Medical Ad- 
visory Committee, 43, 48. 

Drugs, committee on, 53. 

Dykstra, Clarence A., member. Commit- 
tee on Science and the Public Wel- 
fare, 44, 72. 

Dysentery, 13, 49, 52, 53. 



Earth sciences, distribution of Ph.D. de- 
grees among other fields and, 177- 
178. 

Ecology, human, in NSF support pro- 
grams, XX. 

Economic studies related to scientific re- 
search and its application, recom- 
mended as function of proposed Na- 
tional Research Foundation, 117. 

Economics, in NSF support programs; xx; 
graduate school enrollments in, 178. 

Economy. See National economy. 

Edison, Thomas A., 85. 

Education (as field of study), distribution 
of undergraduate degrees in allied 
fields and, 177. See also Social 
sciences. 

Education, statistics on enrollments in 
schools at various levels, 26; able 
students lost to, at higher level, 
166-176. 



199 



Education, scientific: five principles of 
Government support of, xx-xxi. See 
also Research, basic; Research, scien- 
tific; Scientific Personnel and Edu- 
cation, Division of. 

Education, United States Office of: sta- 
tistics on enrollments in public 
schools, 168. 

Education and Labor, U. S. Senate Com- 
mittee on: report by OSRD to a sub- 
committee of, on need for Federal 
support of medical research, 57. 

Education and Training, NSF compila- 
tion of science policies on, xxiii. 

Educational institutions, expenditures for 
scientific research, 85, 89. See also 
Research institutes; Universities. 

Educational opportunity, intelligence re- 
lated to, 173, Table III. 

Educational policy. Dr. Conant quoted on 
future of science as dependent upon, 
XV, 23, 144. See also National sci- 
ence policy; Talent. 

Educational programs, inadequacy of, for 
talented students, 169. 

Educational pyramid (able students lost 
to higher education), studies concern- 
ing, 147-149, 166-176 (see also Ta- 
bles); graduate students related to 
total college enrollments, 178. 

Electrical companies, included in survey 
of research in industrial laboratories, 
133, note 2. 

Electronics, future progress to be striking 
in, 78. 

Elicker, Paul E., member. Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Scien- 
tific Talent, 45, 136. 

Employment, scientific progress related to, 
6, 10, 11, 18, 74; promotion of re- 
search aimed at increasing basic scien- 
tific knowledge leading to new indus- 
tries and increase in, as responsibility 
of proposed National Research Foun- 
dation, 116. 

Encephalitis, 53. 

Engineering, subject of study by the Bow- 
man Committee, 73 (see also Com- 
mittee on Science and the Public 
Welfare); costliness of research in, 
79; deficit in personnel trained in, 
158, 179; students of, in Army and 
Navy programs, 159; Ph.D. degrees 
in, 177; distribution of undergrad- 
uate degrees in allied fields and, 177. 

Engineering, chemical: analysis of re 
search in, 122-134, passim; Tables, 
122, 128 note 4 data, 131, 133. 



Engineering, electrical: analysis of re- 
search in, 122-134, passim; Tables, 
122, 132, 133. 

Engineering, sanitary: committee on, 53. 

Engineering and natural sciences: Division 
of Mathematical, Physical and Engi- 
neering Sciences in NSF, xx; analysis 
of research in, and postwar needs by 
universities, colleges, industrial re- 
search laboratories, and nonprofit sci- 
ence institutes, 122-134, passim; Ta- 
bles, 122, 127-133. 

Engineering Education, Measurement and 
Guidance Project in: proposed utili- 
zation of, in the scholarship and fel- 
lowship program, 181. 

Engineering schools: growth of, as factor 
in applied science, 90; recommended 
grants to, for industrial research serv- 
ices, 108. 

Entomology, term "medical research" to 
include related aspects of, 64, note 1; 
economic, 129 note 5 data; Ph.D. 
degrees in, 178. 

Europe, former source of basic scientific 
knowledge, 6, 22, 78; use of public 
funds in, for medical research, 50, 
56-57; governmental support of sci- 
ence in, prior to support in U. S., 83. 

Executive Orders: 10512, xii; 10521, 
xxiii; 10807, xxiii. 

Experiment stations, agricultural research 
in, 32. See also Agriculture. 



Federal aid for research. See Research, 
basic; Research, industrial; Research, 
medical; Research, scientific. 

Federal Council on Science and Tech- 
nology, xxii. 

Federal Financial Support of Research 
Facilities, NSF compilation of science 
policies on, xxiii. 

Federal Funds for Science, annual report 
of NSF, xxiii-xxiv. 

Federal Security Agency, interest in scien- 
tific research, 31-32. 

Fellows, proposed means and procedures 
for choosing, 180-185. See also 
Scholars; Fellowships and scholar- 
ships. 

Fellowships, proposed for medical re- 
search, xi, .xii; as recommended form 
of Federal aid to medical research, 
50-51, 59-60, 66-68; program of, sup- 
ported by Rockefeller Foundation, ad- 
ministered by the Medical Fellowship 
Board of the National Research Coun- 



200 



cil, 60; postdoctoral research, rec- 
ommended as means of increasing 
trained scientific personnel, 97-98; 
senior research, recommended for ma- 
ture investigators as means of in- 
creasing scientific personnel, 98; in- 
ternational, recommended as part of 
needs for international scientific co- 
operation, 114; scholarships, grants-in- 
aid and, as normal means of develop- 
ing leadership, 143; proposed plan 
for, as means of assistance to doctoral 
students in science, 150-157, passim; 
responsibilities of educational institu- 
tions to provide training commensu- 
rate intellectually with superior abil- 
ity, 152; State quotas for, 155; ma- 
chinery for administration, 156-157; 
tenure of, and conditions of continu- 
ance to a Scholar or Fellow, 156-157; 
eligibilit\' of Scholars for, 157. See 
also Fellowships and scholarships; 
Talent. 

Fellowships, National Research Council, 
156. 

Fellowships and scholarships: 

Highlights of proposal for a program 
of, to renew scientific talent — 
Summary of proposals and the pro- 
gram as it has developed under NSF, 
xv-xvi; budgets for fellowship pro- 
gram, xvi; nonimplementation of 
scholarship program, xvi. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Need for a Government agency to 
administer, 9; summary of Moe Com- 
mittee recommendations for, as means 
of scientific training, 26-27; to be ad- 
ministered by proposed National Re- 
search Foundation, 34, 35,' 37, 38, 
39-40. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Recommended, to be administered by 
proposed National Research Founda- 
tion, 75, 117. 

Moe Committee on — 
Proposed Federal program for, 137, 
138-139; financial need not to be a 
factor in granting of, 152; recipients 
of, to constitute a National Science 
Reserve, 153; obligations of recipients 
• of, 153-154; method of selection, 154- 
155; estimated cost of selection proc- 
ess, 185. 

Fibrin foam, 53. 

Fine arts, graduate school enrollments in, 

178. 

Fiscal procedures, U. S. Government: sug- 
gested reforms in, for scientific work 
of the Government, 100-101. See 
also General Accounting Office. 



Foreign Policy, Science and, Department 
of State, xiv. 

Forestry, distribution of undergraduate de- 
grees in allied fields and, 177. See 
also Biological sciences. 

Forrestal, James V., Secretary of the Navy, 
interest of, in postwar military re- 
search, 159. 

Foundations, endowments from, as partial 
sources of funds for medical research, 

58. 

Frank, Lawrence K., secretary. Commit- 
tee on Discovery and Development of 
Scientific Talent, 44, 136. 

Franklin, Benjamin, influence upon Amer- 
ican science, 83. 

Purer, Admiral J. A., quoted on need for 
military research, 159. 



Gas gangrene and casualties, 53. 

General Accounting Office, need to relax 
certain requirements of, for research 
contractors, xxii, 38, 39. 

Genetics, 129, note 5 data; Ph.D. degrees 
in, 178. 

Geography: economic and social, in NSF 
support programs, xx; included within 
the scope of science considered by the 
Moe Committee, 142; graduate 
school enrollments in, 178. 

Geological Survey, establishment of, 84. 

Geology, included within the scope of sci- 
ence considered by the Moe Commit- 
tee, 142; deficit in personnel trained 
in, 158, 179; Ph.D. degrees in, 177; 
graduate school enrollments in, 178. 

Germany, 143. 

G. I. Bill of Rights, summary of impact 
of, xvi, xvii; recommendation that 
scale of support for scientific scholar- 
ships and fellowships be same as 
that provided by, 138, 152; place of, 
and recommended changes in, for 
ameliorating scientific and techno- 
logical deficits, 140, 141, 162-163. 
See also Veterans Administration; 
Veterans Readjustment Assistance 
Act. 

Glass company, included in survey of re- 
search in industrial laboratories, 133, 
note 2. 

Goetsch, Helen B., socio-economic study 
by, of able students related to college 
attendance, 172-174. 

Goodpasture, Ernest, member. Medical 
Advisory Committee, 43, 48. 



201 



Government, U. S., responsibilities in 
fields of scientific research and devel- 
opment: 

Highlights of Dr. Bush's recoviniend- 
ations and dex'elopments since 1950 — - 
Science, the Endless Frontier as clas- 
sic expression of desirable nature of 
relationships between science and the 
Government, vii; role of the Govern- 
ment and developments in that role 
since 1950 in promotion of basic 
scientific research, viii-x; increase in 
Federal funds for research, ix; role of 
the Government in industrial re- 
search, x-xi; role of the Government 
in medical research, xi-xii; role of the 
Government in military' research, xii- 
xiii; role of the Government in pro- 
moting international scientific coop- 
eration, xiii-xv; role of the Govern- 
ment in promoting the discovery and 
developemnt of talent, xv-xvii; role 
of the Government in publication of 
scientific knowledge developed dur- 
ing World War II, xviii-xix; the Na- 
tional Science Foundation as the 
means of the Government's playing 
its role in scientific development, xix- 
xxvi; five principles of support by the 
Government for scientific research 
and education, and highlights of NSF 
compliance with, xx-xxi; appropria- 
tions and obligations for basic re- 
search, xxv-xxvi. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Aid to scientific research by public 
and private organizations, 1, 3; need 
for support to medical research, 5-6, 
14-16; need for support of scientific 
research, 6-7; competition with indus- 
tr\' and universities for scientific per- 
sonnel, 7; need for support in devel- 
oping scientific talent, 7; need for 
incentives to industry to conduct re- 
search, 7; summary' of responsibility 
in scientific development, 8-9; recom- 
mendation to establish in the perma- 
nent Government structure an agency 
to carry out Government responsibil- 
it>% 9; advancement of science as the 
concern of the Government, 11-12; 
fundamentals underlying support for 
scientific research, 12; responsibility 
for scientific military' research, 17-18; 
increase in applied scientific research, 
1930-1940, in the Government, 19-21; 
recommendation for improving per- 
sonnel policies concerning scientific 
personnel emplovees, 20; scientific re- 
search in the Government as essen- 
tially applied research, 20; recommen- 
dation that basic scientific research at 
colleges, universities, and research in- 
stitutes be strengthened bv use of 
public funds, 20; recommendation for 
creation of a Science Advisory Board 



to coordinate policies and budgets of 
Government agencies engaged in 
scientific research, 20-21; means of 
strengthening industrial research, 21; 
role of the Government in promoting 
international flow of scientific infor- 
mation, 22; role of the Government 
in supporting basic scientific research, 
22; support to research in Agriculture, 
22; cost of adequate support to basic 
and applied scientific research, 22; 
mobilization of science for World 
War II, 28-29; various agencies of the 
Government as participants in war- 
time scientific research, 29; responsi- 
bility to make available the results of 
wartime research data, 29-30; respon- 
sibilities of the Government in pro- 
motion of scientific research and scien- 
tific talent, 31-40; mechanism for and 
fundamentals of the Government's 
role in scientific research and develop- 
ment, 31-40; need for a special agency 
to assist scientific research outside the 
Government and to support research 
on weapons and administer a program 
on science scholarships and fellow- 
ships, 31-32; five fundamentals in a 
program for Government support for 
scientific research and education, 32- 
33. 

Palmer Committe on — 
See Research, medical: Palmer Com- 
mittee. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Role of the Government in conduct- 
ing scientific research, 73; role of the 
Government in promotion of research 
in fields of natural sciences, engineer- 
ing, and agriculture, 73; role of the 
Government to encourage interna- 
tional exchange of scientific knowl- 
edge and engineering art, 73, 75; role 
of the Government to carry on scien- 
tific research within the Government, 
75-76; recommendations for increased 
effectiveness of scientific work in the 
Government, 76; achievements made 
by Federal research agencies, 77; re- 
sponsibility of the Government to 
promote scientific progress in the na- 
tional welfare, 77; precedents in Fed- 
eral aid to scientific progress, 77, 78, 
79; need for Federal aid to scientific 
research in private institutions, 77-80; 
responsibility of the Government to 
support pure scientific research, 81-82; 
responsibility of the Government to 
suDOort background scientific research, 
82-83; creation of Federal scientific 
bureaus. 83-85; Government support 
of the X^'^ilkes Ex-ploring Expedition, 
84: expenditures for scientific research, 
85-89; necessity for support to pure 
research in universities in order to 
maintain proportion of pure to applied 



202 



research, 87, 88-89; recommended 
form ot support to research in univer- 
sities, 93-98; nature of scientific re- 
search in the Government and sug- 
gested reforms, 99-106; recommended 
aids to industrial research and tech- 
nology', 107-109; desirable role of the 
Government in international scien- 
tific cooperation, 113-114. 

Moe Committee on — 

See Talent, scientific, programs for 

discover^' and development of: Moe 

Committee. 

Stewart Conimittee on — 
Responsibility of the Government to 
speed release of scientific information 
developed during the war, 187-192. 

Government-Industry' Relationships on Re- 
search, NSF compilation of science 
policies on, xxiii. 

Government - University Relationships in 
the Conduct of Federally Sponsored 
Research, NSF compilation of science 
policies on, xxiii. 

Grants and grants-in-aid: 

Highlights of proposals for, and de- 
velopments since 1950, xi, xii, xx-xxi. 

Palmer Committee on — 
As means of advancing medical re- 
search, 50-51, 60, 63, 66-68. 

Bowman Comviittee on — 

As means of assistance to research, 

95, 96, 97, 108, 116-117. 

Moe Committee on — 
Scholarships, fellowships, and, as nor- 
mal means of developing leadership, 
143. 

Griffiths, Farnham P., member. Commit- 
tee on Discoverv and Development of 
Scientific Talent, 45, 136. 



Harvard University Library, 118. 

Haskins, C P., member, Committee on 
Science and the Public Welfare, 44, 
72. 

Havighurst, Robert J. See Warner, W. 
Lloyd. 

Hay fever, 14, 55. 

Health, scientific progress essential to, 5, 
74, 77; promotion of research for im- 
provement of, as responsibility of pro- 
posed National Research Foundation, 
116. See Research, medical; Wartime 
Health and Education, Subcommittee 
on, of U. S. Senate Committee on 
Education and Labor. 

Hemolytic streptococcal disease, 53. 



1 lenry, Joseph, 83. 

High schools: inadequacy of teaching of 
science in, and actions of NSF since 
1950 to improve teaching in, xv, xvii; 
studies concerning able students lost 
to higher education, 144-145, 166- 
176; need for means for veterans and 
wartime industry workers to complete 
education in, 163-165, passim. 

Historical studies related to scientific re- 
search and its application, recom- 
mended as function of proposed Na- 
tional Research Foundation, 117. 

History, graduate school enrollments in, 

178. 

Home economics, distribution of under- 
graduate degrees in allied fields and, 
177. 

Horticulture, Ph.D. degrees in, 178. 

Hospitals, Federal funds obligations for 
basic research in, xxv; contracts with, 
by Committee on Medical Research, 
as wartime measures, 53; place of, in 
medical research, 56. See also Re- 
search, medical. 

Hunter, W. S., member. Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Scien- 
tific Talent, 45, 136. 

Hygiene, advances in, 13; in World War 
11, 49, 52. 



Immune globulins, 49, 53. 

Indiana, study on socio-economic groups of 
high school students related to ability, 
and on intelligence levels of students 
planning to go to college, 144-145. 

Indirect Costs, NSF compilation of science 
policies on, xxiii. 

Industrial medicine, 53. 

Industry and industrial progress: 

Highlights of problems and Dr. Bush s 
recommendations — 
Basic research as fundamental for, 
viii, 19; need for more basic research 
by industry, ix, 22; NSF surveys of 
industr>''s research and developinent 
efforts, xxiii; dependence upon trained 
scientists, 7, 9; need to strengthen 
patent system as incentive to, 7; need 
for scientific knowledge based on 
problems of World War II to be made 
available, under controls, to industry, 
8; role of industry in applied science 
compared with basic research, 22; in- 
centives to be maintained for research 
by industry, 31. 

Palmer Ccnnmittee on — 

Industry as partial source of funds 

for medical research, 58. 

203 



Bowfnan Committee on — 
Role of the Government to assist re- 
search by industry, 73, 74, 75, 101; 
impact of the patent system and taxa- 
tion on research by industry, 76; 
problem of transition between basic 
research and industrial application, 78; 
question of responsibility of industry' 
for basic research, 79; expenditures 
for scientific research by industry', 85- 
89; research clinics as advantage to 
small business, 107-108; responsibility 
of proposed National Research Foun- 
dation to promote research leading to 
creation of new industries and to ex- 
pedite transition from research to 
technological application, 116, 117. 

Moe Committee on — 
"Regents Plan," New York State, for 
postwar educational opportunities for 
persons released from wartime indus- 
tries, 165; recruitment of talented stu- 
dents by industry for applied science 
as deterrent to expansion of talent for 
basic research, 149, 169-170. 

Stewart Committee on — 
Release of scientific information de- 
veloped during the war as important 
to, 187-192. See also Government- 
Industry Relationships on Research; 
Research, applied; Research, indus- 
trial. 

Infections, airborne, 53; of wounds, 53. 

Infectious diseases, 14, 55. 

Influenza, 53. 

Information centers, functions of NSF in 
providing, xviii. 

Insect control, 53. 

Insecticides, 10, 13, 49, 52, 53. 

Institutes, science: analysis of research ex- 
penditures by, compared with expen- 
ditures in leading universities, 125- 
134. See also Research institutes. 

Institutes program for improving teaching 

of mathematics and science, xvii. 
Insulin, 3, 54. 

Intelligence, relation of, to educational op- 
portunity, 173, Table II. 

Intelligence of High School Seniors, The, 
William F. Book, data from, 175-176. 

Interior, Department of: Federal funds 
obligations for basic research by, xxv; 
interest in scientific research, 31-32. 

Internal Revenue Code: revisions made in, 
since 1950, to encourage research, x; 
need for clarification on deductibility 
of research and development costs, 7; 
recommendation for amendment, to 
strengthen industrial research, 21. See 
also Tax laws. 



International Conference on the Peaceful 
Uses of Atomic Energy, xv. 

International Geophysical Year, as exam- 
ple of international scientific coopera- 
tion, xiv-xv. 

International Polar Year, as example of 
international scientific activity, xv. 

International Programs, Special, Office of, 
in NSF, XX. 

International Scientific Activities, NSF 
compilation of science policies on, 
xxiii. 

International scientific conferences: U.S. 
attendance at, xiv; problem of politi- 
cal considerations in respect to foreign 
scientists traveling in U. S., xiv; rec- 
ommendation that proposed National 
Research Foundation participate in 
arrangements for, 113-114. 

International scientific cooperation: 

Highlights of recommendations and 
developments since 1950, xiii-xv. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Importance of, 22, 31; need for co- 
ordination in lifting wartime restric- 
tions on exchange of scientific infor- 
mation, 29; promotion of exchange of 
scientific information as function of 
proposed National Research Founda- 
tion, 35, 37, 39-40. 

Palmer Committee on — 
Proposed, in medical research, 51. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Role of the Government to encourage 
exchange of scientific information, 73, 
75; U. S. participation in interna- 
tional scientific enterprises and con- 
gresses as means of, 113-114; function 
of proposed National Research Foun- 
dation to promote, 113, 114, 117; 
international fellowships recommend- 
ed as means of, 114; appointment of 
scientific attaches in U. S. embassies 
recommended as means of, 114. 

Inventors, assistance to, as function of pro- 
posed National Research Foundation, 
117. 

Iowa, University of: proposed utilization 
of the examination project of, in the 
fellowship and scholarship program, 
181. 



Japan, 143. 

Jefferson, Thomas, influence upon Ameri- 
can science, 83; support of ideas for 
Government sponsored academ3% 84. 

Johns Hopkins University, xiii. 

Journalism,, 177. 



204 



Centucky, study of utilization of ix)tential 
college ability found in high schools 
of, 174-175. 

Kidney diseases, 14, 55-56. 

Kitt Peak National Observatory, xxi. 

Kuznets, Simon S., National Income and 
Its Composition, 1919-38, 86, note 1. 



Labor, organized, increased awareness of 
relation of research to the economy 
by, X. See also Education and Labor. 

Land, Edwin H., member. Committee on 
Science and the Public Welfare, 44, 
72. 

Land-grant colleges: agricultural research 
in, 32; Federal aid to agricultural re- 
search in, 79; as examples of coopera- 
tion among State and Federal Govern- 
ments, individuals, and industry, 79; 
growth of, 84. 

Languages, graduate school enrollments in, 
178. 

Law, 177. 

Learned, W. S., and Wood, Ben D., The 
Student and His Knowledge, data 
from, 170-171. 

Libraries, aids to, as functions of proposed 
National Research Foundation, 116, 
118-121. 

Library of Congress, 118, 119. 

Library training, 177. 

Lick, James, research sponsored by, 84. 

Life expectancy, 5, 13, 54. 

Life sciences, distribution of Ph.D. de- 
grees among other fields and, 177-178. 

Linguistics. See Psycholinguistics. 

Literature, graduate school enrollments in, 
178. 

Liver therapy, 13, 54. 

Loeb, Martin B. See Warner, W. Lloyd. 



Maclaurin, W. Rupert, secretary. Commit- 
tee on Science and the Public Wel- 
fare, 44, 72. 

MacQuigg, Charles E., member. Commit- 
tee on Science and the Public Wel- 
fare, 44, 72. 

Madison, James, support of ideas for Gov- 
ernment-sponsored academy, 84. 

Malaria and anti-malarials, 13, 15, 49, 53, 
55. 

Malignant diseases, 14. 



Marine Biological Laboratory, 86, note 6. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology: 
Radiation Laboratory at, xiii; men- 
tioned, 140, 161. 

Mathematical, Physical and Engineering 
Sciences, Division of, in NSF, xx. 

Mathematics: NSF's program to improve 
teaching of, xvii; included within the 
scope of science considered by the Moe 
Committee, 142; inadequate teaching 
of, in secondary schools, 148; deficit 
in personnel trained in, 158, 179; 
undergraduate degrees in physical 
sciences, allied fields and, 177; Ph.D. 
degrees in, 177; graduate school en- 
rollments in, 178. 

McConnell, T. R., member. Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Scien- 
tific Talent, 45, 136. 

Measles, 54. 

Meat-packing company, included in a sur- 
vey of research in industrial labora- 
tories, 133, note 2. 

Medical Advisory Committee, membership, 
43, 47, 48; report by, 46-69. 

Medical Fellowship Board, National Re- 
search Council: Rockefeller Founda- 
tion fellowship program administered 
by, 60. 

Medical Research, NSF compilation of 
science policies on, xxiii. See also 
Research, medical. 

Medical Research, Committee on, organ- 
ized under OSRD for wartime scien- 
tific research: cost of program to July 
1944, 49; medical advances attributa- 
ble to, 49, 52; scope of activity, 53-54. 

Medical Research Committee in Great 
Britain, 57. 

Medical Research Council in Great Brit- 
ain, 57. 

Medical Research Foundation. See Na- 
tional Foundation for Medical Re- 
search. 

Medical schools and universities: 
Dr. Biish on — 
Role of, in medical research, 5-6, 15. 

Palmer Committee on — 
Role of, in medical research, and Fed- 
eral aid to, as requisite for adequate 
medical progress, 50-51, 56-60, 66-69; 
government support in Great Britain 
to, 57; annual budgets of, 58. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Growth of, 84-85. 

See Research, medical. 

Medical sciences, Ph.D. degrees in, and 
distribution of degrees among other 
fields and, 177-178. 



205 



Medical supplies, committee on, 53. 

Medicine: 

Dr. Bush on — 

OSRD program on problems of, in 
wartime, xii; advances in, World War 
II, made possible by backlog of scien- 
tific data, 13. 

Palmer Committee on — 
Contribution to World War II by, 
49, 52-53; committees on aviation and 
industrial medicine, 53; achievements 
during World War II under direction 
of OSRD, 53-54; studies during 
World War II by Division of Medi- 
cal Sciences of the National Research 
Council and Committee on Medical 
Research, 53-54; civilian medicine as 
roots of wartime medicine, 54; em- 
phasis shifted to middle- and old-age 
groups, to malignant diseases and de- 
generative processes, 55; importance 
of fundamental research to progress, 
55-56; scope of sciences related to 
medicine, 56. 

Moe Committee on — 
Students of medicine in Army and 
Navy programs, 159; distribution of 
undergraduate degrees in medicine 
and allied fields, 177; Ph.D. degrees 
in surgery and medicine, 178. 

See also Medical Advisory Commit- 
tee; Research, medical. 

Medicine, Division of Biology and, in 

NSF, XX. 

Medicine, Welch Fellowships in, 98. 

Meningitis, 13, 49, 52. 

Mental illness, 5, 14, 55. 

Metallurgy, Ph.D. degrees in, 177. 

Meteorology', Ph.D. degrees in, 177; grad- 
uate school enrollments in, 178. 

Microbiology, Ph.D. degrees in bacteriol- 
ogy and, 178. 

Military research. See Research, military. 

Military services: programs for medical 
research, xii; continuance of research 
programs after World War II and ex- 
pansion from applied to basic research, 
xiii; programs for continuing educa- 
tion of highly qualified men, xvi. See 
also Armed services; G. I. Bill of 
Rights; National defense; Research, 
military'. 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, study of able high 
school graduates by socio-economic 
status related to college attendance, 
172, 173, 174, 175. 

Minerology, Ph.D. degrees in, 177. 

Mines, Bureau of, establishment of, 85. 

Mining, 177. 



Minnesota, studies on high school students 
and graduates entering college, re- 
lated to socio-economic groups and 
mental abihty, 145, 171-172. 

Moe, Henry Allen, chairman, Committee 
on Discovery and Development of 
Scientific Talent, 44, 136; transmittal 
of report, 136. 

Moe Committee: Dr. Bush's excerpts from 
report by, on development of scien- 
tific talent, 23, 24-25; Dr. Bush's 
summary of program proposed by, 26- 
27; scope of science as considered by, 
142. See Committee on Discovery 
and Development of Scientific Talent. 

Moulton, Harold C, member. Committee 
on Science and the Public Welfare, 

44, 72. 

Municipal governments, need for Federal 
cooperative support of research by, 
101. 

Music, graduate school enrollments in, 

178. 



Naples epidemic, typhus, 52. 

National Academy of Sciences: 

Activities since 1950 pertinent to Dr. 
Bush's recommendations — 
Role in promoting international scien- 
tific conferences, xiv; science attache 
program urged by, xiv; role of, in the 
International Geophysical Year, xiv- 

XV. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Establishment of Research Board for 
National Security by, 33, 34; recom- 
mendations as to relationship of, to 
proposed National Research Founda- 
tion, 35-36. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Report to Congress by, on Govern- 
ment scientific activities, 1884 and 
1908, 99; cooperation with, as func- 
tion of proposed National Research 
Foundation, 117. 

Moe Committee on — 
Proposed role of, in a scholarship and 
fellowship program, 139, 154, 156, 
180-181; scope of science within the 
purview of, 142. 

Stewart Committee on — 
Recommended as agency to control 
release of wartime-developed scientific 
data, 191-192. 

See also National Research Council. 

National Advisory Committee for Aero- 
nautics: Federal funds obligations for 



206 



basic research by, xxv; basic research 
by, 17-18; as participant in wartime 
scientific research, 29; organization of, 
considered in organization of pro- 
posed National Research Foundation, 
40; establishment of, 85; wartime 
scientific research under auspices of, 
190. ^ ., 

National Aeronautics and Space Council, 

xxii. 

National defense: 

Highlights of research related to na- 
tional defense and developments since 
1950— 

Necessity for basic research, i-"^; pro- 
posals for a division of national de- 
fense to be included in the proposed 
National Research Foundation, and 
its eventual exclusion, xii-xiii, xix; 
National Defense Education Act, 
xvi, xviii; Federal funds obligations 
for basic research for national de- 
fense, 1956, xxv. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Scientific progress related to national 
defense, 10-11; proposal for a division 
of national defense to be included in 
the proposed National Research Foun- 
dation, 34, 35, 39, 40. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Function of proposed National Re- 
search Foundation to cooperate with 
Army, Navy, and civil military re- 
search organizations in interest of na- 
tional defense, 117. 

Moe Committee on — 

Proposed National Science Reserve as 

contributing to national defense, 153. 

National Defense Education Act, xvi, 
xviii. 

National economy: NSF conference on 
research and development arid the 
impact of the conference on, xi; NSF 
analytical studies on relationship be- 
tween research and development and, 
xxiv. See also National welfare. 

National emergency: resources of proposed 
National Research Foundation to be 
available to the U. S. in event of, 
117; recommendation for establish- 
ment of a National Science Reserve 
to be available upon declaration of, 
138-139, 153. 

National Foundation for Medical Re- 
search : 
Developments since 1950 in meeting 

proposals for — 

Purpose of proposals provided within 

NSF and NIH, xi. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Proposed establishment of a divisioii 

for medical research in the proposed 



National Research Foundation, iri 
lieu of a separate agency for medical 
research, xi. See also National Re- 
search Foundation. 

Palmer Committee on — 
Recommended establishment and or- 
ganization of, as a Federal agency to 
administer Government aid for med- 
ical research, 51, 64-69; fundamental 
principles governing Federal funds to 
be administered by, 62-63. 

National income, scientific research ex- 
penditures and, 85-89. 

National Income and Its Composition, 
] 91 9-38, Kuznets, 86, note 1. 

National Institutes of Health: establish- 
ment of, xi, xii, 85; research grants 
by, and budgets, xii; fellowships ot, 
xvi; Federal funds obligations tor 
basic research by, xxv. 

National Merit Scholarship Corporatiori, 
source of financial aid for undergrad- 
uate students, xvi. 

National Patent Planning Commissionaire- 
port by, on patent laws as they attect 
industrial research, 21; recommenda- 
tion of, on inventions by Govern- 
ment employees, 105. See also Pat- 
ents. 

National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 
NSF support to, xxi. 

National Research Council: Soviet Pro- 
fessional Manpower, xxv; medical ad- 
vice provided by Division of Medical 
Sciences of. World War II, 53; ad- 
visory capacity of Division of Medical 
Sciences to Committee on Medical 
Research, OSRD, 53; role of, in med- 
ical research, 55; Rockefeller Founda- 
tion fellowship program administered 
by the Medical Fellowship Board of, 
60; Welch Fellowships in Medicine 
instituted by, 98; recommended use 
of experience of, in granting interna- 
tional fellowships, 114; proposed 
agency to administer the fellowship 
and scholarship program, 154, 156; 
Fellowships of, 156; proposed role of 
the Administrative Committee of, in 
a scholarship and fellowship program, 
180-181. See also National Academy 
of Sciences. 

National Research Foundation: 
Dr. Bush on — 

Establishment of, as major recommen- 
dation by Dr. Bush, vii; details of 
purposes, policies, organization, func- 
tions, relationships, and proposed 
budgets, xi, xii, 31-40; proposed role 
of, in international cooperative scien- 
tific enterprises, xv. 



207 



Bowman Committee on — 
Recommended creation of, policies, 
functions, and basic structure of, as 
Federal agency to promote science in 
the interest of public welfare, 75, 
115-117; recommendations concerning 
relation to universities, 94-98; recom- 
mendation that a proposed Science 
Advisors' Board cooperate with, 106; 
suggested responsibility of studying 
technological development in indus- 
try and of experimenting with meth- 
ods of aid to industrial research, 107; 
recommended power to make grants 
to universities, engineering schools, 
and nonprofit industrial research in- 
stitutes, 108; proposed investigation 
by, of advisability of Federal aid to 
encourage new scientific enterprises 
of applied-research nature, 109; rec- 
ommended functions of, in interna- 
tional scientific cooperation, 113-114; 
proposed functions related to improve- 
ment of library services, 118-121. 

See also National Science Founda- 
tion; National Scientific Research 
Foundation. 

National resources: 
Dr. Bush on — 

Scientific progress related to conserva- 
tion of, 10-11. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Conservation of, as dependent upon 
scientific progress, 74, 77; promotion 
of research aimed at conservation and 
better utilization of, as responsibility 
of proposed National Research Foun- 
dation, 116. 

Moe Co'mmittee on — 

Intelligence of citizenry included 

among, 137, 144. 

National Resources Committee, Resea^-ch 
— A National Resotirce, 86, notes 2, 
4; 100 and note 1. 

National Roster, inventory by, of graduate 
students in nonprofessional and non- 
vocational schools and departments, 
by science and other fields, 178. 

National Science Board: convictions of, 
concerning an undergraduate program 
of scholarships, xvi; approval of estab- 
lishing an Office of Social Sciences in 
NSF, xx; high calibre of staff, xxi. 

National Science Foundation: Act of 1950 
creating, vii, xiii; resume of accom- 
plishments related to Dr. Bush's rec- 
ommendations for a National Re- 
search Foundation, vii-xxvi; establish- 
ment of Division of Biological and 
Medical Sciences, xi, xii; promotion 
of international conferences by, xiv; 
science attache program urged by. 



xiv; funds obligations of, compared 
to Dr. Bush's proposals on funds re- 
quirements, .xvi-xvii; support of re- 
search directed at new approaches to 
information problems and translation 
techniques, xviii; scientific informa- 
tion activity of, xviii-xix; establish- 
ment of a Science Information Serv- 
ice and a Science Information Coun- 
cil, xviii, xix; highlights of early and 
present organization, present func- 
tions and relationships, and com- 
parison with Dr. Bush's proposals, 
xix-xxvi; relationships of the Director 
with other Federal agencies and com- 
mittees, xxii; annual report. Federal 
Funds for Science, xxiii-xxiv; Federal 
appropriations for, xxiv-xxvi. See also 
National Research Foundation; Na- 
tional Scientific Research Foundation. 

National science policy: need for, and 
the National Research Foundation as 
focal point for development of, in 
Dr. Bush's recommendation, vii, 12, 
31, 34; active growth of, since 1950, 
vii-xxvi, passim; role of NSF in, xxii- 
xxiv; NSF compilations on, xxiii. 

National Science Reserve: 
Dr. Bush on — 
Proposals for, 27. 

Moe Committee on — 
Proposed establishment of, and rec- 
ommendation that recipients of sci- 
ence scholarships and fellowships be 
enrolled in, 138, 153-154; to include 
veterans trained under the G. I. Bill, 
163; suggested administrative organi- 
zation, bases of selection, and pro- 
cedures for selection of scholars and 
fellows, 180-185. 

National Scientific Research Foundation: 
proposed establishment of, and func- 
tions in the program for discovery 
and development of talent, 180-185, 
passim. See also National Research 
Foundation. 

National security: 
Dr. Bush on — 

Scientific progress essential to, 5; 
need for civilian-controlled organiza- 
tion, in liaison with Army and Navy, 
with appropriated funds to initiate 
military research, 6; scientific research 
related to, 17-18. 

Bowman Comm,ittee on — 
Scientific progress essential to, 74, 77. 

Stewart Committee on — 

Release of wartime-acquired scientific 

information related to, 190. 

See also National defense; Research 
Board for National Security; Re- 
search, military. 



208 



National welfare: 

Science related to, since J 950 — 
Increased awareness oi' relationships 
between science and, vii-xwi, passim. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Science related to, vii-viii, 5, 6-7, 9, 
10-12, 17-22, 40; scientific talent re- 
lated to, 23; need for coordination of 
research programs in interest of, 31. 

Bowman Committee on — 

Scientific progress essential to, 74, 77. 

Moe Committee on — 
Science as a member of a team in, 
142-143; training of highest ability 
students essential to, 146; promotion 
of public interest in development of 
science as important to, 157; discov- 
ery and development of scientific tal- 
ent in the armed forces, and special 
postwar educational programs for vet- 
erans and wartime industrial workers 
as essential to, 158-165; adverse ef- 
fects of deficits in trained scientific 
personnel on, 158-165, passim; re- 
cruitment by industry of students 
who should continue education as 
adverse for, 169-170. 

Stewart Committee on — 
Release of scientific information de- 
veloped during the war as important 
to, 187-192. 

Natural resources. See National resources. 

Natural sciences: 

Dr. Bush on — 

Proposal for a division of, in a Na- 
tional Research Foundation, 35, 39; 
support of research in, as function of 
proposed National Research Founda- 
tion, 35, 37, 39-40. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Subject of study by the Committee, 
73; costliness of research in, 79; ex- 
penditures for research in, 86, note 
5; analysis of research in engineering 
and, and postwar needs by univer- 
sities, colleges, industrial research lab- 
oratories, and nonprofit science insti- 
tutes, 122-134, passim. See also Com- 
mittee on Science and the Public 
Welfare. 

Aioe Committee on — 
Undergraduate degrees (1941) in 
technolog\' and, 150; Ph.D. degrees 
C6-year period) in technology and, 
150; statistics on research in tech- 
nology and, 177. 

Naval Observatory, establishment of, 84. 

Naval Research Laboratory, establishment 
of, 85. 

Navy: 

Dr. Bush on — 

Role of, in medical research, 15; in- 



creased emphasis on science in officer 
training, 17; need for continued re- 
search by, 17-18; scientific students 
in, 24. 

Palmer Committee on — 

Adoption of use of penicillin by, 53; 

role of, in medical research, 55-56. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Cooperation with, as function of pro- 
posed National Research Foundation, 
117. 

Moe Committee on — 
Recommended participation of, in 
program to locate and develop scien- 
tific talent in the armed forces, 140- 
141; students of medicine and en- 
gineering in educational programs of, 
159; plans for integrated scientific 
training in, to reduce the wartime 
deficit in trained personnel, 160- 
162, 165. 

Stewart Committee on — 
Wartime scientific research under aus- 
pices of, 190; to participate in deci- 
sions on release of wartime-developed 
scientific data, 191. 

See also Armed services; Army; Navy, 
Secretary of the; Navy Department; 
Navy Postgraduate School. 

Navy, Secretary of the: joint statement 
with Secretary of War, to National 
Academy of Sciences, regarding scien- 
tific progress and the national secur- 
ity, 17; release of results of wartime 
medical research to the public, 28. 

Navy Department: support to basic re- 
search, xiii; as participant in war- 
time scientific research, xiii, 29; as 
board member to declassify scientific 
information, 29. See also Armed 
services; Military services. 

Navy Postgraduate School, xvi. 

Neuropsychiatry, 53. 

Neurosurgery, 53. 

New England Industrial Research Foun- 
dation, as a research clinic, 107-108. 

New York, State of: Board of Regents of, 
qyoted on imperativeness of higher 
education for ablest students, 144; 
"Regents' Plan" for postwar educa- 
tion of demobilized armed forces and 
wartime industry workers, 164-165. 

New York Public Library, 118. 

Norcross, Cleveland, secretary. Committee 
on Publication of Scientific Informa- 
tion, 45, 188. 

Nuclear energy, international aspects of 
diversion of, into constructive uses, xv. 



209 



Nuffield College, University of Oxford, 
151. 

Nursing, 177. 



Ochsner, Alton, member, Medical Advis- 
or>' Committee, 43, 48. 

O'Donnell, J. Hugh, member. Committee 
on Science and the Public Welfare, 

44, 72. 

Office of Scientific Research and Develop- 
ment: Dr. Bush as director of, vii; 
Dr. Bush's recommendation that por- 
tions of wartime research programs 
should be carried on in peacetime, 
xii, 18; continuation by the military 
services of research arrangements ini- 
tiated by, xii-xiii; functions and emer- 
gency nature of, 3, 33; wartime scien- 
tific research by, 12, 190; scientific 
mobilization by, 28-29; publication of 
results of wartime research by, 29-30; 
research sponsored by, on nonprofit 
basis, 39; broad authorities to, and 
relaxation of technical fiscal proce- 
dures concerning research contracts, 
39; medical advances attributable to 
Committee on Medical Research of, 
49, 52; cost of medical program to 
July 1944, 49, 54; organization of 
Committee on Medical Research 
under, as wartime measure, 53; scope 
of activity in medical research, 53-51, 
55; report to U. S. Senate on need for 
Federal support of medical research, 
57; costs of contracts with colleges 
and universities, 1943-44, 87; deci- 
sions in early days of, on release of 
medical-research data, 189; publica- 
tion plans of, concerning release of 
wartime-developed scientific data, 192. 

Oil companies, included in survey of re- 
search in industrial laboratories, 133, 
note 2. 

Organization and Administration of Re- 
search, NSF compilation of science 
policies on, xviii. 

Osborn, General Frederick H., letter from 
Dr. Moe to, quoted on need for 
scientific training for armed forces, 
161. 

Oxford, University of (Nuffield College), 



Paleontology, Ph.D. degrees in, 177. 

Palmer, Walter W., chairman, Medical 
Advisory Committee, 43, 47, 48; 
transmittal of committee report, 47. 

Parasitology, development of, basic to med- 
ical progress, xi, 14, 56. 



Parathyphoid, 52. 

Parsons, Dr. Charles L., quoted on waste 
of scientists in World War II, 159. 

Patents: 

Dr. Bush on — 

Need for strengthening patent sys- 
tems, to assist small industries, 7; 
problems concerning patent laws 
bearing upon industrial research, 21; 
policy on, related to operations of 
proposed National Research Founda- 
tion, 38. 

Palmer Committee on — 
Question of rights on discoveries 
made under Government - sponsored 
research, 61. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Impact of system on research by in- 
dustry, 76; needed strengthening of 
the system, 109; recommendation con- 
cerning policies of proposed National 
Research Foundation, 117; reference 
to policy concerning universities, re- 
search institutions, and recipients of 
grants, 117; policy concerning inven- 
tions by Government employees, 105. 

Pathology: development of, basic to medi- 
cal progress, xi, 14, 56; committee 
on, 53. 

Pauling, Linus, member. Medical Advisor^' 
Committee, 43, 48. 

Pearl Harbor, 139. 

Penicillin, 10, 13, 14, 49, 52, 53, 55. 

Pennsylvania, studies on high school grad- 
uates and college attendance of high- 
abilit\' students, 145, 170-171, 172, 
173. 

Pepper, Senator Claude D., quoted, on 
Government's role in sponsorship of 
research, 63. 

Perazich, G., and Field, P., Industrial 
Research and Changing Technology, 
86, note 2. 

Personnel, scientific: 

Highlights of recommendations con- 
cerning scientific personnel in the 
Government and developments since 
1950, ix. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Recommendations concerning, in the 

Government, 7. 

Bowman Committee ori — 
Recommendations concerning, in the 
Government, 76, 101-104. 

Moe Committee on — 
Deficit in, due to wartime interrup- 
tions to education, 150; deficit in 
technological and scientific personnel 



210 



from war and selective service poli- 
cies, 158-160. 

See also Civil Service; Talent. 

Pharmaceutical industry: role of, in the 
war on disease and medical research, 
13, 15; included in a survey of re- 
search in industrial laboratories, 133, 
note 2. 

Pharmacology: development of, basic to 
medical progress, xi, 14, 56; Ph.D. 
degrees in, 178. See also Table V, 
130, note 4. 

Pharmacy, 177. 

Physical science: Division of Mathemati- 
cal, Physical and Engineering Sci- 
ences in NSF, xx; support of re- 
search in, as function of proposed 
National Research Foundation, 35, 
39-40; institutions for ^ research in, 
included in a survey of research in 
nonprofit science institutes, 133, note 
3; included within the scope of sci- 
ence considered by the Moe Commit- 
tee, 142; undergraduate degrees in 
mathematics and, 177; distribution of 
Ph.D. degrees among other helds and, 
177-178; graduate school enrollments 
in, 178; deficits in training research 
personnel in, 179. 

Physical Sciences Study Group, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology: 
NSF's support of, to improve science 
teaching, xvii. 

Physicians, role of, in the war on disease, 
13. 

Physics: development of, basic to medical 
progress, xi, 14, 56; development of 
improved course content for teaching, 
supported by NSF, xvii; analysis of 
research in, in universities, colleges, 
industrial research laboratories, and 
nonprofit science institutes, 122-134, 
passim; deficit in personnel trained 
in, 158, 179; Ph.D. degrees in, 177; 
graduate school enrollments in, 178; 
studies by Institute of, on deficits in 
training of research personnel in phy- 
sical sciences and engineering, 179. 

Physiology: development of, basic to med- 
ical progress, xi, 14, 56; analysis of 
research in selected university depart- 
ments, 129, 130; Ph.D. degrees in, 
178. See also Research, medical. 

Plant pathology, 129, note 5 data. 

Plastics, 10. 

Pneumonia, 13, 49, 52, 53, 54-55. 

Population: increase, 1900-1940, 10-11; 
statistics on child and youth, related 
to school attendance, 166-176. See 
also Tables. 



Primary schools, loss of talent in, 147. 

Private organizations: President Roosevelt's 
question on the role of the Govern- 
ment to aid scientific research activi- 
ties by, 1, 3, 73, 77; need for Fed- 
eral ' cooperative support of research 
by, 101. See Committee on Science 
and the Public Welfare. 

Prizes, establishment of, as function of 
proposed National Research Founda- 
tion, 117. 

Protozoology, 64, note 1 . 

Psycholinguists, included in NSF support 
programs, xx. 

Psychology: social, included in NSF sup- 
port programs, xx; included within 
the scope of science considered by the 
Moe Committee, 142; deficit in per- 
sonnel trained in, 158, 179; distribu- 
tion of Ph.D. degrees among other 
fields and, 177-178; Ph.D. degrees in, 
and graduate school enrollments in, 
178. 

Public, need to promote interest of, in 
scientific development, 157. 

Public health: role of groups engaged in, 
in the war on disease, 13; distribu- 
tion of Ph.D. degrees among other 
fields and, 177-178. 

Public Health Service, U. S.: source of 
funds for medical research, xii; role 
of, in medical research, 15, 55, 56; 
scientific interests of, specialized, 62. 
See also Health. 

Public organizations: President Roosevelt's 
question on the role of the Govern- 
ment to aid scientific research activi- 
ties by, 1, 3, 73, 77; need for Fed- 
eral cooperative support of research 
by, 101. See also Committee on 
Science and the Public Welfare. 

Public welfare. See Committee on Science 
and the Public Welfare; National 
welfare. 

Publication. See Committee on Publica- 
tion of Scientific Information. 

Publications and Scientific Collaboration, 
Division of, proposed in a National 
Research Foundation, xxiv, 35, 39. 
See also National Science Founda- 
tion; Science Information Service, 
Office of. 



Rabi, I. I., member. Committee on Science 
and the Public Welfare, 44, 72. 

Radar, 10, 17. 

Radiation Laboratory, M. I. T., xiii. 



211 



Radiation treatment for cancer, 13. See 
also Cancer. 

Radio, 10. 

Rayon, 10. 

Reference aids, functions of NSF in pro- 
viding, xviii, xix. See also Libraries. 

Refractory diseases, xi, 14. 

"Pvegents' Plan for Postwar Education in 
the State of New York," 164-165. 

Rehabilitation, committee on, 53. 

Renal disease, xi, 14. 

Research — A National Resource, National 
Resources Committee, 100 and 
note 1 . 

Research: functions of NSF in publish- 
ing results of, x\dii. 

Research, applied: 

Highlights of tlie Report a}}d devel- 
opments since 1950 — 
Lack of desirable balance between 
Federal funds for basic research and, 
ix; research programs of militar\' serv- 
ices expanded beyond, to basic re- 
search, xiii; distinguished from pure 
research, xx\'i; as dri\'ing out pure 
research, xxvi. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Nature of, 83; tendency to drive out 
pure research, 83; relative expendi- 
tures, U. S. and England, for pure 
research and, 87; need to maintain 
balance with pure research, 88-89; 
advent of, in universities, 90. 

See also Research, industrial; Re- 
search institutes. 

Research, basic: 

Highlights of the Report and devel- 
opments since 1950 — 
Development of national policy con- 
cerning, since 1950, vii-viii; as scien- 
tific capital, viii; as pacemaker of 
technological progress, viii; as funda- 
mental to industrial progress, viii; 
National Research Foundation as 
focal point for support of, in Dr. 
Bush's recommendations, viii; as prin- 
cipal focus of the Report, viii-ix; in- 
crease in use of Federal funds for, ix; 
lack of desirable balance between 
Federal funds for, and applied re- 
search and development, ix; necessary 
to national defense, ix; necessary to 
research training, ix; necessity for, by 
industry, ix; need for industry to 
support, in colleges and universities, 
ix; research programs of military serv- 
ices expanded to include, xiii; average 
amounts and duration of NSF grants 
for, xx; permission for grants for, to 
vest title to research equipment, xxi; 



NSF comjiilation of science policies 
on, xxiii; widening support of, by 
various Federal agencies, and Federal 
appropriations and funds obligations 
for, xx\'-xx\'i; recognition of impor- 
tance of, re\'ealed by Federal legisla- 
tive actions and appropriations, xxv- 
xxvi; ratio of Federal basic-research 
funds to over-all research and devel- 
opment funds, xxvi; distinguished 
from applied research, xxvi; tendency 
to be driven out by applied research, 
xxvi. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Need for a Government agency to 
supplement, in colleges, universities, 
and research institutes, 9; colleges, 
universities, and research institutes as 
centers of, 12, 19, 20; backlog of 
scientific data accumulated through, 
as basis of advances in medicine. 
World War H, 13; in the war against 
disease, 13-15; need for public funds 
to strengthen, 20; support of, by Gov- 
ernment, as an aid to industrial re- 
search, 21; role of Government in 
promoting, 22, 31; fundamentals in 
use of public funds for, 32-33; sup- 
port of, as function of proposed Na- 
tional Research Foundation, 34, 38, 
39-40. 

Bowman Committee on — ■ 
Need to improve transition between, 
and industrial application, 75, 78; as 
pacemaker of technological progress, 
78-79; nature of (pure and back- 
ground scientific research), 81-83; 
Government's responsibility to sup- 
port, 81-83; tendency for applied re- 
search to drive out, 83; relative ex- 
penditures, U. S. and England, for 
applied research and, 87; need to 
maintain balance with applied re- 
search, 88-89. 

Aloe Committee on — 
Recruitment of talented students by 
industry for applied science as a 
deterrent to expansion of talent in, 
149; need to maintain appropriate 
balance between those trained in 
scientific fields and those trained in 
social sciences, arts, and humanities, 
179; deficit in training personnel in 
phvsical sciences and engineering, 
179. 

See also Research, scientific. 

Research, biological: institutions for, in- 
cluded in a survey of research in 
nonprofit science institutes, 133, 
note 3. 

Research, industrial: 

Highlights of Dr. Bush's analysis of 
factors related to, x-xi. 



212 



Dr. Bush on — 

Basic research as promotion of, 7; 
Go\ernmcnt incenti\es needed, 7; in- 
crease in, 1930-1940, 19-20; prob- 
lems and recommendations concern- 
ins, 21. 

Boxvniini Coniniittcc on — 
Needed changes in ta.x structure as 
incentive to, 73; achievements made 
by laboratories, 77; limited number ot 
laboratories engaging in background 
scientific research, 82-83; operating 
costs of research laboratories related 
to salaries of research staffs, 92-93; 
concentration of, in few companies 
and industries, 107; recommended 
Federal aids to, 107-109; analysis of 
scientific research exi^enditures by 
laboratories compared with expendi- 
tures in leading universities, 125-134. 

See also Research, applied; Research, 
scientific; Scientific enterprises. 

Research, medical: 

Highlights of Dr. Bush's recommen- 
dations and developments since 
1950, xi-xii. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Need for Government financial sup- 
port, 5-6; achievements in the war 
on disease, 13-16; progress between 
World Wars I and II, 15; sources of 
financing, 16; proposed amount of 
Government financing of, in medical 
.schools and universities, 16; release 
of wartime results, 28; support of, as 
function of proposed National Re- 
search Foundation, 35, 38, 39-40; a 
division of, proposed in a National 
Research Foundation, 35, 39. 

Palvier Committee on — 
Need for Federal aid for, 50-51, 57- 
58; use of public funds in Europe 
and Britain for, 50, 56-57; recom- 
mendations concerning nature of the 
use of Federal funds for, 50-51, 62- 
63; estimated budget for Federal aid, 
51, 60; effect of World War II on, 
54; Federal aid to, as a wartime de- 
velopment, 56; progress between 
World Wars I and II, 57; reports of 
OSRD to U. S. Senate on need for 
Federal support of, 57; endowments, 
industry', and alumni associations as 
partial sources of funds for, 58; gen- 
eral research funds, fellowships, and 
grants-in-aid as recommended forms 
of Federal aid, 58-60, 63, 66-68; rec- 
ommendation for promotion of, by 
creation of an independent Federal 
agency, 60-61; definition of term, as 
used in the report, 64. 



Buwmiin Committee on — 
Analysis oi, in uni\'ersity departments 
of anatomy, physiology, and bacte- 
riology, and in industrial research 
organizations, 125-134, passim; insti- 
tutions for, included in a survey of 
research in nonprofit science insti- 
tutes, 133, note .3. 

Stewart Committee on — 

Decisions on release of data from, 

during the war, 189, 191. 

See also Medical schools; National 
Foundation for Medical Research; 
Rockefeller Institute of Medical Re- 
search. 

Research, military: need for, in peacetime, 
under permanent independent civil- 
ian-controlled organization in liaison 
with the armed services, xii-xiii, 17- 
18, 33-34, 159; support of, as func- 
tion of proposed National Research 
Foundation, 34, 35, 38, 39-40, 117. 

Research, outer space, international as- 
pects of, XV. 

Research, scientific: 

Highlights of recommendaticms and 
developments since 1950 — 
Recommendations concerning, within 
the Government, i.x-x; five principles 
of Government support of, and NSF 
compliance, x.x-xxi; NSF analytical 
studies on relationship between re- 
search and development and the na- 
tional economy, xxiv. 

Dr. Bjish on — 

President Roosevelt's request for rec- 
ommendations concerning, 1-4; in the 
vyar against disease, 5; need for pub- 
lic funds to support, 6; as scientific 
capital, 6; expenditures for, 1930- 
1940, 6-7; need for benefits to reach 
industries not utilizing new scientific 
knowledge, 7; recommendation that 
knowledge based on problems of 
World War II be made available, 
under controls, 8, 28-30; relationship 
to public welfare, 17-22; relationship 
to national security, 17-18; relation- 
ship to employment, 18; relationship 
to practical application, 18-19; cen- 
ters of, 19. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Role of the Government in assistance 
to, in natural sciences, engineering 
and agriculture, 73; responsibility of 
the Government to provide, 73-76; as 
basic to the national welfare, 74-76, 
77; role of the Government to engage 
in, within the Government, and rec- 
ommendations for increased effective- 
ness of Government programs, 75-76; 
argurnents against Federal aid to, 78; 
traditional support of, 79; precautions 



213 



required in a program for Federal aid 
to, 79, 80; essentials of a program for 
Federal aid, 80; recommended estab- 
lishment of a National Research 
Foundation to administer Federal aid, 
80; Federal support of, in universi- 
ties and nonprofit institutes recom- 
mended, 80; components and nature 
of, 81-83; development of, in U. S., 
83-85; national (public and private) 
expenditures for, 85-89; basic ele- 
ments in a national policy for, 88-89; 
in American universities and colleges, 
90-98; operating costs for, related to 
salaries of research staffs in univer- 
sities and colleges and in industrial 
research laboratories, 92-93; need to 
assist colleges and universities with 
operating costs, 93; recommended 
forms of Government support in uni- 
versities, 93-98; nature of, in the 
Government and suggested reforms, 
99-106; bearing of Federal income 
tax upon expenditures for develop- 
ment and, 110-111; recommended leg- 
islative action on income-tax laws de- 
signed to aid, 111-112; responsibility 
of proposed National Research Foun- 
dation to promote, 116; analysis of 
expenditures for, by 125 universities 
and colleges, and postwar needs, 122- 
124; example of opposition to Federal 
aid for, 124; detailed analysis of ex- 
penditures for, in a small sample of 
leading universities, industrial re- 
search laboratories, and nonprofit sci- 
ence institutes, 125-134. 

Stewart Committee on — 
Effect of the war on, and need to re- 
lease wartime-developed data as soon 
as possible, 189-192. 

See also Research, basic. 

Research Board for National Security: es- 
tablishment of, 33; recommended par- 
ticipation of, in program to locate 
and develop scientific talent in the 
armed services, 140-141, 160. 

Research clinics, advantages to small busi- 
ness, 107-108. 

Research facilities, scientific and technical: 
NSF compilation of science policies 
on Federal support of, xxiii; responsi- 
bility of proposed National Research 
Foundation to provide for, where in- 
adequate, 116. 

Research in Action, Battelle Memorial In- 
stitute, 86, note 3. 

Research institutes: NSF surveys of re- 
search and development efforts of, 
xxiii; Federal funds obligations for 
basic research in, xxv; as centers of 
basic research, 6, 12, 19, 20; ex- 
penditures for scientific research, 6-7, 
85-89; need for public funds to 



strengthen, 20; inadequacy of ex- 
penditures for basic research by, 22; 
fundamentals of public-funds support 
of research in, 33; support of scien- 
tific research in, as -function of pro- 
posed National Research Foundation, 
34, 37, 38, 39-40; role of the Govern- 
ment to assist research in, 73, 74, 75, 
101; achievements made by, 77; rec- 
ommended grants to, for industrial 
research and for fundamental re- 
search, 108; reference to patent poli- 
cies of, 117. 

Research workers, assistance to, as func- 
tion of proposed National Research 
Foundation, 117. 

Richards, A. N., member, Committee on 
Publication of Scientific Information, 
45, 188; chairman. Committee on 
Medical Research, OSRD, 57; 
quoted, on deficiency in funds of uni- 
versities for medical research, 57. 

Rockefeller Foundation, 60, 84. 

Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, 
84, 86, note 6. 

Rodent control, 53. 

Rogers, Walter S., member, Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Scien- 
tific Talent, 45, 136. 

Roosevelt, President Franklin D.: letter to 
Vannevar Bush from, requesting rec- 
ommendations on means of scientific 
advancements, 3-4; Dr. Bush's reply, 
1-2; references to the President's let- 
ter, 13-14, 54, 73, 77, 137, 142, 187, 
189, 190, 192; letter to, from Dr. 
Charles L. Parsons, quoted, on waste 
of scientists in World War II, 159. 

Russia, recommendation for appointment 
of scientific attaches at embassy in, 
xiii-xiv. 

Russian sputnik, effects on activity of the 
Government in scientific field, x, xxv. 

Ryerson Laboratory of the University of 
Chicago, 140, 161. 



Scarlet fever, reduction in death rates 
from, 54. 

Scholars, proposed means and procedures 
for choosing, 180-185. See also Fel- 
lows; Fellowships and scholarships. 

Scholarships: nonimplementation of pro- 
posed program for, and substitutes 
therefor, xvi; precautions necessary 
not to syphon a disproportionate 
amount of ability into science from 
other fields through, 142-143; fellow- 
ships, grants-in-aid and, as normal 
means of developing leadership, 143; 



214 



proposed plan for, as means of assist- 
ance to undergraduates in science, 
150-157, passim; responsibilities of 
educational institutions to provide 
training commensurate intellectually 
with superior abilitA', 152; State 
quotas for, 155. See also Fellowships 
and scholarships; National Defense 
Education Act; National Merit Schol- 
arship Corporation. 

School attendance, statistics on, 166-176. 
See also Tables. 

Schools, graduate: NSF support for reno- 
vation and equipment of research 
laboratories of, xxii; need for policies 
of, to assist veterans in making up 
lost time in scientific training, 163- 
165. See also High schools; Primary 
schools; Secondary schools. 

Science: 

Highlights of the Report and develop- 
ments since 1590 — 
Summary of Dr. Bush's recommenda- 
tions on the role of the Government 
in the development of science and 
progress since 1950, vii-xxvi; lack of 
full awareness of difference between 
technology and, ix; international rela- 
tions in, since 1950, xiii-xv; widening 
of international relations in, to in- 
clude political considerations, xv; in- 
adequacy of teaching in, as found by 
Dr. Bush, and actions of NSF since 
1950 to improve teaching, xv-xvii; 
NSF projects on history and philos- 
ophy of, xx; NSF annual report. Fed- 
eral Funds for Science, xxiv; tech- 
nology distinguished from, .xxvi. 

Dr. B^ish on — 

Scope of, as referred to by President 
Roosevelt, 1; in the war against dis- 
ease, 1, 3; mobilization of, for World 
War II, 28-29. 

Palmer Committee on — 

Scope of, related to medicine, 56. 

Bowman Committee on — 

Status and trends in, in America, 

81-89. 

Aloe Committee on — 
Scope of, within purview of National 
Academy of Sciences, and of the 
report of the Committee, 1 42; inade- 
quacy of teaching of, in secondary 
schools, 148-149; statistics concerning 
training of personnel for technology 
and, undergraduate and graduate 
schools, 177-179. 

See also Defense Science Board; Fed- 
eral Council on Science and Tech- 
nology; Research, applied; Research, 
basic; Research, medical; Research, 
scientific; Science, applied. 



Science, applied: 
Dr. Bush on — 

Function of proposed National Re- 
search Foundation to improve transi- 
tion from research to, 37, 39-40. 

Boivnian Committee on — 
Planned coordination and direction as 
benefits to, 79-80; methods of prog- 
ress in, during war, not feasible in 
peace, 80. 

Moe Committee on — 
Recruitment of talented students by 
industry for, as a deterrent to expan- 
sion of talent for basic research, 149. 

Stewart Committee on — 
Emphasis on, during war, 189. 

See also Research, applied; Research, 
scientific. 

Science, Department of: recommended 
creation of, by the National Academy 
of Sciences, 99. 

Science, Federal Funds for, NSF annual 
report, xxiv. 

Science Adviser to the Secretary of State, 
establishment of position, xiv. 

Science Advisory Board: recommendations 
for establishment of, to coordinate 
scientific work of Government agen- 
cies, X, 7, 20-21, 76, 105-106. 

Science Advisory Board (temporary), 
appointed by President Roosevelt, 
100. 

Science Advisory Committee, the Presi- 
dent's: operations of, related to Dr. 
Bush's recommendations, x, xiv, xviii; 
science attache program urged by, 
xiv; NSF relationships with, xxii. 

Science and Astronautics, House Com- 
mittee on, vii. 

Science and Foreign Policy, Department 
of State, xiv. 

Science and Technology, Department of: 
debate as to need for establishment 
of, related to Dr. Bush's recommen- 
dations, x. 

Science and Technology, Federal Coun- 
cil on: recent establishment of, re- 
lated to Dr. Bush's recommendations, 
x. 

Science and Technology, Special Assist- 
ant to the President for: establish- 
ment of position of, x; NSF relation- 
ships with, xxii. 

Science Information Council, establish- 
ment of, by NSF, xviii. 

Science Information Service, Office of, 
NSF, xviii, xix, xx, xxiv, note 4. 



215 



Science policy. See National science 
policy. 

Science Reserve. See National Science 
Reserve. 

Scientific attaches: recommendation for 
appointment of, in certain embassies, 
viii-xiv, 114; development of the pro- 
gram for, since 1950, xiii-xiv. 

Scientific capital: basic scientific research 
as, viii, 6; drawn upon during the 
war, 189. 

Scientific collaboration. See Publications 
and Scientific Collaboration, Division 
of. 

Scientific cooperation. See International 
scientific cooperation. 

Scientific enterprises, unresolved question 
by the Bowman Committee as to 
Federal aid to launching of, 108-109. 

Scientific information: release of, devel- 
oped during the war, xviii, 186-192; 
activity of NSF in dissemination of, 
xviii-xix, 75, 116; NSF compilation 
of policies on, xxiii. 

Scientific Personnel and Education, Di- 
vision of, NSF, xx; proposals for, 
35, 39. 

Scientific progress, significance of, in all 
phases of American life, 10-12. 

Scientific publications, encouragement of, 
as function of proposed National Re- 
search Foundation, 35, 37, 39-40. 

Scientific research. See Research, scien- 
tific. 

Scientific talent. See Talent. 

Scientific training: need for, related to 
public welfare, 6-7; English scholars 
quoted on need for and nature of, at 
undergraduate level, 151-152. See 
all Research entries; Talent. 

Scientists, need for professional partner- 
ship between the military services 
and, 17-18; assistance to, as function 
of proposed National Research Foun- 
dation, 117. See all Research en- 
tries; Talent. 

Secondary schools: loss of talent in, and 
variation of quality of education in, 
147-149; need to assist able students 
to complete education in, 149. See 
also High schools; Schools; Talent. 

Security restrictions on wartime scientific 
data, coordination required in lifting, 
29-30. See also Scientific informa- 
tion. 

Seismology, Ph.D. degrees in, 177. 

Selective Service policies, effect of, on 
deficit in scientists, and recommended 



corrective action, 139-141, 158-160, 
163. 

Serum albumin, 49, 53. 

Shapley, Harlow, member, Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Scien- 
tific Talent, 45, 136. 

Shock, studied, 53. 

Silliman, Benjamin, 83. 

Slichter, Sumner, x. 

Small business, research clinics as ad- 
vantage to, 107-108. 

Small Business Act of 1958, x. 

Smallpox, 52. 

Smith, Homer W., secretary, Medical 
Advisory Committee, 43, 48. 

Smithson, James, bequest for Smithsonian 
Institution, 84. 

Smithsonian Institution: Federal funds 
obligations for basic research, xxv; 
creation of, 84. 

Social Function of Science, The, Bernal, 
87, note 2. 

Social sciences: need to maintain balance 
between talents in natural sciences, 
medicine, and, xx, 23; undergradu- 
ate degrees in, 177; statistics on re- 
search in, 177; graduate school en- 
rollments in, 178; warning not to 
drain too many able students from 
research in, for scientific research, 
179. 

Social Sciences, Office of, NSF, xx, xxi. 

Socio-economic studies: relationships be- 
tween socio-economic status, ability, 
and level of education attained, 171- 
176; relations between parental in- 
come and college courses pursued, 
174. 

Sociology, in NSF support programs, xx. 

Sox'iet Professional Manpower, National 
Research Council, xxv. 

Space. See Aeronautical and Space Sci- 
ences, Senate Committee on; Na- 
tional Advisory Committee for Aero- 
nautics; National Aeronautics and 
Space Council; Science and Astro- 
nautics, House Committee on. 

Sproul, Dr. Robert Gordon, President, 
University of California: quoted, on 
the citizenn.''s intelligence as the most 
valuable national resource, 144. 

Standard of living: scientific progress re- 
lated to, 10-12, 18, 74, 77; need for 
program to locate and develop scien- 
tific talent in armed services as basic 
to postwar conditions of, 141. 



216 



Standards, Bureau of, establishment, 85. 

State, Department of: International Sci- 
ence Steering Committee, Science 
and Foreign Policy, xiii-xiv; position 
of Science Adviser to the Secretary 
of State established, xiv. See also 
Scientific attaches. 

State governments: achievements made by 
research agencies of, 77; inadequacy 
of appropriations for scientific re- 
search, 79; expenditures for scien- 
tific research, 85-89; need for Fed- 
eral cooperative support of research 
by, 101. 

States: quotas for scholarships, 155, 180- 
185, passim; proposed roles of com- 
mittees in, for discovery and devel- 
opment of talent, 180-185, passim. 

Stewart, Irvin, chairman, Committee on 
Publication of Scientific Information, 
45, 187, 188; transmittal of report, 
187. 

Stimson, Henry L., Secretary of War, 
interest in postwar military research, 
159. 

Shident and His Knov.Aedge, The, 
Learned and Wood, data from, 170- 
171. 

Studies, Special, Office of, NSF, xx. 

Sulfa drugs, 13, 52. 

Sulfonamides, 49, 53. 

Surgeon General's Library, 120. 

Surgeons General, advice of Division of 
Medical Sciences, National Research 
Council, sought by, 53. 

Surgery, 13, 49, 52, 53; Ph.D. degrees 
in medicine and, 178. 

Synthetic fibers, 10. 



Tables: 

Proposed organization of National 
Research Foundation, 36. 

Proposed budget. National Research 
Foundation, 40. 

Scientific research expenditures and 
national income, 86, 88. 

Annual expenditures for capital out- 
lay, for scientific research institutions 
of higher education, 87. 

Expenditures and needs of university 
research, natural sciences and engi- 
neering, 122. 

Analysis of research in selected uni- 
versity departments (1939-40): de- 
partments of physics, 127; depart- 
ments of chemistry, 128; departments 



of biology, 129; departments of 

anatomy, physiology and bacteri- 
ology, 130; departments of chemical 
engineering, 131; departments of 
electrical engineering, 1 32. 

Analysis of returns on questionnaires 
sent to industrial laboratories and 
nonprofit science institutes, 133. 

Proposed State quotas for scholar- 
ships, 155. 

Deficit of scientific and technological 
personnel resulting from war and 
selective service policies, 158. 

1940 census figures on population 
under 20 years of age, 166. 

1940 census figures on age and school 
attendance of Nation's vouth, 166- 
167. 

1940 census figures on educational 
attainment of population 25 years old 
and over, 167. 

Enrollments by grades in public 
schools, 168. 

Decrease in student enrollment, per 
1,000, fifth grade through college, 
169. 

Relation of intelligence to educational 
opportunity, 173. 

Relation of parental income to full- 
time college attendance of superior 
Milwaukee high school graduates, 
173. 

College attendance of high school 
graduates in Old City, 173. 

Parental income and college courses, 
174. 

Percent of students in each economic 
group possessing highest or lowest 
grades of ability, 175. 

Distribution of undergraduate degrees 
in 1941 among broad fields, 177. 

Distribution of Ph.D. degrees, 1935- 
40, among the several sciences, 177- 
178. 

The National Roster inventory of 
graduate students, 1942, 178. 

Deficit in Ph.D. degrees in the phys- 
ical sciences and engineering, 179. 

Schedule and procedures, scholarship 
program, 184-185. 

Talent, scientific, programs for discovery 
and development of: 
Highlights of recoinmendations and 
programs developed since 1950, x, 
xv-xvii. 

Dr. Bush on — 

Proposed program, 1-2, 24-27; need 



217 



for Government aid, 7; recommenda- 
tions for development in armed serv- 
ices, 7-8; deficit in talent, 7-8, 18, 
23-24; need for Government scholar- 
ships and fellowships, 8; development 
of talent by Government as an aid to 
industrial research, 21; nature of prob- 
lem, 23-27; Government responsibil- 
ity, 31; development of talent as func- 
tion of proposed National Research 
Foundation, 34, 38, 39-40. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Need for talent for research in the 
Government, 76; as responsibility' of 
proposed National Research Founda- 
tion, 116-117. 

Moe Committee on — 
Federal responsibility, 137-185, 
passim; long-term plans (early school- 
ing of more able students, scholar- 
ships and fellowships), 137-139, 147- 
157; plans for the near future (to 
locate and develop talent in armed 
forces), 137, 139-141, 158-165; pre- 
cautions necessary, not to syphon a 
disproportionate amount of ability 
from other fields, 138, 142-143, 145, 
150; scope of science used by the 
Committee, 142; suggested means 
and procedures for discovery and 
development, 180-185. 

Stewart Committee on — 
De\'elopment of, in armed forces, 
necessary before demobilization, 189- 
190. 

Talented students: statistics from studies 
in Indiana, Minnesota, and Pennsyl- 
vania on mental ability, high school 
attendance and graduation, and col- 
lege enrollment, related to socio- 
economic groups, 144-145, 147-148; 
studies concerning able students lost 
to higher education, 166-176. 

Tate, J. T., vice chairman, Committee 
on Science and the Public Welfare, 
44, 72. 

Tax laws: effect of, on industrial re- 
search, X, 76, 110-111; recommended 
legislative action on, designed to aid 
research and development, 111-112. 
See also Internal Revenue Code. 

Taylor, Hugh S., member. Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Sci- 
entific Talent, 45, 136. 

Technical schools, need for policies of, 
to assist veterans in making up lost 
time in scientific training, 163-165. 

Technological progress, basic research as 
the pacemaker of, viii, 19, 78-79. 

Technology: lack of full awareness of 
difference between science and, ix; 
science distinguished from, xxvi; 



recommended Federal aids to, 107- 
109; undergraduate degrees (1941) 
in natural sciences and, 150; Ph.D. 
degrees (6-year period) in natural 
sciences and, 150; statistics on re- 
search in natural sciences and, 177. 
See also Federal Council on Science 
and Technology. 

Tests: in the program for discoven.' and 
development of talent, 180-185, 
passim. See American Council on 
Education; Carnegie Foundation; 
College Entrance Examination Board; 
Cooperative Test Service; Engineer- 
ing Education, Measurement and 
Guidance Project in; Armed Forces 
Institute; Iowa, University' of. 

Tetanus, 13, 49, 52. 

Thomas, Dr. Charles Allen, quoted on 
need for scientific training to re- 
place technical men in the armed 
forces, 159. 

Thomson, Elihu, 85. 

Transfusions, blood, committee on shock 
and, 53. 

Translation of scientific data, NSF func- 
tions in providing, xviii, 116. See 
also Libraries. 

Truman, President Harry S., xix. 

Tuberculosis, 53, 54-55. 

Turner, Kenneth B., assistant secretary, 
Medical Advisor^' Committee, 43, 48. 

Tuve, M. A., member, Committee on 
Publication of Scientific Informa- 
tion, 45, 188. 

Typhoid, 52. 

Typhus, 13, 49, 52, 53. 



U-boats, battle against, as battle of sci- 
entific techniques, 6, 17. 

Ulcers, peptic, 14, 55. 

United States: place of, in discovery of 
fundamental new knowledge and 
basic scientific principles, 78; progress 
in applied science, 78; development 
of scientific research in, and growth 
of Federal participation in research, 
83-85. See Government, U. S. 

United States Congress: Increased atten- 
tion to scientific research and develop- 
ment and legislation and appropria- 
tions conducive thereto, vii-xx'\'i, 
passim; standing committees in, con- 
cerned with science and technology, 
viii; need for appropriations by, for 
scientific research in Government to 
be assured on long-term basis, 76. 
See also Budget, Federal. 



218 



Universities, State, growth of, 84. 

Universities and colleges (as centers of 
research, and need for aid to research 
in): 

Developments since 1950 — 
Need for industry to support basic 
research in, i.\; military services' pro- 
grams for subsidy of advanced cduca- 
cation for military' men in, xvi; NSF 
surveys of research and development 
efforts of, xxiii; Federal funds obli- 
gations for basic research in, xxv. 

Dr. Bush on — 

As centers of basic research, viii, 6, 
12, 19-20; proposed support of medi- 
cal research in, xi, xii; expenditures 
for scientific research, 1930-40, by re- 
search institutes and, 6-7; recommen- 
dation that scientific knowledge based 
on problems of World War II be 
made available, under controls, to, 
8; role of, in medical research, 15; 
need for public funds to strengthen 
basic research in, 20, 31; inadequacy 
of expenditures by, for basic re- 
search, 22; fundamentals of public- 
funds support of research in, 33; 
function of proposed National Re- 
search Foundation to support sci- 
entific research in, 34, 37, 38, 39-40; 
limitations of, to comply with tech- 
nical contracting for research proj- 
ects, 39. 

Palmer Committee on — 
As chief contributors to pure science, 
49-50; inadequate funds of, for medi- 
cal research, 50, 57-58; contracts 
with, by Committee on Medical Re- 
search as wartime measure, 53; place 
of, in medical research, 56; govern- 
ment support in Great Britain to, for 
medical research, 57; as primary 
source of advances in medical sci- 
ence, 60; forms of recommended 
Federal aid to, 58-60, 66-68. 

Bowman Committee on — 
Role of the Government to assist 
research in, 73, 74, 75; achievements 
made by, 77; need for financial aid 
to strengthen contributions to sci- 
entific life of the Nation, 77-78, 80; 
inflationary impact of the war upon 
research in, 79; science carried on 
outside, in the colonial period, 83; 
expenditures for scientific research, 
85-89; costs of OSRD contracts with, 
1943-44, 87; Government support to 
pure research in, essential to main- 
tain proportion of pure to applied 
research, 87, 88-89; status of pure 
research in, 90; background and 
trends of financial support to, 90-91; 
research environment in, 90-93; sci- 
entific research in, 90-98; effect of 



World War II on scientific training 
and research in, 91-93; operating 
costs of research related to salaries 
of research staff's, 92-93; need to 
assist, with operating costs, 93; recom- 
mended forms of Government aid to, 
93-98; reference to patent policies of, 
117; recommended grants to, for in- 
dustrial research services, 108; analy- 
sis of scientific research expenditures 
in, and postwar needs, 125 institu- 
tions, 122-134; research expenditures 
in small sample of leading universi- 
ties, industrial research laboratories, 
and nonprofit science institutes, 125- 
134. 

Aloe Committee on — 
Responsibility of, to educate the most 
worthy in each generation, 144; need 
for policies of, to assist veterans in 
making up lost time in scientific 
training, 163-165. 

See also Associated Universities In- 
corporated; Association of Universi- 
ties for Research in Astronomy; Fel- 
lowships and scholarships; Medical 
schools and universities; Research 
entries. 

University. See Government-University 
Relationships in the Conduct of Fed- 
erally Sponsored Research. 

University Grants Committee (Standing 
Committee of the Treasury). Great 
Britain: aids to medical research 
through, 57. 

Utilization of Potential College Ability 
Pound in ]une 1940, Graduates of 
Kentucky High Schools, The, H. L. 
Davis, data from, 174-175. 



V-1 and V-2 attacks on London, 6, 17. 

Vaccines, 13, 49, 52. 

VE-day, 140, 160. 

Venereal diseases, 49, 52, 53. 

Veterans, need for policies of educational 
institutions to assist, in making up 
lost time in scientific training, 163- 
165; War Service School recom- 
mended for special training of, 165. 
See also Armed services; G. I. Bill of 
Rights; Talent, scientific; Veterans 
Readiustment Assistance Act. 

Veterans Administration: programs for 
medical research, xii; recommended 
participation of, in programs to lo- 
cate and develop scientific talent in 
the armed forces, 141. 

Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act, 
scientific training of Korean Veterans 
under, xvi. 



219 



Veterinary medicine, 64, note 1. 



War, resources of proposed National Re- 
search Foundation to be available in 
event of, 117; recommendation for 
establishment of a National Science 
Reserve to be available upon declara- 
tion of, 138, 139, 153. See also 
National Science Reserve. 

War, Secretary of: joint statement, with 
Secretary of the Navy, to the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences, regard- 
ing scientific progress related to the 
national security, 17; release of 
results of wartime medical research 
to the public, 28; Research Board 
for National Security established at 
request of, 33. 

War Service School, recommended, for 
special training of veterans and for- 
mer workers in war industries, 165. 

Waring, James J., member. Medical Ad- 
visory Committee, 43, 48. 

Warner, W. Lloyd, et al, Who Shall he 
Educated: The Challenge of Un- 
equal Opportunities, data from, 172- 
174. 

Wartime Health and Education, Subcom- 
mittee on, of U. S. Senate Commit- 
tee on Education and Labor: reports 
of OSRD to, on need for Federal 
support of medical research, 57. 

Washington, George, plan for a national 
university, 84. 

Weapons, need for a Government agency 
to support research on, 9. See Re- 
search, military. 

Weaver, Warren, member. Committee on 
Science and the Public Welfare, 44, 

72. 

Weed, Lewis H., chairman, Division of 
Medical Sciences, National Research 
Council: quoted, on need for Federal 
support for medical research, 58. 

Welch Fellowships in Medicine, 98. 

What Happens to High School Graduates, 
G. Lester Anderson and T. J. Bern- 
ing, data from, 171-172. 

Who Shall he Educated: The Challenge Zoology', Ph.D. degrees in, 178. 



of Unequal Opportunities, W. Lloyd 
Warner, et ah, data from, 172-174. 

Whooping cough, 54. 

Wilkes Exploring Expedition, Federal sup- 
port of, 84. 

Wilson, Carroll L., member. Committee 
on Publication of Scientific Informa- 
tion, 45, 188. 

Wilson, E. B., member. Committee on 
Discovery and Development of Sci- 
entific Talent, 45, 136. 

Wilson, Robert E., member. Committee 
on Science and the Public Welfare, 
44, 72. 

Wistar Institute, 86, note 6. 

Wood, Ben D. See Learned, W. S. 

World War II, progress of medicine dur- 
ing, xi, 49, 52-53; contributions to 
scientific knowledge during, 1, 3; re- 
duction in death rate from disease 
from rate in World War I, 5, 13; 
recommendation that scientific knowl- 
edge developed during, be made 
available, 8, 28-30; advances in 
medicine during, made possible by 
backlog of scientists and scientific 
data, 13, 49, 52; period between 
World War I and, marked by U.S. 
leadership in medical research, 15; 
scientific developments during, 17; 
deficit in scientific students as result 
of, 24, 25, 139, 150, 158-160; mobili- 
zation of science during, 28; effect 
of, on additions to basic medical 
research, 49, 54; effect of, on scien- 
tific training and research, 91-93; 
189-192. 

Wrather, William E., member, Commit- 
tee on Science and the Public Wel- 
fare, 44, 72. 



X-ray, 5 3 . 



Yellow fever, 13, 49, 52. 



220